Latest release

Census of Population and Housing: Census dictionary

Detailed information about Census variables, concepts and terms.

Reference period
2021
15/10/2021
Content

Introduction

The 2021 Census dictionary contains detailed information about Census variables and concepts. The dictionary helps data users better understand and interpret Census data.

The main sections of the dictionary include:

  • What’s new for 2021 - summary of changes to classifications, Census variables and Census questions since 2016. Lists new variables for 2021.
  • Variables index - alphabetical list of all variables. Variables can be selected to see more details.
  • Variables by topic - helps users find variables based on topic group. Variables can be selected to see more details.
  • Glossary - terms and definitions to assist data users gain a broader understanding of the Census and Census topics.

About Census variables

Information collected through the Census questions become data, which is output through variables. The Census dictionary details each variable and contains information on:

  • Variable definition
  • Scope (the population that the variable is applicable to)
  • Categories
  • How the variable is created
  • Questions on the Census form related to the variable
  • History and changes
  • Data use considerations
  • Non-response rate
  • Related variables and glossary terms
  • Other ABS sources

Release plans

Information on non-response rates and data use considerations that focus on data quality will be added iteratively to the variable pages with the first and second release of data in June and October 2022 (see Data release timeline).

Census data will be available through a suite of standard products, or as data customised for individual user requirements. This reference material should be used in conjunction with Census data.

What's new for 2021

Classifications

Census uses the current Australian standard classifications where applicable to ensure Census data is comparable and compatible with previous censuses and other ABS data. These classifications are reviewed on an irregular basis to reflect changes in the Australian society. Several changes have occurred to these classifications since 2016.

Changes to classifications

Classification

Impacted variables

Change

Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups, 2019 (ASCCEG)

  • Ancestry multi response (ANCP),
  • Ancestry 1st response (ANC1P),
  • Ancestry 2nd response (ANC2P)

'1105 - Norfolk Islander' has been added to the classification.

Standard Australian Classification of Countries, 2016 (SACC)

  • Country of birth of person (BPLP)
  • Country of birth of father (BPMP)
  • Country of birth of mother (BPFP)
  • 3302 'Czech Republic' changed to 'Czechia'
  • 9226 'Swaziland' changed to 'Eswatini'
  • 3206 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia' has been updated to 'North Macedonia'
  • 2402 spelling of 'Faeroe Islands' has been updated to 'Faroe Islands'

Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, 2013 v1.3 (ANZSCO)

  • Occupation (OCCP)
  • Occupation (six digit level) (OCC06P)
  • Occupation skill level (OCSKP)

Minor changes to the classification mainly related to skill levels from 2016.

Variables

The following tables outline:

  • New variables - there are 43 new variables for 2021. Most of these are derived from the new questions on long-term health conditions and service in the Australian Defence Force.
  • Changed variables - changes to questions, standards and classifications can affect how the data is output. This table describes key changes to variables from 2016 to 2021. 
  • Removed variables - details the two variables that were removed for 2021.

New variables

 

Variable

Mnemonic

Description of change

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family indicator

INGF

This variable indicates families that have at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident of that dwelling and was present on Census night.

Ancestry one or two response indicator

ANCRP

This variable records whether a person provides one or two responses to the ancestry question, which asks 'What is the person's ancestry?'. Up to two ancestries only are recorded.

Australian Defence Force service

ADFP

This variable describes whether a person is currently serving, has previously served, or has never served in the Australian Defence Force.

This variable does not capture people who have served in non-Australian defence forces.

Australian Defence Force service, detailed

ADCP

This variable describes how a person responded to the Defence Force Service question. It provides a detailed breakdown of the various valid combinations that a person could mark on the form.

Count of adults (15 years and over) with selected long-term health condition(s) in household

CALTHD

This variable counts the number of adults aged 15 years and over in a household who reported they had at least one of the selected long-term health conditions.

Count of children with selected long-term health condition(s) in household

CCLTHD

This variable counts the number of children under 15 years of age in a household who reported they had at least one of the selected long-term health conditions.

Count of dependent children under 15 in family

CDCUF

This variable counts the number of dependent children under 15 years of age in the family. It includes up to three dependent children aged under 15 years who were temporarily absent from the household on Census night. This variable is related to the Count of Dependent Children Under 15 Temporarily Absent (CDCAF). 

Count of dependent students (15-24 years) in family

CDSF

This variable counts the number of dependent students (15-24 years old) in the family. It includes up to three dependent students aged 15-24 years who were temporarily absent from the household on Census night. This variable is related to the Count of Dependent Students (15-24 years) Temporarily Absent (CDSAF).

Count of persons with selected long-term health condition(s) in household

CPLTHD

This variable counts the number of people in a household who reported they had at least one of the selected long-term health conditions.

Count of persons with selected long-term health condition(s) in household (ranges)

CPLTHRD

This variable counts the number of people in a household who reported they had at least one of the selected long-term health conditions and is output in ranges.

Count of selected long-term health conditions

CLTHP

This variable describes the number of selected long-term health conditions a person has. The selected long-term health conditions are arthritis, asthma, cancer, dementia, diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, lung conditions, mental health condition and stroke. Other long-term health condition(s) are not included in the count.

Mortgage affordability indicator

MAID

This variable indicates the number of households where mortgage repayments were 'less than or equal to 30%' or 'more than 30%' of an imputed household income.

Occupation skill level

OCSKP

This variable describes the occupation skill level of persons. Skill level is determined using the person’s occupation (see OCCP).

Parent indicator

FPIP

This variable records the usually resident parent in a family household. It identifies parents of children in family households, provided the parent and child were counted in the same family on Census Night, or reported as temporarily absent on Census Night.

People with or working towards a non-school qualification

WTNSQP

This variable indicates whether a person has a non-school qualification, is working towards a non-school qualification or both. This is derived from Census measures of Non-school qualifications: level of education (QALLP) and Type of educational institution attending (TYPP).

Rent affordability indicator

RAID

This variable indicates the number of households where rent payments were 'less than or equal to 30%' or 'More than 30%' of an imputed household income.

Spouse/partner indicator

SPIP

This variable records the usually resident husband, wife or de facto partner in a couple family. It identifies the spouse or partner of each family reference person counted in the same family on Census Night or reported as temporarily absent on Census Night. The couple may be in a registered or de facto marriage.

Type of long-term health condition

LTHP

This variable records the type of selected long-term health condition(s) a person has reported. Respondents can record multiple long-term health conditions.

Whether has arthritis

HARTP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have arthritis.

Whether has arthritis and asthma

COARASP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both arthritis and asthma.

Whether has arthritis and diabetes

COARDBP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both arthritis and diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes).

Whether has arthritis and heart disease

COARHDP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both arthritis and heart disease (including heart attack or angina).

Whether has arthritis and mental health condition

COARMHP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both arthritis and a mental health condition (including depression or anxiety).

Whether has asthma

HASTP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have asthma.

Whether has asthma and heart disease

COASHDP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both asthma and heart disease (including heart attack or angina).

Whether has asthma and lung condition

COASLCP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both asthma and a lung condition (including COPD or emphysema).

Whether has cancer (including remission)

HCANP

Describes whether a person reported that they have cancer (including cancer that is in remission).

Whether has cancer and heart disease

COCNHDP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both cancer (including cancer that is in remission) and heart disease (including heart attack or angina).

Whether has dementia (including Alzheimer's)

HDEMP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have dementia (including Alzheimer's).

Whether has diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes)

HDIAP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes).

Whether has diabetes and heart disease

CODBHDP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) and heart disease (including heart attack or angina).

Whether has diabetes and kidney disease

CODBKDP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) and kidney disease.

Whether has had a stroke

HSTRP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have a had a stroke.

Whether has heart disease (including heart attack or angina)

HHEDP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have heart disease (including heart attack or angina).

Whether has heart disease and kidney disease

COHDKDP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) and kidney disease

Whether has heart disease and a mental health condition

COHDMHP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both heart disease (including heart attack or angina) and a mental health condition (including depression or anxiety).

Whether has kidney disease

HKIDP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have kidney disease.

Whether has a lung condition (including COPD and emphysema)

HLUNP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have a lung condition (including COPD and emphysema).

Whether has a lung condition and mental health condition

COLCMHP

This comorbidity variable describes whether a person reported having both a lung condition (including COPD or emphysema) and a mental health condition (including depression or anxiety).

Whether has a mental health condition (including depression or anxiety)

HMHCP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have a mental health condition (including depression or anxiety).

Whether has one or more long-term health condition(s)

HLTHP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have one or more long-term health conditions or whether they reported they did not have any long-term health conditions.

Whether has other long-term health condition(s)

HOLHP

This variable describes whether a person reported that they have one or more long-term health conditions other than arthritis, asthma, cancer, dementia, diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, a lung condition, a mental health condition or a stroke.

Whether reported using an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language at home

LNGP

This variable records whether a person uses an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander Language at home. This is derived from the Census variable Language used at home (LANP), which is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL), 2016.

Changed variables

 

Variable

Mnemonic

Description of change

Age

AGEP

Update to question wording:
2016: 'What is the person's date of birth or age?'
2021: 'What is the person's date of birth and age?'

The online form has been changed to primarily ask for date of birth (DOB). If the DOB is not known the respondent is presented with a check box so that they can enter the person’s age.

Ancestry 1st response

ANC1P

See Ancestry multi response (ANCP) for details on changes to the ancestry question and classification.

Ancestry 2nd response

ANC2P

See Ancestry multi response (ANCP) for details on changes to the ancestry question and classification.

Ancestry multi response

ANCP

For 2021, Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups, 2019 (ASCCEG) was used. In 2016, the ASCCEG, 2016 was used. Norfolk Islander (code 1105), was added in the updated classification to capture an ancestry reported by Norfolk Island residents following Norfolk Island’s inclusion in the Australian Census of Population and Housing for the first time in 2016.

Response categories of ‘Aboriginal’ and ‘Torres Strait Islander’ were added to the question. For people who completed the Census online and who identified as an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander person, these new response categories were displayed at the top of the list.

The ‘other ancestries’ provided as examples in the instructional text have been updated.

The order of the response categories has also been updated based on frequency of reporting in the 2016 Census results, with the exception of 'Australian'. As with previous censuses, 'Australian' is placed as the last option for selection (prior to the text entry boxes for 'Other ancestry/s') to encourage reporting of non-Australian ancestries where relevant.

Attainment of Certificate III or higher or working towards a non-school qualification

C3SP

‘Overseas visitor’ has been separated out from the @ Not applicable category, so it has its own category.

Attainment of Year 12 or Certificate II or higher

YR12C2P

‘Overseas visitor’ has been separated out from the @ Not applicable category, so it has its own category.

Attainment of Year 12 or Certificate III or higher

YR12C3P

‘Overseas visitor’ has been separated out from the @ Not applicable category, so it has its own category.

Australian citizenship

CITP

The output categories have been updated to include the word 'citizen'. This aligns with the Australian Citizenship Standard

Community Development Program participation CDPP The spelling of the variable name and categories has been updated from 'programme' to 'program'. 

Count of dependent children under 15 in family temporarily absent

CDCAF

Variable name updated to add 'in family' in the title to better reflect the scope.

Count of dependent students (15-24 years) in family temporarily absent

CDSAF

Variable name updated to add 'in family' in the title to better reflect the scope.

Count of non-dependent children in family temporarily absent

CNDAF

Variable name updated to add 'in family' in the title to better reflect the scope.

Country of birth of father

BPMP

See Country of birth of person (BPLP) for details on classification changes.

Instructions have been added to the country of birth of father question to provide guidance on situations where the birth parent is unknown and there is a second parent, or the person has same-sex parents.

Country of birth of mother

BPFP

See Country of birth of person (BPLP) for details on classification changes.

Instructions have been added to the country of birth of mother question to provide guidance on situations where the birth parent is unknown and there is a second parent, or the person has same-sex parents.

Country of birth of person

BPLP

There have been updates to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 since the last Census:

  • 'Czech Republic' has been changed to 'Czechia'
  • 'Swaziland' has been changed to 'Eswatini'
  • 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia' has been changed to 'North Macedonia'
  • The spelling of 'Faeroe Islands' has been changed to 'Faroe Islands'

The response categories order has also been changed to reflect the most common answers from the 2016 Census. Although China is a country with in which a large proportion of Australia's population were born, China does not have a response category on the form. This is to allow people to write in China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan.  

Dwelling structure

STRD

Additional categories have been added to reflect changes to the question response options to align with changes to the ABS housing standard for dwelling structure. ‘In a four or more storey block’ has been split into two categories:

  • 'In a four to eight storey block’ and
  • ‘In a nine or more storey block’

There have also been changes to definitions for 'Separate house' and 'Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse, etc.', removing the requirement that adjacent dwellings must be separated from one another by more than half a metre to be considered separate.

Educational institution: attendee status

TYSTAP

Code numbers have been updated to align better with the Type of educational institution attending (TYPP) variable. Category names have been updated to reflect changes to the question wording (see TYPP). Categories 61-65 have been added to capture people who stated they were attending a Tertiary institution but did not specify whether it was 'Vocational education (including TAFE and private training providers)' or 'University or other higher education'.

Employment flag

EMFP

‘Overseas visitor’ has been separated out from the @ Not applicable category, so it has its own category.

Engagement in employment, education and training

EETP

The variable has been expanded to include a more detailed breakdown of categories at a two-digit level for 'Fully engaged' and 'Partially engaged'. This is required for several national reporting measures and allows for more complex analysis.

Equivalised total household income (weekly)

HIED

An additional income range has been added to reflect changes to the personal income question response options. '$3,500 or more ($182,000 or more)' has been added. This change accounts for higher income ranges.

Hours worked (ranges)

HRWRP

The output categories for this variable have been updated to align with the updated Standards for Labour Force Statistics, 2018. There are now more categories available.  

Household five year mobility indicator

MV5D

Reference year has been updated for 2021 in the definition. Updated category labels to improve interpretability. In 2016 they were labelled 'changed address during the last five years' and 'over five years'. This is confusing as the question directly asks: "Where did the person usually live five years ago (at 10 August 2016)?". It does not provide information over or during five years, but a point in time.

Household one year mobility indicator

MV1D

Reference year has been updated for 2021 in the definition. 'Not stated' category has changed to 'At least one resident did not state an address one year ago' to better reflect the scope. 

Labour force participation flag

LFFP

‘Overseas visitor’ has been separated out from the @ Not applicable category, so it has its own category.

Landlord type

LLDD

The output categories have been updated to reflect changes to the question response options and order.

Additional instructional text has been added for the 'Community housing provider' category and the response category order changed to place this category closer to the top.

These changes to the category names and order of categories align with the ABS housing standards

Language used at home

LANP

The variable name has been updated from Language spoken at home to Language used at home. This reflects changes to how the language question is asked. For 2021 the question asks, 'Does the person use a language other than English at home?'

This question is now more relevant for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. An enhancement to the online form presents a check box for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language for those respondents who identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander in the Indigenous status question. To improve the data collected on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, the person will also have the option of providing a specific language if they wish.

The response categories order has changed based on the most common answers from the 2016 Census.

Level of highest educational attainment HEAP Undergraduate certificates are a new qualification and will be coded to category '420 Diploma level, nfd'. In previous censuses, nothing has been coded to this category. See also Non-school qualification: level of education (QALLP).
Level of workforce participation survey comparison flag SVFP

The category label 'In scope of NIRA level of workforce participation survey comparison population' has changed to 'In scope of national reporting level of workforce participation survey comparison population'.

Method of travel to work

MTWP

Updated category names to reflect question wording changes on the form:

  • 'Taxi' has been changed to 'Taxi/ride-share service'
  • 'Tram' has been changed to 'Tram/light rail'

Method of travel to work (15 travel modes)

MTW15P

 Updated category names to reflect question wording changes on the form:

  • 'Taxi' has been changed to 'Taxi/ride-share service'
  • 'Tram' has been changed to 'Tram/light rail'

A supplementary code was added for 'Overseas visitors'. 

Method of travel to work (6 travel modes)

MTW06P

 The category label 'Mode not stated' has changed to 'Not stated'. 

A supplementary code was added for 'Overseas visitors'. 

Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges

MRERD

The category range of '$2,600 to $2,999' has been split into two:

  • 16 $2,600 - $2,799
  • 17 $2,800 - $2,999

Similarly, the next category range of '$3,000 -$3,999' was divided in two:

  • 18 $3,000 - $3,499
  • 19 $3,500 - $3,999

This change increases the number of ranges to better describe the distribution of current mortgage repayments.

Non-school qualification: field of study

QALFP

There are minor instructional changes to the main field of study question to provide guidance for people with double degrees.

Non-school qualification: level of education

QALLP

Undergraduate certificates are a new qualification and have been coded to category '420 Diploma Level, nfd'. In previous Censuses, nothing has been coded to this category. The Coding index was updated for the 2021 Census.

Number of bedrooms in private dwelling

BEDD

The category label 'None (includes bedsitters)' has been changed to 'None (includes studio apartments or bedsitters)' to reflect changes to the question response options.

Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (ranges)

BEDRD

The category label 'None (includes bedsitters)' has been changed to 'None (includes studio apartments or bedsitters)' to reflect changes to the question response options.

Number of motor vehicles

VEHD

For 2021, heavy vehicles have been specifically excluded from the definition of motor vehicles. In 2016, only motorbikes and scooters were excluded. This was changed to reflect changes to the question instructions.

Number of motor vehicles (ranges)

VEHRD

For 2021, heavy vehicles have been specifically excluded from the definition of motor vehicles. In 2016, only motorbikes and scooters were excluded. This was changed to reflect changes to the question instructions.

Occupation

OCCP

In 2016 the Australian and New Zealand Classification of Occupations, 2013 (ANZSCO), version 1.2 was used. For 2021, the updated version ANZSCO version 1.3 will be used. Most changes are related to skill level however there are some title changes. See the classification for details.

Amendments to improve existing targeted supplementary questions for some industry/occupation topics were made on the online form. Refer to downloads section for the targeted supplementary questions and related trigger words.

Occupation (six digit level)

OCC06P

See Occupation (OCCP) above for details of changes to the Australian and New Zealand Classification of Occupations, 2013 (ANZSCO).

Place of usual residence five years ago

PUR5P

Supplementary code labels have been update to better reflect the scope:
• 'Undefined State' has changed to 'State/Territory nfd'
• 'Undefined Capital City' has changed to 'Capital City nfd'

These not further defined (nfd) supplementary codes are used where a respondent has given incomplete address information on the Census form, but has given enough information to allow coding to a State/Territory or Capital City. 

Place of usual residence one year ago

PUR1P

Supplementary code labels have been update to better reflect the scope:
• 'Undefined State' has changed to 'State/Territory nfd'
• 'Undefined Capital City' has changed to 'Capital City nfd'

These not further defined (nfd) supplementary codes are used where a respondent has given incomplete address information on the Census form, but has given enough information to allow coding to a State/Territory or Capital City. 

Place of usual residence

PURP

Additional instructional text was added to the online form to assist respondents with no fixed address.

Proficiency in spoken English

ENGLP

The variable name was changed from Proficiency in spoken English/language to Proficiency in spoken English.

In 2016, there was another variable called Proficiency in spoken English (ENGP), but this has been removed for 2021 to avoid confusion between the two variables. The same data is available in this variable.

Registered marital status

MSTP

Registered marriages include same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples. Amendments to the Marriage Act 1961 came into effect on 9 December 2017 enabling same-sex couples to legally marry.

Output categories will remain the same.

Relationship as reported for couples RLCP

Two category labels have been changed:

  • Category 1 - 'Husband or wife as reported, opposite-sex couple' has changed to 'Husband, wife or partner as reported, opposite-sex couple'
  • Category 3 - 'Husband or wife as reported, same-sex couple' has changed to 'Husband, wife or partner as reported, same-sex couple'

Relationship in household

RLHP

Registered marriages include same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples. Amendments to the Marriage Act 1961 came into effect on 9 December 2017 enabling same-sex couples to legally marry. The category '11 Registered marriage' has been replaced with three categories:

  • '12 In a registered marriage, opposite-sex couple'
  • '13 In a registered marriage, male same-sex couple'
  • '14 In a registered marriage, female same-sex couple'

Religious affiliation

RELP

The response order on the question has been changed based on common answers from the 2016 Census.

Changes have been made to the ‘other’ examples given in the question instructions.

Rent (weekly) dollar values

RNTD

The applicability has changed so that now dwellings with the Tenure type of 'Occupied rent-free' are included in the 'Not applicable' category. This means that category '0000 Nil payments' will be removed. This change aligns with the ABS housing standards.

Rent (weekly) ranges

RNTRD

To better reflect the distribution of data, the $450-$549 range (category 18) has been split into $25 intervals being:

  • '18 $450-$474'
  • '19 $475-$499'
  • '20 $500-$524'
  • '21 $525-$549'

The applicability has changed so that now dwellings with the Tenure type of 'Occupied rent-free' are included in the 'Not applicable' category. This means that '0 Nil payments' category will be removed. This change aligns with the ABS housing standards.

Same-sex couple indicator

SSCF

For 2021 this will now include same-sex marriages. Amendments to the Marriage Act 1961 came into effect on 9 December 2017 enabling same-sex couples to legally marry. The output categories will remain the same.

Sex

SEXP

The 2021 Census paper form and online form both include three response options: male; female; and non-binary sex. The online form also includes an optional write in response when non-binary sex is selected. For data releases, the ABS will continue to report sex with the binary options of male and female in most outputs. Analysis of non-binary sex responses will be reported in a feature article.

Social marital status

MDCP

Registered marriages include same-sex couples and opposite-sex couples. Amendments to the Marriage Act 1961 came into effect on 9 December 2017 enabling same-sex couples to legally marry.

Processing business rules were changed, as this deals with relationships between people in the same household.
Output categories will remain the same.

Tenure and landlord type

TENLLD

There has been a one change to a category label and a minor order change:

  • 'Rented: Housing co-operative, community or church group' changed to 'Rented: Community housing provider' and moved from category 6 to category 5.
  • 'Rented: Person not in same household' moved from category 5 to category 6.

There has also been a change to the scope of '9 Other tenure type' category. For 2021, 'Other tenure type' includes houses being occupied rent-free. In previous Censuses, dwellings being occupied rent-free were included in the rented categories (4, 5, 6, 7 and 8).

These changes aligns with the ABS housing standards.

Tenure type

TEND

Minor changes to category labels have been made.

  • Category 3 - 'Being purchased under a shared equity scheme' changed to 'Purchased under a shared equity scheme'
  • Category 5 - 'Being occupied rent-free' changed to 'Occupied rent-free'
  • Category 6 - 'Being occupied under a life tenure scheme' changed to 'Occupied under a life tenure scheme'
  • Category 7 - 'Other tenure type' changed to 'Other'

Total personal income (weekly)

INCP

An additional income range has been added to reflect changes to the personal income question options. '15 $3,000 or more ($156,000) has been split into two:

  • '15 $3,000-$3499 ($156,000-$181,999)' 
  • '16 $3,500 or more ($182,000 or more)'

This change accounts for higher income ranges.

Type of education institution attending

TYPP

In the online Census form, education institution is now two questions instead of one to make it easier for respondents to find the correct type of institution.

The output categories have been changed to reflect the question wording changes.

  • 'Infants' has been removed from the primary categories
  • 'Technical or Further Educational Institution (including TAFE Colleges)' has been changed to 'Tertiary - Vocational education (including TAFE and private training providers)'
  • 'University or other Tertiary Institution' has been changed to 'Tertiary - University or other higher education'

Primary, secondary and tertiary not further defined fields have been added (categories 29, 39, 49) as this question is in two parts on the online form. The not further defined fields will get populated when a person only answers if they are attending an institution but does not specify the type, e.g. Catholic.

In addition, to emphasise that respondents should include attendance at preschool, the question wording in the online form has changed for people in the household under the age of six. The question asks ‘Is the person attending a preschool, school or other education institution?’.

Unemployment flag

UEFP

Overseas visitor separated out from the @ Not applicable category, so it has its own category.

Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, a long-term health condition or due to old age

UNCAREP

Variable name updated to better reflect the scope. In 2016, this variable was called Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability.

Usual address five years ago indicator

UAI5P

Descriptors with years have been updated for 2021. Update to instructional text, to better capture couch surfing:
'For persons who have no fixed or return address (for example, due to family conflict or eviction), write 'NONE' in the 'Suburb/Locality' box.'

Usual address indicator Census night

UAICP

Categories with years have been updated for 2021.

Usual address one year ago indicator

UAI1P

Categories with years have been updated for 2021.

Year of arrival in Australia

YARP

All categories have been updated from 1900 to 2016 singly to 1905 to 2021 singly.

Year of arrival in Australia (ranges)

YARRP

Categories ranges have been updated, ranges used to start from 1900 and go up to 9 August 2016. For 2021 they start from 1905 and go up to 10 August 2021.

Removed variables

 

Variable

Mnemonic

Description of change

Proficiency in spoken English

ENGP

Removed due to confusion with the ENGLP variable. Users can access the same data from ENGLP which has been renamed 'Proficiency in Spoken English'.

Dwelling internet connection

NEDD

The question on dwelling internet connection was not asked in the 2021 Census. Consultation suggested that with the growth in internet access outside of the home on mobile and other devices and the fast pace of technological change, the collection of data on household internet access in the Census now has less relevance.

Variables index

Mnemonic  Variable  Topic Release  
ADCP Australian Defence Force service, detailed Service with the Australian Defence Force June 2022 New
ADFP Australian Defence Force service Service with the Australian Defence Force June 2022 New
AGE10P Age in ten year groups Population June 2022
AGE5P Age in five year groups Population June 2022
AGEP Age Population June 2022
ANC1P Ancestry 1st response  Cultural diversity  June 2022
ANC2P Ancestry 2nd response  Cultural diversity  June 2022
ANCP Ancestry multi response Cultural diversity June 2022
ANCRP Ancestry one or two response indicator Cultural diversity June 2022 New
ASSNP Core activity need for assistance Disability and carers June 2022
BEDD Number of bedrooms in private dwelling  Housing June 2022
BEDRD Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (ranges)  Housing  June 2022
BPFP Country of birth of mother Cultural diversity June 2022
BPLP Country of birth of person Cultural diversity June 2022
BPMP Country of birth of father Cultural diversity June 2022
BPPP Country of birth of parents Cultural diversity June 2022
C3SP Attainment of certificate III or higher or working towards a non-school qualification National reporting October 2022
CACF Count of all children in family Household and families June 2022
CALTHD Count of adults (15 years and over) with selected long-term health condition(s) in household Health June 2022 New
CCLTHD Count of children with selected long-term health condition(s) in household Health June 2022 New
CDCAF Count of dependent children under 15 in family temporarily absent Household and families June 2022
CDCF Count of dependent children in family Household and families June 2022
CDCUF Count of dependent children under 15 in family Household and families June 2022 New
CDPP Community Development Program participation Income and work  October 2022
CDSAF Count of dependent students (15-24 years) in family temporarily absent Household and families June 2022
CDSF Count of dependent students (15-24 years) in family Household and families June 2022 New
CHCAREP Unpaid child care Unpaid work and care June 2022
CITP Australian citizenship Cultural diversity June 2022
CLTHP Count of selected long-term health conditions Health June 2022 New
CNDAF Count of non-dependent children temporarily absent Household and families June 2022
CNDCF Count of non-dependent children in family Household and families June 2022
COARASP Whether has arthritis and asthma Health June 2022 New
COARDBP Whether has arthritis and diabetes Health June 2022 New
COARHDP Whether has arthritis and heart disease Health June 2022 New
COARMHP Whether has arthritis and mental health condition Health June 2022 New
COASHDP Whether has asthma and heart disease Health June 2022 New
COASLCP Whether has asthma and lung condition Health June 2022 New
COCNHDP Whether has cancer and heart disease Health June 2022 New
CODBHDP Whether has diabetes and heart disease Health June 2022 New
CODBKDP Whether has diabetes and kidney disease Health June 2022 New
COHDKDP Whether has heart disease and kidney disease Health June 2022 New
COHDMHP Whether has heart disease and mental health condition Health June 2022 New
COLCMHP Whether has lung condition and mental health condition Health June 2022 New
CPAD Count of persons temporarily absent from household Household and families June 2022
CPAF Count of persons temporarily absent from family Household and families June 2022
CPLTHD Count of persons with selected long-term health condition(s) in household Health June 2022 New
CPLTHRD Count of persons with selected long-term health condition(s) in household (ranges) Health June 2022 New
CPRF Count of persons in family Household and families June 2022
CTGP Child type (including grandchildren) Household and families June 2022
CTPP Child type Household and families June 2022
DLOD Dwelling location Housing June 2022
DOMP Unpaid domestic work: number of hours Unpaid work and care June 2022
DTWP  Distance to work (ranges) Transport Early 2023
DWTD Dwelling type Housing June 2022
EETP Engagement in employment, education and training Education and training October 2022
EMFP Employment flag National reporting October 2022
EMPP Number of employees Income and work October 2022
ENGLP Proficiency in spoken English Cultural diversity June 2022
FBLF Family blending Household and families June 2022
FIDF Family income derivation indicator Income and work June 2022
FINASF Total family income as stated (weekly) Income and work June 2022
FINF Total family income (weekly) Income and work June 2022
FMCF Family composition Household and families June 2022
FMGF Grandparent families Household and families June 2022
FNOF Family number Household and families June 2022
FPIP Parent indicator Household and families June 2022 New
FRLF Relationship between families Household and families June 2022
GNGP Public/private sector Income and work October 2022
HARTP Whether has arthritis Health June 2022 New
HASTP Whether has asthma Health June 2022 New
HCANP Whether has cancer (including remission) Health June 2022 New
HCFMD Family household composition (dwelling) Household and families June 2022
HCFMF Family household composition (family) Household and families June 2022
HDEMP Whether has dementia (including Alzheimer's) Health June 2022 New
HDIAP Whether has diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) Health June 2022 New
HEAP Level of highest educational attainment Education and training October 2022
HHCD Household composition Household and families June 2022
HHEDP Whether has heart disease (including heart attack or angina) Health June 2022 New
HIDD Household income derivation indicator Income and work June 2022
HIED Equivalised total household income (weekly) Income and work June 2022
HINASD Total household income as stated (weekly) Income and work June 2022
HIND Total household income (weekly) Income and work June 2022
HKIDP Whether has kidney disease Health June 2022 New
HLTHP Whether has one or more long-term health condition(s) Health June 2022 New
HLUNP Whether has lung condition (including COPD and emphysema) Health June 2022 New
HMHCP Whether has mental health condition (including depression or anxiety) Health June 2022 New
HOLHP Whether has other long-term health condition(s) Health June 2022 New
HOSD Housing suitability Housing  June 2022
HRSP Hours worked Income and work October 2022
HRWRP Hours worked (ranges)  Income and work  October 2022
HSCP Highest year of school completed Education and training June 2022
HSTRP Whether has had a stroke Health June 2022 New
IFAGEP Imputation flag for age Population June 2022
IFDTWP  Imputed distance to work Transport Early 2023
IFMSTP Imputation flag for registered marital status Household and families June 2022
IFNMFD Imputation flag for number of males and females in dwelling Household and families June 2022
IFPOWP Imputation flag for place of work Location October 2022
IFPURP Imputation flag for place of usual residence Location June 2022
IFSEXP Imputation flag for sex Population June 2022
INCP Total personal income (weekly) Income and work June 2022
INDP Industry of employment Income and work October 2022
INGDWTD Indigenous household indicator Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples June 2022
INGF Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family indicator Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples June 2022 New
INGP Indigenous status Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples June 2022  
LANP Language used at home Cultural diversity June 2022
LFFP Labour force participation flag National reporting October 2022
LFHRP Labour force status and hours worked not stated Income and work October 2022
LFSF Labour force status of parents/partners in families Income and work October 2022
LFSP Labour force status Income and work October 2022
LLDD Landlord type  Housing June 2022
LNGP Whether reported using an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language at home Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples June 2022 New
LTHP Type of long-term health condition Health June 2022 New
MAID Mortgage affordability indicator Housing June 2022 New
MDCP Social marital status Household and families June 2022
MRED Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values Housing June 2022
MRERD Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges  Housing  June 2022
MSTP Registered marital status Household and families June 2022
MTW06P  Method of travel to work (6 travel modes) Transport October 2022
MTW15P Method of travel to work (15 travel modes) Transport October 2022
MTWP Method of travel to work Transport October 2022
MV1D Household one year mobility indicator Location October 2022
MV5D Household five year mobility indicator Location October 2022
NPDD Type of non-private dwelling Housing June 2022
NPRD Number of persons usually resident in dwelling Household and families June 2022
OCC06P Occupation (six digit level) Income and work  October 2022
OCCP Occupation Income and work October 2022
OCSKP Occupation skill level Income and work October 2022 New
POWP Place of work Location October 2022
PUR1P Place of usual residence one year ago Location  October 2022
PUR5P Place of usual residence five years ago Location  October 2022
PURP Place of usual residence Location  June 2022
QALFP Non-school qualification: field of study Education and training October 2022
QALLP Non-school qualification: level of education Education and training October 2022
RAID Rent affordability indicator Housing June 2022 New
RELP Religious affiliation Cultural diversity June 2022
RLCP Relationship as reported for couples Household and families June 2022
RLGP Relationship in household (including grandchildren) Household and families June 2022
RLHP Relationship in household Household and families June 2022
RLNP Residential status in a non-private dwelling Housing June 2022
RNTD Rent (weekly) dollar values Housing June 2022
RNTRD Rent (weekly) ranges Housing  June 2022
RPIP Family/household reference person indicator Household and families June 2022
SAFD Supported accommodation flag Housing  October 2022
SEXP Sex Population June 2022
SIEMP Status in employment Income and work October 2022
SLPP Sex of lone parent Household and families June 2022
SPIP Spouse/partner indicator Household and families June 2022 New
SPLF Location of spouse Household and families June 2022
SSCF Same-sex couple indicator Household and families June 2022
STRD Dwelling structure Housing June 2022
STUP Full-time/part-time student status Education and training June 2022
SVFP Level of workforce participation survey comparison flag National reporting October 2022
TEND Tenure type Housing June 2022
TENLLD Tenure and landlord type  Housing June 2022
TISP Number of children ever born  Population June 2022
TISRP Number of children ever born (ranges)  Population  June 2022
TYPP Type of educational institution attending Education and training June 2022
TYSTAP Educational institution: attendee status Education and training June 2022
UAI1P Usual address one year ago indicator Location  October 2022
UAI5P Usual address five years ago Indicator Location  October 2022
UAICP Usual address indicator Census night Location June 2022
UEFP Unemployment flag National reporting October 2022
UNCAREP Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, health condition, or due to old age Disability and carers June 2022
VEHD Number of motor vehicles Transport June 2022
VEHRD Number of motor vehicles (ranges)  Transport  June 2022
VOLWP Voluntary work for an organisation or group Unpaid work and care June 2022
WTNSQP People with or working towards a non-school qualification National reporting October 2022 New
YARP Year of arrival in Australia Cultural diversity June 2022
YARRP Year of arrival in Australia (ranges)  Cultural diversity  June 2022
YR12C2P Attainment of year 12 or certificate II or higher National reporting October 2022
YR12C3P Attainment of year 12 or certificate III or higher National reporting October 2022

Variables by topic

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
INGDWTD Indigenous household indicator June 2022  
INGF Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family indicator June 2022 New
INGP Indigenous status June 2022  
LNGP Whether reported using an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language at home June 2022 New

Cultural diversity

Mnemonic  Variable  Release
ANC1P Ancestry 1st response  June 2022
ANC2P Ancestry 2nd response  June 2022
ANCP Ancestry multi response June 2022
ANCRP Ancestry one or two response indicator June 2022
BPFP Country of birth of mother June 2022
BPLP Country of birth of person June 2022
BPMP Country of birth of father June 2022
BPPP Country of birth of parents June 2022
CITP Australian citizenship June 2022
ENGLP Proficiency in spoken English June 2022
LANP Language used at home June 2022
RELP Religious affiliation June 2022
YARP Year of arrival in Australia June 2022
YARRP Year of arrival in Australia (ranges)  June 2022

Disability and carers

Mneumonic  Variable  Release  
ASSNP Core activity need for assistance June 2022
UNCAREP Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, health condition, or due to old age June 2022

Education and training

Mnemonic  Variable Release  
EETP Engagement in employment, education and training October 2022
HEAP Level of highest educational attainment October 2022
HSCP Highest year of school completed June 2022
QALFP Non-school qualification: field of study October 2022
QALLP Non-school qualification: level of education October 2022
STUP Full-time/part-time student status June 2022
TYPP Type of educational institution attending June 2022
TYSTAP Educational institution: attendee status June 2022

Health

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
CALTHD Count of adults (15 years and over) with selected long-term health condition(s) in household June 2022 New
CCLTHD Count of children with selected long-term health condition(s) in household June 2022 New
CLTHP Count of selected long-term health conditions June 2022 New
COARASP Whether has arthritis and asthma June 2022 New
COARDBP Whether has arthritis and diabetes June 2022 New
COARHDP Whether has arthritis and heart disease June 2022 New
COARMHP Whether has arthritis and mental health condition June 2022 New
COASHDP Whether has asthma and heart disease June 2022 New
COASLCP Whether has asthma and lung condition June 2022 New
COCNHDP Whether has cancer and heart disease June 2022 New
CODBHDP Whether has diabetes and heart disease June 2022 New
CODBKDP Whether has diabetes and kidney disease June 2022 New
COHDKDP Whether has heart disease and kidney disease June 2022 New
COHDMHP Whether has heart disease and mental health condition June 2022 New
COLCMHP Whether has lung condition and mental health condition June 2022 New
CPLTHD Count of persons with selected long-term health condition(s) in household June 2022 New
CPLTHRD Count of persons with selected long-term health condition(s) in household (ranges) June 2022 New
HARTP Whether has arthritis June 2022 New
HASTP Whether has asthma June 2022 New
HCANP Whether has cancer (including remission) June 2022 New
HDEMP Whether has dementia (including Alzheimer's) June 2022 New
HDIAP Whether has diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) June 2022 New
HHEDP Whether has heart disease (including heart attack or angina) June 2022 New
HKIDP Whether has kidney disease June 2022 New
HLTHP Whether has one or more long-term health condition(s) June 2022 New
HLUNP Whether has lung condition (including COPD and emphysema) June 2022 New
HMHCP Whether has mental health condition (including depression or anxiety) June 2022 New
HOLHP Whether has other long-term health condition(s) June 2022 New
HSTRP Whether has had a stroke June 2022 New
LTHP Type of long-term health condition June 2022 New

Household and families

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
CACF Count of all children in family June 2022
CDCAF Count of dependent children under 15 in family temporarily absent June 2022
CDCF Count of dependent children in family June 2022
CDCUF Count of dependent children under 15 in family June 2022 New
CDSAF Count of dependent students (15-24 years) in family temporarily absent June 2022
CDSF Count of dependent students (15-24 years) in family June 2022 New
CNDAF Count of non-dependent children temporarily absent June 2022
CNDCF Count of non-dependent children in family June 2022
CPAD Count of persons temporarily absent from household June 2022
CPAF Count of persons temporarily absent from family June 2022
CPRF Count of persons in family June 2022
CTGP Child type (including grandchildren) June 2022
CTPP Child type June 2022
FBLF Family blending June 2022
FMCF Family composition June 2022
FMGF Grandparent families June 2022
FNOF Family number June 2022
FPIP Parent indicator June 2022 New
FRLF Relationship between families June 2022
HCFMD Family household composition (dwelling) June 2022
HCFMF Family household composition (family) June 2022
HHCD Household composition June 2022
IFMSTP Imputation flag for registered marital status June 2022
IFNMFD Imputation flag for number of males and females in dwelling June 2022
MDCP Social marital status June 2022
MSTP Registered marital status June 2022
NPRD Number of persons usually resident in dwelling June 2022
RLCP Relationship as reported for couples June 2022
RLGP Relationship in household (including grandchildren) June 2022
RLHP Relationship in household June 2022
RPIP Family/household reference person indicator June 2022
SLPP Sex of lone parent June 2022
SPIP Spouse/partner indicator June 2022 New
SPLF Location of spouse June 2022
SSCF Same-sex couple indicator June 2022

Housing

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
BEDD Number of bedrooms in private dwelling  June 2022
BEDRD Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (ranges)  June 2022
DLOD Dwelling location June 2022
DWTD Dwelling type June 2022
HOSD Housing suitability June 2022
LLDD Landlord type  June 2022
MAID Mortgage affordability indicator June 2022 New
MRED Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values June 2022
MRERD Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges  June 2022
NPDD Type of non-private dwelling June 2022
RAID Rent affordability indicator June 2022 New
RLNP Residential status in a non-private dwelling June 2022
RNTD Rent (weekly) dollar values June 2022
RNTRD Rent (weekly) ranges June 2022
SAFD Supported accommodation flag October 2022
STRD Dwelling structure June 2022
TEND Tenure type June 2022
TENLLD Tenure and landlord type  June 2022

Income and work

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
CDPP Community Development Program participation October 2022
EMPP Number of employees October 2022
FIDF Family income derivation indicator June 2022
FINASF Total family income as stated (weekly) June 2022
FINF Total family income (weekly) June 2022
GNGP Public/private sector October 2022
HIDD Household income derivation indicator June 2022
HIED Equivalised total household income (weekly) June 2022
HINASD Total household income as stated (weekly) June 2022
HIND Total household income (weekly) June 2022
HRSP Hours worked October 2022
HRWRP Hours worked (ranges)  October 2022
INCP Total personal income (weekly) June 2022
INDP Industry of employment October 2022
LFHRP Labour force status and hours worked not stated October 2022
LFSF Labour force status of parents/partners in families October 2022
LFSP Labour force status October 2022
OCC06P Occupation (six digit level) October 2022
OCCP Occupation October 2022
OCSKP Occupation skill level October 2022 New
SIEMP Status in employment October 2022

Location

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
IFPOWP Imputation flag for place of work October 2022
IFPURP Imputation flag for place of usual residence June 2022
MV1D Household one year mobility indicator October 2022
MV5D Household five year mobility indicator October 2022
POWP Place of work October 2022
PUR1P Place of usual residence one year ago October 2022
PUR5P Place of usual residence five years ago October 2022
PURP Place of usual residence June 2022
UAI1P Usual address one year ago indicator October 2022
UAI5P Usual address five years ago indicator October 2022
UAICP Usual address indicator Census night June 2022

Population

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
AGE10P Age in ten year groups June 2022
AGE5P Age in five year groups June 2022
AGEP Age June 2022
IFAGEP Imputation flag for age June 2022
IFSEXP Imputation flag for sex June 2022
SEXP Sex June 2022
TISP Number of children ever born  June 2022
TISRP Number of children ever born (ranges)  June 2022

Service with the Australian Defence Force

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
ADCP Australian Defence Force service, detailed June 2022 New
ADFP Australian Defence Force service June 2022 New

Transport

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
DTWP  Distance to work (ranges) Early 2023
IFDTWP  Imputed distance to work Early 2023
MTW06P  Method of travel to work (6 travel modes) October 2022
MTW15P Method of travel to work (15 travel modes) October 2022
MTWP Method of travel to work October 2022
VEHD Number of motor vehicles June 2022
VEHRD Number of motor vehicles (ranges)  June 2022

Unpaid work and care

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
CHCAREP Unpaid child care June 2022
DOMP Unpaid domestic work: number of hours June 2022
VOLWP Voluntary work for an organisation or group June 2022

National reporting indicators

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
C3SP Attainment of certificate III or higher or working towards a non-school qualification October 2022
EMFP Employment flag October 2022
LFFP Labour force participation flag October 2022
SVFP Level of workplace participation survey comparison flag October 2022
UEFP Unemployment flag October 2022
WTNSQP People with or working towards a non-school qualification October 2022 New
YR12C2P Attainment of year 12 or certificate II or higher October 2022
YR12C3P Attainment of year 12 or certificate III or higher October 2022

Supporting variables

Mnemonic  Variable  Variable Topic Release  
AGEP Age Population June 2022
EETP Engagement in employment, education and training Education and training October 2022
HEAP Level of highest educational attainment Education and training June 2022
HOSD Housing suitability Housing June 2022
INGP Indigenous status Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples June 2022

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
INGDWTD Indigenous household indicator June 2022  
INGF Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family indicator June 2022 New
INGP Indigenous status June 2022  
LNGP Whether reported using an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language at home June 2022 New

Indigenous household indicator (INGDWTD)

Definition

This variable indicates households which have at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander. On Census night the person needs to have been present and a usual resident at the dwelling.

Scope

Occupied private dwellings

Categories

Code Category

1

Household with Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander person(s)

2

Other households

@

Not applicable

Number of categories: 3

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Visitor only households
  • Other non-classifiable households
  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?
Is Person 2 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal

Yes, Torres Strait Islander

Example

Example response to the question: Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin? Yes, Aboriginal origin option selected.
Is Person 1 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal (selected response)

Yes, Torres Strait Islander

Example

Example response to the question: Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin? Yes, Aboriginal and Yes, Torres Strait Islander option selected.
Is Person 2 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal (selected response)

Yes, Torres Strait Islander (selected response)

How this variable is created

This variable is created from the Usual address indicator (UAICP) variable, Indigenous status (INGP) variable and Household composition (HHCD) variable. It is created by identifying whether at least one person in an occupied private dwelling is:

  • Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
  • Counted at home on Census night.

Persons temporarily absent are excluded from this variable.

History and changes

This variable was introduced in 2011. For previous Censuses, information about households with Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people were available on request. In 2016, there were some minor changes made to the wording of the output categories.

No changes have been made for 2021.

Data use considerations

Changes in Indigenous status between Censuses can affect the interpretation of Census data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It is important to remember that Indigenous status is collected through self-identification and any change in how a person chooses to identify will affect the count of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the Census.

Related variables and glossary terms

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander family indicator (INGF)

Definition

This variable indicates families with at least one person who identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, who is a usual resident in the dwelling, and was at home on Census night.

Scope

Families in family households

Categories

Code Category

1

Family with Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander persons(s)

2

Other families

&

Not stated

@

Not applicable

Number of categories: 4

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Non-family/Non-classifiable households
  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?
Is Person 2 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal

Yes, Torres Strait Islander

Example

Example response to the question: Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin? 'Yes, Aboriginal' option selected.
Is Person 2 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal (selected response)

Yes, Torres Strait Islander

Example

Example response to the question: Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin? 'Yes, Aboriginal' and 'Yes, Torres Strait Islander' option selected.
Is Person 2 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal (selected response)

Yes, Torres Strait Islander (selected response)

How this variable is created

This variable is created from Usual address indicator (UAICP), Indigenous status (INGP) and Family composition (FMCF). It is created by identifying whether at least one person in a family is:

Persons temporarily absent are excluded from this variable.

History and changes

This variable is new for the 2021 Census. In previous Censuses information about families was only available on request.

Data use considerations

Changes between Censuses can affect the interpretation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples data. It is important to remember that this variable is collected through self-identification and any change in identification will affect the count of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

Indigenous status (INGP)

Definition

This variable records the response of persons who identified themselves as being of Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in the Census.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Code Category

1

Non-Indigenous

2

Aboriginal

3

Torres Strait Islander

4

Both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

&

Not stated

V

Overseas visitor

Number of categories: 6

Question(s) from the Census form

Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

Is the person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?
Is Person 2 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal

Yes, Torres Strait Islander

Example

Indigenous Status example - yes, Aboriginal response selected
Is Person 2 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal (selected response)

Yes, Torres Strait Islander

Example

Indigenous Status example - yes, Aboriginal and yes, Torres Strait Islander response selected
Is Person 2 of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin?

For people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin, select both 'Yes' boxes.

Person's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin

No

Yes, Aboriginal (selected response)

Yes, Torres Strait Islander (selected response)

How this variable is created

Responses are captured automatically from mark box responses on the form, so the risk of processing error is minimised. Where respondents identify as both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, they are instructed to mark both the 'Yes, Aboriginal' and 'Yes, Torres Strait Islander' boxes. In cases where a respondent marked both ‘No’ and ‘Yes’ boxes, their Indigenous Status is set to ‘Not stated’.

In Australia, the method for collecting information about indigenous status is through self-identification. The ABS Standard Indigenous question is used in all ABS data collections. It is also used across a wide range of government agencies and Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander organisations. For more information please see the Indigenous Status Standard, 2014, Version 1.5.

The term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander 'origin' is used in the 2021 Census question. When used in the context of the ABS Standard Indigenous question it relates to a person's Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent and for some, but not all, their cultural identity.

Torres Strait Islander peoples come from the islands of the Torres Strait, between the tip of Cape York and Papua New Guinea

History and changes

Indigenous status data is available from the 1971 Census onwards. A question on origin has been asked in every Census. However, prior to the 1971 Census, Aboriginal peoples were counted in order to exclude them from population estimates for each state and territory.

The 1967 Referendum changed section 127 of the Constitution to allow Aboriginal people to be included in official Census population counts. The 1971 and 1976 Censuses asked each person's racial origin. Since the 1981 Census the word 'racial' has been dropped from the question. The 1996 Census was the first Census to allow people's origins to be recorded as both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, prior to this only one or the other could be recorded.

No changes have been made for 2021.

Data use considerations

Changes in Indigenous status between Censuses can affect the interpretation of Census data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It is important to remember that Indigenous status is collected through self-identification and any change in how a person chooses to identify will affect the count of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the Census.

Related variables and glossary terms

Whether reported using an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language at home (LNGP)

Definition

This variable indicates whether a person reports using an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language at home.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Code Category

1

Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language used at home

2

Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language not used at home

&

Not stated

V

Overseas visitor

Number of categories: 4

Question(s) from the Census form

Does the person use a language other than English at home?

Does the person use a language other than English at home?
Does Person 1 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

Include use of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box.

More information

Person's language at home

No, English only

Yes, Mandarin

Yes, Arabic

Yes, Cantonese

Yes, Vietnamese

Yes, Italian

Yes, Greek

Yes, other (please specify)

Additional options - Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language

Does the person use a language other than English at home?
Does Person 2 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

More information

Person's language at home

No, English only

Yes, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language

Yes, Mandarin

Yes, Arabic

Yes, Cantonese

Yes, Vietnamese

Yes, Italian

Yes, Greek

Yes, other (please specify)

Example

Example response to the question: Does the person use a language other than English at home? Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language response selected.
Does Person 2 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

More information

Person's language at home

No, English only

Yes, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language (selected response)
Please specify (optional)

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: Does the person use a language other than English at home?
Does Person 1 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

Include use of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box.

More information

If the person uses only English at home, select ‘No, English only’, even if they can speak another language.

If the person lives alone, answer with the language they most commonly use with visitors in their home.

The languages listed were the most commonly reported languages spoken at home, other than English in the 2016 Census.

For a language not listed, please select the 'Yes, other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the language in the box.

For people who cannot speak, or if the person is too young to speak, record 'Not able to speak' in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box for this question.

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from the Census variable Language used at home (LANP), which is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL), 2016.

This variable defines a speaker of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language as a person who reported using a language that was coded to ASCL broad group 8 – Australian Indigenous languages.

History and changes

This variable is new for the 2021 Census. Prior to this, data was obtained manually from the Language used at home (LANP) variable.

Additional instructional text was added to the Census form regarding Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander languages and stated, 'Include use of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander languages in the ‘please specify’ option.

An enhancement to the online form presented a check box for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language for those respondents who identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander in the Indigenous status question. To improve the data collected on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, these respondents also had the option to provide a specific language in the ‘please specify’ box if they wished.

Additional instructions were added to the Interviewer Household Form question to improve the reporting of specific Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages. The Interviewer Household Form is used in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Additional instructions included: 

  • Where possible, write the full name of the language
  • If the person speaks Creole, where possible provide more information. For example: Cape York Creole, Broome Kriol, Yumplatok (Torres Strait Creole). 

Data use considerations

The main language used at home Census question is designed to find out which languages other than English are spoken by people at home. This question only allows for one answer and therefore the number of responses shown in the category ‘Speaker of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language’ is not all persons who speak an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language.

Related variables and glossary terms

Cultural diversity

Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
ANC1P Ancestry 1st response  June 2022
ANC2P Ancestry 2nd response  June 2022
ANCP Ancestry multi response June 2022
ANCRP Ancestry one or two response indicator June 2022 New
BPFP Country of birth of mother June 2022
BPLP Country of birth of person June 2022
BPMP Country of birth of father June 2022
BPPP Country of birth of parents June 2022
CITP Australian citizenship June 2022
ENGLP Proficiency in spoken English June 2022
LANP Language used at home June 2022
RELP Religious affiliation June 2022
YARP Year of arrival in Australia June 2022
YARRP Year of arrival in Australia (ranges)  June 2022

Ancestry 1st response (ANC1P)

Definition

This variable indicates how a person identifies their ancestry. Respondents are able to provide up to two responses. The first ancestry provided is output into Ancestry 1st response (ANC1P).  

See also: Ancestry 2nd response (ANC2P), Ancestry multi response (ANCP)

Scope

All persons

Categories

Ancestry is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG), 2019. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page. 

1 Oceanian 

1 OCEANIAN    
  10 Oceanian, nfd 
    1000 Oceanian, nfd
  11 Australian Peoples
    1100 Australian Peoples, nfd
    1101 Australian
    1102 Australian Aboriginal
    1103 Australian South Sea Islander
    1104 Torres Strait Islander
    1105 Norfolk Islander
  12 New Zealand Peoples
    1200 New Zealand Peoples, nfd
    1201 Maori
    1202 New Zealander
  13 Melanesian and Papuan
    1300 Melanesian and Papuan, nfd
    1301 New Caledonian
    1302 Ni-Vanuatu
    1303 Papua New Guinean
    1304 Solomon Islander
    1399 Melanesian and Papuan, nec
  14 Micronesian
    1400 Micronesian, nfd
    1401 I-Kiribati
    1402 Nauruan
    1499 Micronesian, nec
  15 Polynesian
    1500 Polynesian, nfd
    1501 Cook Islander
    1502 Fijian
    1503 Niuean
    1504 Samoan
    1505 Tongan
    1506 Hawaiian
    1507 Tahitian
    1508 Tokelauan
    1511 Tuvaluan
    1512 Pitcairn
    1599 Polynesian, nec

2 North-West European

2 NORTH-WEST EUROPEAN
  20 North-West European, nfd 
    2000 North-West European, nfd
  21 British  
    2100 British, nfd
    2101 English
    2102 Scottish
    2103 Welsh
    2104 Channel Islander
    2105 Manx
    2199 British, nec
  22 Irish  
    2201 Irish
  23 Western European
    2300 Western European, nfd
    2301 Austrian
    2303 Dutch
    2304 Flemish
    2305 French
    2306 German
    2307 Swiss
    2311 Belgian
    2312 Frisian
    2313 Luxembourg
    2399 Western European, nec
  24 Northern European
    2400 Northern European, nfd
    2401 Danish
    2402 Finnish
    2403 Icelandic
    2404 Norwegian
    2405 Swedish
    2499 Northern European, nec

3 Southern and Eastern European

3 SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN
  30 Southern and Eastern European, nfd
    3000 Southern and Eastern European, nfd
  31 Southern European
    3100 Southern European, nfd
    3101 Basque
    3102 Catalan
    3103 Italian
    3104 Maltese
    3105 Portuguese
    3106 Spanish
    3107 Gibraltarian
    3199 Southern European, nec
  32 South Eastern European
    3200 South Eastern European, nfd
    3201 Albanian
    3202 Bosnian
    3203 Bulgarian
    3204 Croatian
    3205 Greek
    3206 Macedonian
    3207 Moldovan
    3208 Montenegrin
    3211 Romanian
    3212 Roma Gypsy
    3213 Serbian
    3214 Slovene
    3215 Cypriot
    3216 Vlach
    3299 South Eastern European, nec
  33 Eastern European
    3300 Eastern European, nfd
    3301 Belarusan
    3302 Czech
    3303 Estonian
    3304 Hungarian
    3305 Latvian
    3306 Lithuanian
    3307 Polish
    3308 Russian
    3311 Slovak
    3312 Ukrainian
    3313 Sorb/Wend
    3399 Eastern European, nec

4 North-African and Middle Eastern

4 NORTH AFRICAN AND MIDDLE EASTERN
  40 North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
    4000 North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
  41 Arab  
    4100 Arab, nfd
    4101 Algerian
    4102 Egyptian
    4103 Iraqi
    4104 Jordanian
    4105 Kuwaiti
    4106 Lebanese
    4107 Libyan
    4108 Moroccan
    4111 Palestinian
    4112 Saudi Arabian
    4113 Syrian
    4114 Tunisian
    4115 Yemeni
    4116 Bahraini
    4117 Emirati
    4118 Omani
    4121 Qatari
    4199 Arab, nec
  42 Jewish  
    4201 Jewish
  43 Peoples of the Sudan
    4300 Peoples of the Sudan, nfd
    4301 Bari
    4302 Darfur
    4303 Dinka 
    4304 Nuer
    4305 South Sudanese
    4306 Sudanese
    4399 Peoples of the Sudan, nec
  49 Other North African and Middle Eastern
    4900 Other North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
    4902 Berber
    4903 Coptic
    4904 Iranian
    4905 Kurdish
    4907 Turkish
    4908 Assyrian
    4911 Chaldean
    4912 Mandaean
    4913 Nubian 
    4914 Yezidi
    4999 Other North African and Middle Eastern, nec

5 South-East Asian

5 SOUTH-EAST ASIAN  
  50 South-East Asian, nfd
    5000 South-East Asian, nfd
  51 Mainland South-East Asian
    5100 Mainland South-East Asian, nfd
    5101 Anglo-Burmese
    5102 Burmese
    5103 Hmong
    5104 Khmer (Cambodian)
    5105 Lao
    5106 Thai
    5107 Vietnamese
    5108 Karen
    5111 Mon
    5112 Chin
    5113 Rohingya
    5199 Mainland South-East Asian, nec
  52 Maritime South-East Asian
    5200 Maritime South-East Asian, nfd
    5201 Filipino
    5202 Indonesian
    5203 Javanese
    5204 Madurese
    5205 Malay
    5206 Sundanese
    5207 Timorese
    5208 Acehnese
    5211 Balinese
    5212 Bruneian
    5213 Kadazan
    5214 Singaporean
    5215 Temoq
    5299 Maritime South-East Asian, nec

6 North-East Asian

6 NORTH-EAST ASIAN  
  60 North-East Asian, nfd
    6000 North-East Asian, nfd
  61 Chinese Asian
    6100 Chinese Asian, nfd
    6101 Chinese
    6102 Taiwanese
    6199 Chinese Asian, nec
  69 Other North-East Asian
    6900 Other North-East Asian, nfd
    6901 Japanese
    6902 Korean
    6903 Mongolian
    6904 Tibetan
    6999 Other North-East Asian, nec

7 Southern and Central Asian

7 SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL ASIAN
  70 Southern and Central Asian, nfd
    7000 Southern and Central Asian, nfd
  71 Southern Asian
    7100 Southern Asian, nfd
    7101 Anglo-Indian
    7102 Bengali
    7103 Burgher
    7104 Gujarati
    7106 Indian
    7107 Malayali
    7111 Nepalese
    7112 Pakistani
    7113 Punjabi
    7114 Sikh
    7115 Sinhalese
    7117 Maldivian
    7118 Bangladeshi
    7121 Bhutanese
    7122 Fijian Indian 
    7123 Kashmiri
    7124 Parsi
    7125 Sindhi
    7126 Sri Lankan
    7127 Sri Lankan Tamil
    7128 Indian Tamil 
    7131 Tamil, nfd
    7132 Telugu
    7199 Southern Asian, nec
  72 Central Asian
    7200 Central Asian, nfd
    7201 Afghan
    7202 Armenian
    7203 Georgian
    7204 Kazakh
    7205 Pathan
    7206 Uzbek
    7207 Azeri
    7208 Hazara
    7211 Tajik
    7212 Tatar
    7213 Turkmen
    7214 Uighur
    7215 Kyrgyz
    7299 Central Asian, nec

8 Peoples of the Americas

8 PEOPLES OF THE AMERICAS
  80 Peoples of the Americas, nfd
    8000 Peoples of the Americas, nfd
  81 North American
    8100 North American, nfd
    8101 African American
    8102 American
    8103 Canadian
    8104 French Canadian
    8105 Hispanic North American
    8106 Native North American Indian
    8107 Bermudan
    8199 North American, nec
  82 South American
    8200 South American, nfd
    8201 Argentinian
    8202 Bolivian
    8203 Brazilian
    8204 Chilean
    8205 Colombian
    8206 Ecuadorian
    8207 Guyanese
    8208 Peruvian
    8211 Uruguayan
    8212 Venezuelan
    8213 Paraguayan
    8299 South American, nec
  83 Central American
    8300 Central American, nfd
    8301 Mexican
    8302 Nicaraguan
    8303 Salvadoran
    8304 Costa Rican
    8305 Guatemalan
    8306 Mayan
    8399 Central American, nec
  84 Caribbean Islander
    8400 Caribbean Islander, nfd
    8401 Cuban
    8402 Jamaican
    8403 Trinidadian Tobagonian
    8404 Barbadian
    8405 Puerto Rican
    8499 Caribbean Islander, nec

9 Sub-Saharan African

9 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN
  90 Sub-Saharan African, nfd
    9000 Sub-Saharan African, nfd
  91 Central and West African
    9100 Central and West African, nfd
    9101 Akan
    9102 Fulani
    9103 Ghanaian
    9104 Nigerian
    9105 Yoruba
    9106 Ivorean
    9107 Liberian
    9108 Sierra Leonean
    9111 Acholi
    9112 Cameroonian
    9113 Congolese
    9114 Gio
    9115 Igbo
    9116 Krahn
    9117 Mandinka
    9118 Senegalese
    9121 Themne
    9122 Togolese
    9199 Central and West African, nec
  92 Southern and East African
    9200 Southern and East African, nfd
    9201 Afrikaner
    9202 Angolan
    9203 Eritrean
    9204 Ethiopian
    9205 Kenyan
    9206 Malawian
    9207 Mauritian
    9208 Mozambican
    9211 Namibian
    9212 Oromo
    9213 Seychellois
    9214 Somali
    9215 South African
    9216 Tanzanian
    9217 Ugandan
    9218 Zambian
    9221 Zimbabwean
    9222 Amhara
    9223 Batswana
    9225 Hutu
    9226 Masai
    9228 Tigrayan
    9231 Tigre
    9232 Zulu
    9233 Burundian
    9234 Kunama
    9235 Madi
    9236 Ogaden
    9237 Rwandan
    9238 Shona
    9241 Swahili
    9242 Swazilander
    9299 Southern and East African, nec

Supplementary codes

0 SUPPLEMENTARY CODES
  00 Inadequately described
    0000 Inadequately described
  09 So described, nfd
    0901 Eurasian, so described
    0902 Asian, so described
    0903 African, so described
    0904 European, so described
    0905 Caucasian, so described
    0906 Creole, so described
& Not stated    
  && Not stated  
    &&&& Not stated
V Overseas visitor  
  VV Overseas visitor
    VVVV Overseas visitor

Number of categories: 

  • One-digit level: 12
  • Two-digit level: 41     
  • Four-digit level: 321

Question(s) from the Census form

What is the person’s ancestry?

What is the person’s ancestry?
What is Person 1's ancestry?

Provide up to two ancestries only.

Examples of ‘Other ancestry’: Croatian, Serbian, Filipino, Tamil, Sinhalese, Hmong, Maori, Pitcairn, Australian South Sea Islander.

More information

Person's ancestry

English

Irish

Scottish

Chinese

Italian

German

Aboriginal

Torres Strait Islander

Australian

Other ancestry 1 (please specify)

Other ancestry 2 (please specify)

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: What is the person’s ancestry?
What is Person 1's ancestry?

Provide up to two ancestries only.

Examples of ‘Other ancestry’: Croatian, Serbian, Filipino, Tamil, Sinhalese, Hmong, Maori, Pitcairn, Australian South Sea Islander.

More information

If more than two ancestries apply, provide the two ancestries the person most closely identifies with.

If you are unclear about what ancestry you should include, consider the ethnic or cultural origins of the person's parents and/or grandparents as a guide.

If the person is a Pacific Islander, report their ancestry as accurately as possible, for example, Samoan, Tongan or Cook Islander.

If the person is a descendant of South Sea Islanders brought to Australia as labourers at the turn of the twentieth century, please answer ‘Australian South Sea Islander’.

For ancestries not listed, please select the 'Other ancestry 1 (please specify)' option and enter the name of the ancestry in the box and, if needed, 'Other ancestry 2 (please specify)'.

How this variable is created

The three ancestry variables are created from responses to the ancestry question on the Census form. The allocation of ancestries to the variables ANC1P and ANC2P are administrative only and based on the order in which the responses are processed. These two ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) are combined into one variable, ANCP.

Respondents can select their ancestry by using the mark boxes, and/or the write in response boxes.  The most common ancestry responses from the 2016 Census are the mark box options on the 2021 Census form, with the addition of separate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mark boxes.  Most responses for ancestry are captured in the mark box responses, but overall, the following scenarios apply:

Written responses are first coded using a combination of automatic reading and coding. The remaining responses require manual coding.

  • Where respondents report more than two ancestries, only two are processed.
  • Where only one ancestry was provided, ANC2P is recorded as ‘Not applicable’.
  • Ancestry is coded using the ASCCEG. If a response is not listed in the classification, it is coded to 'Inadequately described'.

History and changes

Ancestry was first included as a question in the 1986 Census. The aim of the question was to measure the ethnic composition of the population, but it did not perform as expected for this purpose as there was a high level of subjectivity and lack of clarity about what the question meant. Consequently, ancestry was not included in either the 1991 or 1996 Censuses.

In 2001, the question was asked again with instructions to 'Provide more than one ancestry if necessary', and to consider their parents, grandparents, and great grandparents.

For the 2006 and 2011 Censuses, respondents were asked to mark the ancestries they most closely identified with and to consider their ancestry back as far as two generations (i.e. their parents and grandparents). Respondents were asked to report at least one ancestry, but no more than two ancestries.

For the 2016 Census the format of the ancestry question was revised to provide two distinct text response areas for separate written ancestry responses. This change aimed to clarify responses and improve autocoding rates.

The 2021 Census includes mark boxes for both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ancestries.  It is expected these additional mark boxes will result in less people checking the ‘Australian’ mark box, and instead choosing to specify Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ancestries. For people completing the Census online and who identify as an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander person, the new response categories were presented at the top of the list.

For 2021, the order of the response categories has been updated based on frequency of reporting in the 2016 Census:

  • ‘Italian’ moved from 3rd position to 5th position
  • ‘German’ moved from 5th position to 6th position
  • ‘Chinese’ moved from 6th position to 4th position

As with previous censuses, 'Australian' is placed as the last option for selection - prior to the text entry boxes for 'Other ancestry/s' - to encourage reporting of non-Australian ancestries where relevant.

For 2021, the other examples in the instructional text were updated.

For 2021, Norfolk Islander (code 1105) has been added in the updated classification to capture an ancestry reported by Norfolk Island residents following Norfolk Island’s inclusion in the Australian Census of Population and Housing for the first time in 2016.

Data use considerations

Ancestry can be related to the place a person or their parents or grandparents were born or the cultural group they most identify with. For example, a person may have been born in Australia, but they have Papua New Guinean ancestry. This helps us understand our diverse culture.

To accurately understand ancestry data, both ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) must be used. There are two ancestry variables because Census respondents are able to report up to two ancestries in their response to the question on ancestry. Respondents do not have the option of ranking their answers to the ancestry question, so where a respondent reports two ancestries, they have equal standing. The basis for allocating ancestries to the variables ANC1P and ANC2P is based on the order in which they are processed. These two ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) are combined into one variable ANCP.

Ethnicity

The ancestry variables provide a self-assessed measure of ethnicity and cultural background, which, when used in conjunction with the person’s and their parents' countries of birth provides a good indication of the ethnic background of first and second generation Australians. Ancestry in the Australian context is complex as there are many Australians with origins and heritage that do not, in practice, relate to their current ethnic identity.  When ancestry data is used alone, it should only be done to represent a broad measure of cultural diversity.  Ancestry is particularly useful to identify distinct ethnic or cultural groups within Australia such as Maoris or Australian South Sea Islanders, and groups which are spread across countries such as Kurds. Surrogate measures of ethnicity such as country of birth or languages other than English spoken at home, alone cannot identify these groups. This information is useful in developing policies which reflect the needs of our society and for the effective delivery of services to particular ethnic communities.

Ancestry multi response - counting people or responses

When ANCP is added to a table and all the individual ancestries are summed together, a total count of responses, not people, is produced. This is because each person can provide up to two ancestries. So the total count of responses for all ancestries in Australia exceeds Australia’s total population. However, when using ANCP to look at individual ancestries, the count of responses is also the count of people. This is because respondents can only state a particular ancestry once (either as ANC1P or ANC2P).

Measurement issues

The ancestry question records all claims of association with ancestries, ethnic origins and cultures.  Whilst some people may respond according to how they may identify with a particular cultural group (subjectively), the intent of the question is to capture the cultural context in which they were raised (objectively).  Multiple responses are encouraged. Responses to the ancestry question are coded to the ASCCEG. The classification is not intended to classify people, but rather all claims of association with an ethnic origin or cultural group, i.e. one ancestry response is not equal to one person. Many people do not relate to a single ethnic origin or cultural group and will give multiple responses to a question on ancestry, ethnicity or cultural identity. The ABS has developed guidelines for the coding, storage and presentation of multiple responses to questions on ancestry, ethnicity or cultural identity data. These guidelines are included in the ASCCEG publication.

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Ancestry multi response (ANCP)
  • Ancestry 2nd response (ANC2P)
  • Ancestry one or two response indicator (ANCRP)
  • Birthplace of mother (BPFP)
  • Birthplace of father (BPMP)
  • Indigenous status (INGP)

Other ABS Sources

Data downloads

Ancestry first response classification

Ancestry 2nd response (ANC2P)

Definition

This variable indicates how a person identifies their ancestry. Respondents are able to provide up to two responses. The second ancestry provided is output into Ancestry 2nd response (ANC2P).  

See also: Ancestry 1st response (ANC1P), Ancestry multi response (ANCP)

Scope

All persons

Categories

Ancestry is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG), 2019. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page. 

1 Oceanian 

1 OCEANIAN    
  10 Oceanian, nfd 
    1000 Oceanian, nfd
  11 Australian Peoples
    1100 Australian Peoples, nfd
    1101 Australian
    1102 Australian Aboriginal
    1103 Australian South Sea Islander
    1104 Torres Strait Islander
    1105 Norfolk Islander
  12 New Zealand Peoples
    1200 New Zealand Peoples, nfd
    1201 Maori
    1202 New Zealander
  13 Melanesian and Papuan
    1300 Melanesian and Papuan, nfd
    1301 New Caledonian
    1302 Ni-Vanuatu
    1303 Papua New Guinean
    1304 Solomon Islander
    1399 Melanesian and Papuan, nec
  14 Micronesian
    1400 Micronesian, nfd
    1401 I-Kiribati
    1402 Nauruan
    1499 Micronesian, nec
  15 Polynesian
    1500 Polynesian, nfd
    1501 Cook Islander
    1502 Fijian
    1503 Niuean
    1504 Samoan
    1505 Tongan
    1506 Hawaiian
    1507 Tahitian
    1508 Tokelauan
    1511 Tuvaluan
    1512 Pitcairn
    1599 Polynesian, nec

2 North-West European

2 NORTH-WEST EUROPEAN
  20 North-West European, nfd 
    2000 North-West European, nfd
  21 British  
    2100 British, nfd
    2101 English
    2102 Scottish
    2103 Welsh
    2104 Channel Islander
    2105 Manx
    2199 British, nec
  22 Irish  
    2201 Irish
  23 Western European
    2300 Western European, nfd
    2301 Austrian
    2303 Dutch
    2304 Flemish
    2305 French
    2306 German
    2307 Swiss
    2311 Belgian
    2312 Frisian
    2313 Luxembourg
    2399 Western European, nec
  24 Northern European
    2400 Northern European, nfd
    2401 Danish
    2402 Finnish
    2403 Icelandic
    2404 Norwegian
    2405 Swedish
    2499 Northern European, nec

3 Southern and Eastern European

3 SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN
  30 Southern and Eastern European, nfd
    3000 Southern and Eastern European, nfd
  31 Southern European
    3100 Southern European, nfd
    3101 Basque
    3102 Catalan
    3103 Italian
    3104 Maltese
    3105 Portuguese
    3106 Spanish
    3107 Gibraltarian
    3199 Southern European, nec
  32 South Eastern European
    3200 South Eastern European, nfd
    3201 Albanian
    3202 Bosnian
    3203 Bulgarian
    3204 Croatian
    3205 Greek
    3206 Macedonian
    3207 Moldovan
    3208 Montenegrin
    3211 Romanian
    3212 Roma Gypsy
    3213 Serbian
    3214 Slovene
    3215 Cypriot
    3216 Vlach
    3299 South Eastern European, nec
  33 Eastern European
    3300 Eastern European, nfd
    3301 Belarusan
    3302 Czech
    3303 Estonian
    3304 Hungarian
    3305 Latvian
    3306 Lithuanian
    3307 Polish
    3308 Russian
    3311 Slovak
    3312 Ukrainian
    3313 Sorb/Wend
    3399 Eastern European, nec

4 North-African and Middle Eastern

4 NORTH AFRICAN AND MIDDLE EASTERN
  40 North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
    4000 North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
  41 Arab  
    4100 Arab, nfd
    4101 Algerian
    4102 Egyptian
    4103 Iraqi
    4104 Jordanian
    4105 Kuwaiti
    4106 Lebanese
    4107 Libyan
    4108 Moroccan
    4111 Palestinian
    4112 Saudi Arabian
    4113 Syrian
    4114 Tunisian
    4115 Yemeni
    4116 Bahraini
    4117 Emirati
    4118 Omani
    4121 Qatari
    4199 Arab, nec
  42 Jewish  
    4201 Jewish
  43 Peoples of the Sudan
    4300 Peoples of the Sudan, nfd
    4301 Bari
    4302 Darfur
    4303 Dinka 
    4304 Nuer
    4305 South Sudanese
    4306 Sudanese
    4399 Peoples of the Sudan, nec
  49 Other North African and Middle Eastern
    4900 Other North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
    4902 Berber
    4903 Coptic
    4904 Iranian
    4905 Kurdish
    4907 Turkish
    4908 Assyrian
    4911 Chaldean
    4912 Mandaean
    4913 Nubian 
    4914 Yezidi
    4999 Other North African and Middle Eastern, nec

5 South-East Asian

5 SOUTH-EAST ASIAN  
  50 South-East Asian, nfd
    5000 South-East Asian, nfd
  51 Mainland South-East Asian
    5100 Mainland South-East Asian, nfd
    5101 Anglo-Burmese
    5102 Burmese
    5103 Hmong
    5104 Khmer (Cambodian)
    5105 Lao
    5106 Thai
    5107 Vietnamese
    5108 Karen
    5111 Mon
    5112 Chin
    5113 Rohingya
    5199 Mainland South-East Asian, nec
  52 Maritime South-East Asian
    5200 Maritime South-East Asian, nfd
    5201 Filipino
    5202 Indonesian
    5203 Javanese
    5204 Madurese
    5205 Malay
    5206 Sundanese
    5207 Timorese
    5208 Acehnese
    5211 Balinese
    5212 Bruneian
    5213 Kadazan
    5214 Singaporean
    5215 Temoq
    5299 Maritime South-East Asian, nec

6 North-East Asian

6 NORTH-EAST ASIAN  
  60 North-East Asian, nfd
    6000 North-East Asian, nfd
  61 Chinese Asian
    6100 Chinese Asian, nfd
    6101 Chinese
    6102 Taiwanese
    6199 Chinese Asian, nec
  69 Other North-East Asian
    6900 Other North-East Asian, nfd
    6901 Japanese
    6902 Korean
    6903 Mongolian
    6904 Tibetan
    6999 Other North-East Asian, nec

7 Southern and Central Asian

7 SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL ASIAN
  70 Southern and Central Asian, nfd
    7000 Southern and Central Asian, nfd
  71 Southern Asian
    7100 Southern Asian, nfd
    7101 Anglo-Indian
    7102 Bengali
    7103 Burgher
    7104 Gujarati
    7106 Indian
    7107 Malayali
    7111 Nepalese
    7112 Pakistani
    7113 Punjabi
    7114 Sikh
    7115 Sinhalese
    7117 Maldivian
    7118 Bangladeshi
    7121 Bhutanese
    7122 Fijian Indian 
    7123 Kashmiri
    7124 Parsi
    7125 Sindhi
    7126 Sri Lankan
    7127 Sri Lankan Tamil
    7128 Indian Tamil 
    7131 Tamil, nfd
    7132 Telugu
    7199 Southern Asian, nec
  72 Central Asian
    7200 Central Asian, nfd
    7201 Afghan
    7202 Armenian
    7203 Georgian
    7204 Kazakh
    7205 Pathan
    7206 Uzbek
    7207 Azeri
    7208 Hazara
    7211 Tajik
    7212 Tatar
    7213 Turkmen
    7214 Uighur
    7215 Kyrgyz
    7299 Central Asian, nec

8 Peoples of the Americas

8 PEOPLES OF THE AMERICAS
  80 Peoples of the Americas, nfd
    8000 Peoples of the Americas, nfd
  81 North American
    8100 North American, nfd
    8101 African American
    8102 American
    8103 Canadian
    8104 French Canadian
    8105 Hispanic North American
    8106 Native North American Indian
    8107 Bermudan
    8199 North American, nec
  82 South American
    8200 South American, nfd
    8201 Argentinian
    8202 Bolivian
    8203 Brazilian
    8204 Chilean
    8205 Colombian
    8206 Ecuadorian
    8207 Guyanese
    8208 Peruvian
    8211 Uruguayan
    8212 Venezuelan
    8213 Paraguayan
    8299 South American, nec
  83 Central American
    8300 Central American, nfd
    8301 Mexican
    8302 Nicaraguan
    8303 Salvadoran
    8304 Costa Rican
    8305 Guatemalan
    8306 Mayan
    8399 Central American, nec
  84 Caribbean Islander
    8400 Caribbean Islander, nfd
    8401 Cuban
    8402 Jamaican
    8403 Trinidadian Tobagonian
    8404 Barbadian
    8405 Puerto Rican
    8499 Caribbean Islander, nec

9 Sub-Saharan African

9 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN
  90 Sub-Saharan African, nfd
    9000 Sub-Saharan African, nfd
  91 Central and West African
    9100 Central and West African, nfd
    9101 Akan
    9102 Fulani
    9103 Ghanaian
    9104 Nigerian
    9105 Yoruba
    9106 Ivorean
    9107 Liberian
    9108 Sierra Leonean
    9111 Acholi
    9112 Cameroonian
    9113 Congolese
    9114 Gio
    9115 Igbo
    9116 Krahn
    9117 Mandinka
    9118 Senegalese
    9121 Themne
    9122 Togolese
    9199 Central and West African, nec
  92 Southern and East African
    9200 Southern and East African, nfd
    9201 Afrikaner
    9202 Angolan
    9203 Eritrean
    9204 Ethiopian
    9205 Kenyan
    9206 Malawian
    9207 Mauritian
    9208 Mozambican
    9211 Namibian
    9212 Oromo
    9213 Seychellois
    9214 Somali
    9215 South African
    9216 Tanzanian
    9217 Ugandan
    9218 Zambian
    9221 Zimbabwean
    9222 Amhara
    9223 Batswana
    9225 Hutu
    9226 Masai
    9228 Tigrayan
    9231 Tigre
    9232 Zulu
    9233 Burundian
    9234 Kunama
    9235 Madi
    9236 Ogaden
    9237 Rwandan
    9238 Shona
    9241 Swahili
    9242 Swazilander
    9299 Southern and East African, nec

Supplementary codes

0 SUPPLEMENTARY CODES
  00 Inadequately described
    0000 Inadequately described
  09 So described, nfd
    0901 Eurasian, so described
    0902 Asian, so described
    0903 African, so described
    0904 European, so described
    0905 Caucasian, so described
    0906 Creole, so described
@ Not applicable  
  @@ Not applicable
     @@@@ Not applicable
V Overseas visitor  
  VV Overseas visitor
    VVVV Overseas visitor

Not applicable (@@@@) comprises:

  • Persons who provided a first ancestry but did not provide a second
  • ANC1P not stated

ANC2P does not have a ‘Not stated’ category. People who did not answer the ancestry question are included in ‘Not applicable’.

Number of categories: 

  • One-digit level: 12
  • Two-digit level: 41
  • Four-digit level: 321

Question(s) from the Census form

What is the person’s ancestry?

What is the person’s ancestry?
What is Person 1's ancestry?

Provide up to two ancestries only.

Examples of ‘Other ancestry’: Croatian, Serbian, Filipino, Tamil, Sinhalese, Hmong, Maori, Pitcairn, Australian South Sea Islander.

More information

Person's ancestry

English

Irish

Scottish

Chinese

Italian

German

Aboriginal

Torres Strait Islander

Australian

Other ancestry 1 (please specify)

Other ancestry 2 (please specify)

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: What is the person’s ancestry?
What is Person 1's ancestry?

Provide up to two ancestries only.

Examples of ‘Other ancestry’: Croatian, Serbian, Filipino, Tamil, Sinhalese, Hmong, Maori, Pitcairn, Australian South Sea Islander.

More information

If more than two ancestries apply, provide the two ancestries the person most closely identifies with.

If you are unclear about what ancestry you should include, consider the ethnic or cultural origins of the person's parents and/or grandparents as a guide.

If the person is a Pacific Islander, report their ancestry as accurately as possible, for example, Samoan, Tongan or Cook Islander.

If the person is a descendant of South Sea Islanders brought to Australia as labourers at the turn of the twentieth century, please answer ‘Australian South Sea Islander’.

For ancestries not listed, please select the 'Other ancestry 1 (please specify)' option and enter the name of the ancestry in the box and, if needed, 'Other ancestry 2 (please specify)'.

How this variable is created

This variable is created from responses to the ancestry question on the Census form. The allocation of ancestries is administrative only and based on the order in which the responses are processed.

Respondents can select their ancestry by using the mark boxes, and/or the write in response boxes.  The most common ancestry responses from the 2016 Census are the mark box options on the 2021 Census form, with the addition of separate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mark boxes.  Most responses for ancestry are captured in the mark box responses, but overall, the following scenarios apply:

  • Written responses are first coded using a combination of automatic reading and coding. The remaining responses require manual coding.
  • Where respondents report more than two ancestries, only two are processed.
  • Where only one ancestry was provided, ANC2P is recorded as ‘Not applicable’.
  • Ancestry is coded using the ASCCEG. If a response is not listed in the classification, it is coded to 'Inadequately described'.

History and changes

Ancestry was first included as a question in the 1986 Census. The aim of the question was to measure the ethnic composition of the population, but it did not perform as expected for this purpose as there was a high level of subjectivity and lack of clarity about what the question meant. Consequently, ancestry was not included in either the 1991 or 1996 Censuses.

In 2001, the question was asked again with instructions to 'Provide more than one ancestry if necessary', and to consider their parents, grandparents, and great grandparents.

For the 2006 and 2011 Censuses, respondents were asked to mark the ancestries they most closely identified with and to consider their ancestry back as far as two generations (i.e. their parents and grandparents). Respondents were asked to report at least one ancestry, but no more than two ancestries.

For the 2016 Census the format of the ancestry question was revised to provide two distinct text response areas for separate written ancestry responses. This change aimed to clarify responses and improve autocoding rates.

The 2021 Census includes mark boxes for both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ancestries.  It is expected these additional mark boxes will result in less people checking the ‘Australian’ mark box, and instead choosing to specify Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ancestries. For people completing the Census online and who identify as an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander person, these new response categories will be displayed at the top of the list.

For 2021, the order of the response categories has been updated based on frequency of reporting in the 2016 Census:

  • ‘Italian’ moved from 3rd position to 5th position
  • ‘German’ moved from 5th position to 6th position
  • ‘Chinese’ moved from 6th position to 4th position

As with previous Censuses, 'Australian' is placed as the last option for selection - prior to the text entry boxes for 'Other ancestry/s' - to encourage reporting of non-Australian ancestries where relevant.

For 2021, the other examples in the instructional text were updated.

For 2021, Norfolk Islander (code 1105) has been added in the updated classification to capture an ancestry reported by Norfolk Island residents following Norfolk Island’s inclusion in the Australian Census of Population and Housing for the first time in 2016.

Data use considerations

Ancestry can be related to the place a person or their parents or grandparents were born or the cultural group they most identify with. For example, a person may have been born in Australia, but they have Papua New Guinean ancestry. This helps us understand our diverse culture.

To accurately understand ancestry data, both ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) must be used. There are two ancestry variables because Census respondents are able to report up to two ancestries in their response to the question on ancestry. Respondents do not have the option of ranking their answers to the ancestry question, so where a respondent reports two ancestries, they have equal standing. The basis for allocating ancestries to the variables ANC1P and ANC2P is based on the order in which they are processed. These two ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) are combined into one variable, ANCP.

Ethnicity

The ancestry variables provide a self-assessed measure of ethnicity and cultural background, which, when used in conjunction with the person’s and their parents' countries of birth provides a good indication of the ethnic background of first and second generation Australians. Ancestry in the Australian context is complex as there are many Australians with origins and heritage that do not, in practice, relate to their current ethnic identity.  When ancestry data is used alone, it should only be done to represent a broad measure of cultural diversity.  Ancestry is particularly useful to identify distinct ethnic or cultural groups within Australia such as Maoris or Australian South Sea Islanders, and groups which are spread across countries such as Kurds. Surrogate measures of ethnicity such as country of birth or languages other than English spoken at home, alone cannot identify these groups. This information is useful in developing policies which reflect the needs of our society and for the effective delivery of services to particular ethnic communities.

Ancestry multi response - counting people or responses

When ANCP is added to a table and all the individual ancestries are summed together, a total count of responses, not people, is produced. This is because each person can provide up to two ancestries. So the total count of responses for all ancestries in Australia exceeds Australia’s total population. However, when using ANCP to look at individual ancestries, the count of responses is also the count of people. This is because respondents can only state a particular ancestry once (either as ANC1P or ANC2P).

Measurement issues

The ancestry question records all claims of association with ancestries, ethnic origins and cultures.  Whilst some people may respond according to how they may identify with a particular cultural group (subjectively), the intent of the question is to capture the cultural context in which they were raised (objectively).  Multiple responses are encouraged. Responses to the ancestry question are coded to the ASCCEG. The classification is not intended to classify people, but rather all claims of association with an ethnic origin or cultural group, i.e. one ancestry response is not equal to one person. Many people do not relate to a single ethnic origin or cultural group and will give multiple responses to a question on ancestry, ethnicity or cultural identity. The ABS has developed guidelines for the coding, storage and presentation of multiple responses to questions on ancestry, ethnicity or cultural identity data. These guidelines are included in the ASCCEG publication.

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Ancestry multi response (ANCP)
  • Ancestry 1st response (ANC1P)
  • Ancestry one or two response indicator (ANCRP)
  • Birthplace of mother (BPFP)
  • Birthplace of father (BPMP)
  • Indigenous status (INGP)

Other ABS Sources

Data downloads

Ancestry 2nd response classification

Ancestry multi response (ANCP)

Definition

This variable indicates how a person identifies their ancestry. Respondents are able to provide up to two responses. These responses are combined and output into Ancestry multi response (ANCP).  

See also: Ancestry 1st response (ANC1P), Ancestry 2nd response (ANC2P).

Scope

All persons

Categories

Ancestry is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG), 2019. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page. 

1 Oceanian

1 OCEANIAN    
  10 Oceanian, nfd 
    1000 Oceanian, nfd
  11 Australian Peoples
    1100 Australian Peoples, nfd
    1101 Australian
    1102 Australian Aboriginal
    1103 Australian South Sea Islander
    1104 Torres Strait Islander
    1105 Norfolk Islander
  12 New Zealand Peoples
    1200 New Zealand Peoples, nfd
    1201 Maori
    1202 New Zealander
  13 Melanesian and Papuan
    1300 Melanesian and Papuan, nfd
    1301 New Caledonian
    1302 Ni-Vanuatu
    1303 Papua New Guinean
    1304 Solomon Islander
    1399 Melanesian and Papuan, nec
  14 Micronesian
    1400 Micronesian, nfd
    1401 I-Kiribati
    1402 Nauruan
    1499 Micronesian, nec
  15 Polynesian
    1500 Polynesian, nfd
    1501 Cook Islander
    1502 Fijian
    1503 Niuean
    1504 Samoan
    1505 Tongan
    1506 Hawaiian
    1507 Tahitian
    1508 Tokelauan
    1511 Tuvaluan
    1512 Pitcairn
    1599 Polynesian, nec

2 North-west European

2 NORTH-WEST EUROPEAN
  20 North-West European, nfd 
    2000 North-West European, nfd
  21 British  
    2100 British, nfd
    2101 English
    2102 Scottish
    2103 Welsh
    2104 Channel Islander
    2105 Manx
    2199 British, nec
  22 Irish  
    2201 Irish
  23 Western European
    2300 Western European, nfd
    2301 Austrian
    2303 Dutch
    2304 Flemish
    2305 French
    2306 German
    2307 Swiss
    2311 Belgian
    2312 Frisian
    2313 Luxembourg
    2399 Western European, nec
  24 Northern European
    2400 Northern European, nfd
    2401 Danish
    2402 Finnish
    2403 Icelandic
    2404 Norwegian
    2405 Swedish
    2499 Northern European, nec

3 Southern and Eastern European

3 SOUTHERN AND EASTERN EUROPEAN
  30 Southern and Eastern European, nfd
    3000 Southern and Eastern European, nfd
  31 Southern European
    3100 Southern European, nfd
    3101 Basque
    3102 Catalan
    3103 Italian
    3104 Maltese
    3105 Portuguese
    3106 Spanish
    3107 Gibraltarian
    3199 Southern European, nec
  32 South Eastern European
    3200 South Eastern European, nfd
    3201 Albanian
    3202 Bosnian
    3203 Bulgarian
    3204 Croatian
    3205 Greek
    3206 Macedonian
    3207 Moldovan
    3208 Montenegrin
    3211 Romanian
    3212 Roma Gypsy
    3213 Serbian
    3214 Slovene
    3215 Cypriot
    3216 Vlach
    3299 South Eastern European, nec
  33 Eastern European
    3300 Eastern European, nfd
    3301 Belarusan
    3302 Czech
    3303 Estonian
    3304 Hungarian
    3305 Latvian
    3306 Lithuanian
    3307 Polish
    3308 Russian
    3311 Slovak
    3312 Ukrainian
    3313 Sorb/Wend
    3399 Eastern European, nec

4 North African and Middle Eastern

4 NORTH AFRICAN AND MIDDLE EASTERN
  40 North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
    4000 North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
  41 Arab  
    4100 Arab, nfd
    4101 Algerian
    4102 Egyptian
    4103 Iraqi
    4104 Jordanian
    4105 Kuwaiti
    4106 Lebanese
    4107 Libyan
    4108 Moroccan
    4111 Palestinian
    4112 Saudi Arabian
    4113 Syrian
    4114 Tunisian
    4115 Yemeni
    4116 Bahraini
    4117 Emirati
    4118 Omani
    4121 Qatari
    4199 Arab, nec
  42 Jewish  
    4201 Jewish
  43 Peoples of the Sudan
    4300 Peoples of the Sudan, nfd
    4301 Bari
    4302 Darfur
    4303 Dinka 
    4304 Nuer
    4305 South Sudanese
    4306 Sudanese
    4399 Peoples of the Sudan, nec
  49 Other North African and Middle Eastern
    4900 Other North African and Middle Eastern, nfd
    4902 Berber
    4903 Coptic
    4904 Iranian
    4905 Kurdish
    4907 Turkish
    4908 Assyrian
    4911 Chaldean
    4912 Mandaean
    4913 Nubian 
    4914 Yezidi
    4999 Other North African and Middle Eastern, nec

5 South-East Asian

5 SOUTH-EAST ASIAN  
  50 South-East Asian, nfd
    5000 South-East Asian, nfd
  51 Mainland South-East Asian
    5100 Mainland South-East Asian, nfd
    5101 Anglo-Burmese
    5102 Burmese
    5103 Hmong
    5104 Khmer (Cambodian)
    5105 Lao
    5106 Thai
    5107 Vietnamese
    5108 Karen
    5111 Mon
    5112 Chin
    5113 Rohingya
    5199 Mainland South-East Asian, nec
  52 Maritime South-East Asian
    5200 Maritime South-East Asian, nfd
    5201 Filipino
    5202 Indonesian
    5203 Javanese
    5204 Madurese
    5205 Malay
    5206 Sundanese
    5207 Timorese
    5208 Acehnese
    5211 Balinese
    5212 Bruneian
    5213 Kadazan
    5214 Singaporean
    5215 Temoq
    5299 Maritime South-East Asian, nec

6 North-East Asian

6 NORTH-EAST ASIAN  
  60 North-East Asian, nfd
    6000 North-East Asian, nfd
  61 Chinese Asian
    6100 Chinese Asian, nfd
    6101 Chinese
    6102 Taiwanese
    6199 Chinese Asian, nec
  69 Other North-East Asian
    6900 Other North-East Asian, nfd
    6901 Japanese
    6902 Korean
    6903 Mongolian
    6904 Tibetan
    6999 Other North-East Asian, nec

7 Southern and Central Asian

7 SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL ASIAN
  70 Southern and Central Asian, nfd
    7000 Southern and Central Asian, nfd
  71 Southern Asian
    7100 Southern Asian, nfd
    7101 Anglo-Indian
    7102 Bengali
    7103 Burgher
    7104 Gujarati
    7106 Indian
    7107 Malayali
    7111 Nepalese
    7112 Pakistani
    7113 Punjabi
    7114 Sikh
    7115 Sinhalese
    7117 Maldivian
    7118 Bangladeshi
    7121 Bhutanese
    7122 Fijian Indian 
    7123 Kashmiri
    7124 Parsi
    7125 Sindhi
    7126 Sri Lankan
    7127 Sri Lankan Tamil
    7128 Indian Tamil 
    7131 Tamil, nfd
    7132 Telugu
    7199 Southern Asian, nec
  72 Central Asian
    7200 Central Asian, nfd
    7201 Afghan
    7202 Armenian
    7203 Georgian
    7204 Kazakh
    7205 Pathan
    7206 Uzbek
    7207 Azeri
    7208 Hazara
    7211 Tajik
    7212 Tatar
    7213 Turkmen
    7214 Uighur
    7215 Kyrgyz
    7299 Central Asian, nec

8 Peoples of the Americas

8 PEOPLES OF THE AMERICAS
  80 Peoples of the Americas, nfd
    8000 Peoples of the Americas, nfd
  81 North American
    8100 North American, nfd
    8101 African American
    8102 American
    8103 Canadian
    8104 French Canadian
    8105 Hispanic North American
    8106 Native North American Indian
    8107 Bermudan
    8199 North American, nec
  82 South American
    8200 South American, nfd
    8201 Argentinian
    8202 Bolivian
    8203 Brazilian
    8204 Chilean
    8205 Colombian
    8206 Ecuadorian
    8207 Guyanese
    8208 Peruvian
    8211 Uruguayan
    8212 Venezuelan
    8213 Paraguayan
    8299 South American, nec
  83 Central American
    8300 Central American, nfd
    8301 Mexican
    8302 Nicaraguan
    8303 Salvadoran
    8304 Costa Rican
    8305 Guatemalan
    8306 Mayan
    8399 Central American, nec
  84 Caribbean Islander
    8400 Caribbean Islander, nfd
    8401 Cuban
    8402 Jamaican
    8403 Trinidadian Tobagonian
    8404 Barbadian
    8405 Puerto Rican
    8499 Caribbean Islander, nec

9 Sub-Saharan African

9 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN
  90 Sub-Saharan African, nfd
    9000 Sub-Saharan African, nfd
  91 Central and West African
    9100 Central and West African, nfd
    9101 Akan
    9102 Fulani
    9103 Ghanaian
    9104 Nigerian
    9105 Yoruba
    9106 Ivorean
    9107 Liberian
    9108 Sierra Leonean
    9111 Acholi
    9112 Cameroonian
    9113 Congolese
    9114 Gio
    9115 Igbo
    9116 Krahn
    9117 Mandinka
    9118 Senegalese
    9121 Themne
    9122 Togolese
    9199 Central and West African, nec
  92 Southern and East African
    9200 Southern and East African, nfd
    9201 Afrikaner
    9202 Angolan
    9203 Eritrean
    9204 Ethiopian
    9205 Kenyan
    9206 Malawian
    9207 Mauritian
    9208 Mozambican
    9211 Namibian
    9212 Oromo
    9213 Seychellois
    9214 Somali
    9215 South African
    9216 Tanzanian
    9217 Ugandan
    9218 Zambian
    9221 Zimbabwean
    9222 Amhara
    9223 Batswana
    9225 Hutu
    9226 Masai
    9228 Tigrayan
    9231 Tigre
    9232 Zulu
    9233 Burundian
    9234 Kunama
    9235 Madi
    9236 Ogaden
    9237 Rwandan
    9238 Shona
    9241 Swahili
    9242 Swazilander
    9299 Southern and East African, nec

Supplementary codes

0 SUPPLEMENTARY CODES
  00 Inadequately described
    0000 Inadequately described
  09 So described, nfd
    0901 Eurasian, so described
    0902 Asian, so described
    0903 African, so described
    0904 European, so described
    0905 Caucasian, so described
    0906 Creole, so described
& Not stated    
  && Not stated  
    &&&& Not stated
@ Not applicable  
  @@ Not applicable
     @@@@ Not applicable
V Overseas visitor  
  VV Overseas visitor
    VVVV Overseas visitor

Not applicable (@@@@) comprises:

  • Persons who provided a first ancestry but did not provide a second
  • ANC1P not stated

Number of categories: 

  • One-digit level: 13
  • Two-digit level: 42   
  • Four-digit level: 323

Question(s) from the Census form

What is the person’s ancestry?

What is the person’s ancestry?
What is Person 1's ancestry?

Provide up to two ancestries only.

Examples of ‘Other ancestry’: Croatian, Serbian, Filipino, Tamil, Sinhalese, Hmong, Maori, Pitcairn, Australian South Sea Islander.

More information

Person's ancestry

English

Irish

Scottish

Chinese

Italian

German

Aboriginal

Torres Strait Islander

Australian

Other ancestry 1 (please specify)

Other ancestry 2 (please specify)

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: What is the person’s ancestry?
What is Person 1's ancestry?

Provide up to two ancestries only.

Examples of ‘Other ancestry’: Croatian, Serbian, Filipino, Tamil, Sinhalese, Hmong, Maori, Pitcairn, Australian South Sea Islander.

More information

If more than two ancestries apply, provide the two ancestries the person most closely identifies with.

If you are unclear about what ancestry you should include, consider the ethnic or cultural origins of the person's parents and/or grandparents as a guide.

If the person is a Pacific Islander, report their ancestry as accurately as possible, for example, Samoan, Tongan or Cook Islander.

If the person is a descendant of South Sea Islanders brought to Australia as labourers at the turn of the twentieth century, please answer ‘Australian South Sea Islander’.

For ancestries not listed, please select the 'Other ancestry 1 (please specify)' option and enter the name of the ancestry in the box and, if needed, 'Other ancestry 2 (please specify)'.

How this variable is created

The three ancestry variables are created from responses to the ancestry question on the Census form. The allocation of ancestries to the variables ANC1P and ANC2P are administrative only and based on the order in which the responses are processed. These two ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) are combined into one variable, ANCP.

Respondents can select their ancestry by using the mark boxes, and/or the write in response boxes.  The most common ancestry responses from the 2016 Census are the mark box options on the 2021 Census form, with the addition of separate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mark boxes.  Most responses for ancestry are captured in the mark box responses, but overall, the following scenarios apply:

  • Written responses are first coded using a combination of automatic reading and coding. The remaining responses require manual coding.
  • Where respondents report more than two ancestries, only two are processed.
  • Where only one ancestry was provided, ANC2P is recorded as ‘Not applicable’.
  • Ancestry is coded using the ASCCEG. If a response is not listed in the classification, it is coded to 'Inadequately described'.

History and changes

Ancestry was first included as a question in the 1986 Census. The aim of the question was to measure the ethnic composition of the population, but it did not perform as expected for this purpose as there was a high level of subjectivity and lack of clarity about what the question meant. Consequently, ancestry was not included in either the 1991 or 1996 Censuses.

In 2001, the question was asked again with instructions to 'Provide more than one ancestry if necessary', and to consider their parents, grandparents, and great grandparents.

For the 2006 and 2011 Censuses, respondents were asked to mark the ancestries they most closely identified with and to consider their ancestry back as far as two generations (i.e. their parents and grandparents). Respondents were asked to report at least one ancestry, but no more than two ancestries.

For the 2016 Census the format of the ancestry question was revised to provide two distinct text response areas for separate written ancestry responses. This change aimed to clarify responses and improve autocoding rates.

The 2021 Census includes mark boxes for both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander ancestries.  It is expected these additional mark boxes will result in less people checking the ‘Australian’ mark box, and instead choosing to specify Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ancestries. For people completing the Census online and who identify as an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander person, these new response categories will be displayed at the top of the list.

For 2021, the order of the response categories has been updated based on frequency of reporting in the 2016 Census:

  • ‘Italian’ moved from 3rd position to 5th position
  • ‘German’ moved from 5th position to 6th position
  • ‘Chinese’ moved from 6th position to 4th position

As with previous censuses, 'Australian' is placed as the last option for selection - prior to the text entry boxes for 'Other ancestry/s' - to encourage reporting of non-Australian ancestries where relevant.

For 2021, the other examples in the instructional text were updated.

For 2021, Norfolk Islander (code 1105) has been added in the updated classification to capture an ancestry reported by Norfolk Island residents following Norfolk Island’s inclusion in the Australian Census of Population and Housing for the first time in 2016.

Data use considerations

Ancestry can be related to the place a person or their parents or grandparents were born or the cultural group they most identify with. For example, a person may have been born in Australia, but they have Papua New Guinean ancestry. This helps us understand our diverse culture.

To accurately understand ancestry data, both ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) must be used. There are two ancestry variables because Census respondents are able to report up to two ancestries in their response to the question on ancestry. Respondents do not have the option of ranking their answers to the ancestry question, so where a respondent reports two ancestries, they have equal standing. The basis for allocating ancestries to the variables ANC1P and ANC2P is based on the order in which they are processed. These two ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) are combined into one variable, ANCP.

Ethnicity

The ancestry variables provide a self-assessed measure of ethnicity and cultural background, which, when used in conjunction with the person’s and their parents' countries of birth provides a good indication of the ethnic background of first and second generation Australians. Ancestry in the Australian context is complex as there are many Australians with origins and heritage that do not, in practice, relate to their current ethnic identity.  When Ancestry data is used alone, it should only be done to represent a broad measure of cultural diversity.  Ancestry is particularly useful to identify distinct ethnic or cultural groups within Australia such as Maoris or Australian South Sea Islanders, and groups which are spread across countries such as Kurds. Surrogate measures of ethnicity such as country of birth or languages other than English spoken at home, alone cannot identify these groups. This information is useful in developing policies which reflect the needs of our society and for the effective delivery of services to particular ethnic communities.

Ancestry multi response -  counting people or responses

When ANCP is added to a table and all the individual ancestries are summed together, a total count of responses, not people, is produced. This is because each person can provide up to two ancestries. So the total count of responses for all ancestries in Australia exceeds Australia’s total population. However, when using ANCP to look at individual ancestries, the count of responses is also the count of people. This is because respondents can only state a particular ancestry once (either as ANC1P or ANC2P).

Measurement issues

The Ancestry question records all claims of association with ancestries, ethnic origins and cultures.  Whilst some people may respond according to how they may identify with a particular cultural group (subjectively), the intent of the question is to capture the cultural context in which they were raised (objectively).  Multiple responses are encouraged. Responses to the ancestry question are coded to the ASCCEG. The classification is not intended to classify people, but rather all claims of association with an ethnic origin or cultural group, i.e. one ancestry response is not equal to one person. Many people do not relate to a single ethnic origin or cultural group and will give multiple responses to a question on ancestry, ethnicity or cultural identity. The ABS has developed guidelines for the coding, storage and presentation of multiple responses to questions on ancestry, ethnicity or cultural identity data. These guidelines are included in the ASCCEG publication.

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Ancestry 1st response (ANC1P)
  • Ancestry 2nd response (ANC2P)
  • Ancestry one or two response indicator (ANCRP)
  • Birthplace of mother (BPFP)
  • Birthplace of father (BPMP)
  • Indigenous status (INGP)

Other ABS Sources

Data downloads

Ancestry multi response classification

Ancestry one or two response indicator (ANCRP)

Definition

This variable indicates whether a person provided one response or two responses to the ancestry question.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Code Category

1

One response

2

Two responses

&

Not stated

V

Overseas visitor

Number of categories:  4

Question(s) from the Census form

What is the person’s ancestry?

What is the person’s ancestry?
What is Person 1's ancestry?

Provide up to two ancestries only.

Examples of ‘Other ancestry’: Croatian, Serbian, Filipino, Tamil, Sinhalese, Hmong, Maori, Pitcairn, Australian South Sea Islander.

More information

Person's ancestry

English

Irish

Scottish

Chinese

Italian

German

Aboriginal

Torres Strait Islander

Australian

Other ancestry 1 (please specify)

Other ancestry 2 (please specify)

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: What is the person’s ancestry?
What is Person 1's ancestry?

Provide up to two ancestries only.

Examples of ‘Other ancestry’: Croatian, Serbian, Filipino, Tamil, Sinhalese, Hmong, Maori, Pitcairn, Australian South Sea Islander.

More information

If more than two ancestries apply, provide the two ancestries the person most closely identifies with.

If you are unclear about what ancestry you should include, consider the ethnic or cultural origins of the person's parents and/or grandparents as a guide.

If the person is a Pacific Islander, report their ancestry as accurately as possible, for example, Samoan, Tongan or Cook Islander.

If the person is a descendant of South Sea Islanders brought to Australia as labourers at the turn of the twentieth century, please answer ‘Australian South Sea Islander’.

For ancestries not listed, please select the 'Other ancestry 1 (please specify)' option and enter the name of the ancestry in the box and, if needed, 'Other ancestry 2 (please specify)'.

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from responses to the ancestry question. Respondents can provide up to two ancestries. When a respondent reports one ancestry they are coded to ‘One response’ and when a respondent reports two ancestries, they are coded to ‘Two responses’. Where a respondent does not answer the question, they are coded to ‘Not stated’.

History and changes

This is a new variable for 2021.

Data use considerations

This variable allows data users to understand whether a person provided one or two responses to the ancestry question.

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Ancestry multi response (ANCP)
  • Ancestry 1st response (ANC1P)
  • Ancestry 2nd response (ANC2P)

Other ABS Sources

Country of birth of mother (BPFP)

Definition

This variable indicates the country in which a person’s mother was born.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Country of birth of mother is coded using the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page. 

1 Oceania and Antarctica

 1 Oceania and Antarctica
   10 Oceania and Antarctica, nfd
     1000 Oceania and Antarctica, nfd
   11 Australia (includes External Territories)
     1100 Australia (includes External Territories), nfd
     1101 Australia
     1102 Norfolk Island
     1199 Australian External Territories, nec
   12 New Zealand
     1201 New Zealand
   13 Melanesia  
     1300 Melanesia, nfd
     1301 New Caledonia
     1302 Papua New Guinea
     1303 Solomon Islands
     1304 Vanuatu
   14 Micronesia
     1400 Micronesia, nfd
     1401 Guam
     1402 Kiribati
     1403 Marshall Islands
     1404 Micronesia, Federated States of
     1405 Nauru
     1406 Northern Mariana Islands
     1407 Palau
   15 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii)
     1500 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii), nfd
     1501 Cook Islands
     1502 Fiji
     1503 French Polynesia
     1504 Niue
     1505 Samoa
     1506 Samoa, American
     1507 Tokelau
     1508 Tonga
     1511 Tuvalu
     1512 Wallis and Futuna
     1513 Pitcairn Islands
     1599 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii), nec
   16 Antarctica  
     1600 Antarctica, nfd
     1601 Adelie Land (France)
     1602 Argentinian Antarctic Territory
     1603 Australian Antarctic Territory
     1604 British Antarctic Territory
     1605 Chilean Antarctic Territory
     1606 Queen Maud Land (Norway)
     1607 Ross Dependency (New Zealand)

2 North-West Europe

 2 North-West Europe  
   20 North-West Europe, nfd
     2000 North-West Europe, nfd
   21 United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man
     2100 United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man, nfd
     2102 England
     2103 Isle of Man
     2104 Northern Ireland
     2105 Scotland
     2106 Wales
     2107 Guernsey
     2108 Jersey
   22 Ireland  
     2201 Ireland
   23 Western Europe
     2300 Western Europe, nfd
     2301 Austria
     2302 Belgium
     2303 France
     2304 Germany
     2305 Liechtenstein
     2306 Luxembourg
     2307 Monaco
     2308 Netherlands
     2311 Switzerland
   24 Northern Europe
     2400 Northern Europe, nfd
     2401 Denmark
     2402 Faroe Islands
     2403 Finland
     2404 Greenland
     2405 Iceland
     2406 Norway
     2407 Sweden
     2408 Aland Islands

3 Southern and Eastern Europe

 3 Southern and Eastern Europe
   30 Southern and Eastern Europe, nfd
     3000 Southern and Eastern Europe, nfd
   31 Southern Europe
     3100 Southern Europe, nfd
     3101 Andorra
     3102 Gibraltar
     3103 Holy See
     3104 Italy
     3105 Malta
     3106 Portugal
     3107 San Marino
     3108 Spain
   32 South Eastern Europe
     3200 South Eastern Europe, nfd
     3201 Albania
     3202 Bosnia and Herzegovina
     3203 Bulgaria
     3204 Croatia
     3205 Cyprus
     3206 North Macedonia
     3207 Greece
     3208 Moldova
     3211 Romania
     3212 Slovenia
     3214 Montenegro
     3215 Serbia
     3216 Kosovo
   33 Eastern Europe
     3300 Eastern Europe, nfd
     3301 Belarus
     3302 Czechia
     3303 Estonia
     3304 Hungary
     3305 Latvia
     3306 Lithuania
     3307 Poland
     3308 Russian Federation
     3311 Slovakia
     3312 Ukraine

4 North Africa and the Middle East

 4 North Africa and the Middle East
   40 North Africa and the Middle East, nfd
     4000 North Africa and the Middle East, nfd
   41 North Africa
     4100 North Africa, nfd
     4101 Algeria
     4102 Egypt
     4103 Libya
     4104 Morocco
     4105 Sudan
     4106 Tunisia
     4107 Western Sahara
     4108 Spanish North Africa
     4111 South Sudan
   42 Middle East
     4200 Middle East, nfd
     4201 Bahrain
     4202 Gaza Strip and West Bank
     4203 Iran
     4204 Iraq
     4205 Israel
     4206 Jordan
     4207 Kuwait
     4208 Lebanon
     4211 Oman
     4212 Qatar
     4213 Saudi Arabia
     4214 Syria
     4215 Turkey
     4216 United Arab Emirates
     4217 Yemen

5 South-East Asia

 5 South-East Asia  
   50 South-East Asia, nfd
     5000 South-East Asia, nfd
   51 Mainland South-East Asia
     5100 Mainland South-East Asia, nfd
     5101 Myanmar
     5102 Cambodia
     5103 Laos
     5104 Thailand
     5105 Vietnam
   52 Maritime South-East Asia
     5200 Maritime South-East Asia, nfd
     5201 Brunei Darussalam
     5202 Indonesia
     5203 Malaysia
     5204 Philippines
     5205 Singapore
     5206 Timor-Leste

6 North-East Asia

 6 North-East Asia  
   60 North-East Asia, nfd
     6000 North-East Asia, nfd
   61 Chinese Asia (includes Mongolia)
     6100 Chinese Asia (includes Mongolia), nfd
     6101 China (excludes SARs and Taiwan)
     6102 Hong Kong (SAR of China)
     6103 Macau (SAR of China)
     6104 Mongolia
     6105 Taiwan
   62 Japan and the Koreas
     6200 Japan and the Koreas, nfd
     6201 Japan
     6202 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North)
     6203 Korea, Republic of (South)

7 Southern and Central Asia

 7 Southern and Central Asia
   70 Southern and Central Asia, nfd
     7000 Southern and Central Asia, nfd
   71 Southern Asia
     7100 Southern Asia, nfd
     7101 Bangladesh
     7102 Bhutan
     7103 India
     7104 Maldives
     7105 Nepal
     7106 Pakistan
     7107 Sri Lanka
   72 Central Asia
     7200 Central Asia, nfd
     7201 Afghanistan
     7202 Armenia
     7203 Azerbaijan
     7204 Georgia
     7205 Kazakhstan
     7206 Kyrgyzstan
     7207 Tajikistan
     7208 Turkmenistan
     7211 Uzbekistan

8 Americas

 8 Americas    
   80 Americas, nfd
     8000 Americas, nfd
   81 Northern America
     8100 Northern America, nfd
     8101 Bermuda
     8102 Canada
     8103 St Pierre and Miquelon
     8104 United States of America
   82 South America
     8200 South America, nfd
     8201 Argentina
     8202 Bolivia
     8203 Brazil
     8204 Chile
     8205 Colombia
     8206 Ecuador
     8207 Falkland Islands
     8208 French Guiana
     8211 Guyana
     8212 Paraguay
     8213 Peru
     8214 Suriname
     8215 Uruguay
     8216 Venezuela
     8299 South America, nec
   83 Central America
     8300 Central America, nfd
     8301 Belize
     8302 Costa Rica
     8303 El Salvador
     8304 Guatemala
     8305 Honduras
     8306 Mexico
     8307 Nicaragua
     8308 Panama
   84 Caribbean  
     8400 Caribbean, nfd
     8401 Anguilla
     8402 Antigua and Barbuda
     8403 Aruba
     8404 Bahamas
     8405 Barbados
     8406 Cayman Islands
     8407 Cuba
     8408 Dominica
     8411 Dominican Republic
     8412 Grenada
     8413 Guadeloupe
     8414 Haiti
     8415 Jamaica
     8416 Martinique
     8417 Montserrat
     8421 Puerto Rico
     8422 St Kitts and Nevis
     8423 St Lucia
     8424 St Vincent and the Grenadines
     8425 Trinidad and Tobago
     8426 Turks and Caicos Islands
     8427 Virgin Islands, British
     8428 Virgin Islands, United States
     8431 St Barthelemy
     8432 St Martin (French part)
     8433 Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba
     8434 Curacao
     8435 Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

9 Sub-Saharan Africa

 9 Sub-Saharan Africa  
   90 Sub-Saharan Africa, nfd
     9000 Sub-Saharan Africa, nfd
   91 Central and West Africa
     9100 Central and West Africa, nfd
     9101 Benin
     9102 Burkina Faso
     9103 Cameroon
     9104 Cabo Verde
     9105 Central African Republic
     9106 Chad
     9107 Congo, Republic of
     9108 Congo, Democratic Republic of
     9111 Cote d'Ivoire
     9112 Equatorial Guinea
     9113 Gabon
     9114 Gambia
     9115 Ghana
     9116 Guinea
     9117 Guinea-Bissau
     9118 Liberia
     9121 Mali
     9122 Mauritania
     9123 Niger
     9124 Nigeria
     9125 Sao Tome and Principe
     9126 Senegal
     9127 Sierra Leone
     9128 Togo
   92 Southern and East Africa
     9200 Southern and East Africa, nfd
     9201 Angola
     9202 Botswana
     9203 Burundi
     9204 Comoros
     9205 Djibouti
     9206 Eritrea
     9207 Ethiopia
     9208 Kenya
     9211 Lesotho
     9212 Madagascar
     9213 Malawi
     9214 Mauritius
     9215 Mayotte
     9216 Mozambique
     9217 Namibia
     9218 Reunion
     9221 Rwanda
     9222 St Helena
     9223 Seychelles
     9224 Somalia
     9225 South Africa
     9226 Eswatini
     9227 Tanzania
     9228 Uganda
     9231 Zambia
     9232 Zimbabwe
     9299 Southern and East Africa, nec

 Supplementary Codes

0 Supplementary codes
  00 Supplementary codes
     0000 Inadequately described
     0001 At sea
& Not stated  
  && Not stated  
     &&&& Not stated
V Overseas visitor  
  VV Overseas visitor
     VVVV Overseas visitor

Number of categories:

  • One-digit level: 12
  • Two-digit level: 39
  • Four-digit level: 293

Question(s) from the Census form

In which country was the person’s mother born?

In which country was the person’s mother born?
In which country was Person 1's mother born?

If the person does not know their birth mother, and has a second parent, please include the country of birth of the second parent here.

If the person has same-sex parents, include the country of birth of one of the two parents here.

This information is collected from everybody, even children whose parents have already provided their country of birth. This avoids making assumptions about family relationships.

Mother's country of birth

Australia

England

New Zealand

India

Philippines

Vietnam

Italy

Other (please specify)

How this variable is created

Country of birth of mother (BPFP) is a person variable that is created based on the response to country of birth of mother question. On the paper form, respondents may either use a mark box to indicate Australia or write the name of any other country in the text field. On the online form, the question uses a combination of mark boxes for the most frequent responses expected, accompanied by a text field to capture all other responses. The options are ordered based on the relative number of responses received in the 2016 Census.

Any typed country of birth response will also appear as an option for that person’s country of birth of mother.

The majority of responses for country of birth of person are captured automatically from the mark box response. Written responses are coded using a combination of automatic reading and coding processes. The remaining responses require manual coding processes when they cannot be coded or derived automatically.

If a person:

  • uses a former country name, it is coded to the current country name (for example, Siam would be coded to Thailand)
  • has marked Australia and given a text response, the responses are accepted in the order they appear on the form and the extra response is rejected
  • does not answer the question, and a mother has been identified for the family unit on the same Census form, then the mother’s birthplace is coded as the mother’s country of birth, for that respondent.

BPFP is coded using the SACC.  If a response is not listed in the classification, it is coded to 'Inadequately described'.

History and changes

A question relating to BPFP was first asked in the 1921 Census, but not included again until 1971 and has been included in all Australian censuses from 1971.

Prior to the 2001 Census, respondents were asked to write in their mother's birthplace as a text response.

From 2001 to 2011, the question was simplified to a simple mark box with two options for either Australia or Overseas. This was done following the introduction of a question on a person's ancestry.

For the 2016 Census, the question format was changed to again allow respondents to provide details for the country of birth of their mother where it was not Australia. Respondents were asked to use a mark box to respond for Australia, or a text field to specify any other country.

For the first time, the 2021 Census included instructions to provide guidance on situations where the birth parent is unknown and there is a second parent, or the person has same-sex parents.

There have been changes to the SACC for 2021:

  • 3302 'Czech Republic' has been changed to 'Czechia'
  • 9226 'Swaziland' has been changed to 'Eswatini'
  • 3206 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia' has been changed to 'North Macedonia'
  • 2402 spelling of 'Faeroe Islands' has been changed to 'Faroe Islands'

Data use considerations

Data on country of birth provide important information on ethnicity when used with, Ancestry multi response (ANCP), Language used at home (LANP) and Religious affiliation (RELP).

Related variables and glossary terms

Data downloads

Country of birth of mother classification

Country of birth of person (BPLP)

Definition

This variable indicates in which country a person was born.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Country of birth of person is coded using the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page. 

1 Oceania and Antarctica

 1 Oceania and Antarctica
   10 Oceania and Antarctica, nfd
     1000 Oceania and Antarctica, nfd
   11 Australia (includes External Territories)
     1100 Australia (includes External Territories), nfd
     1101 Australia
     1102 Norfolk Island
     1199 Australian External Territories, nec
   12 New Zealand
     1201 New Zealand
   13 Melanesia  
     1300 Melanesia, nfd
     1301 New Caledonia
     1302 Papua New Guinea
     1303 Solomon Islands
     1304 Vanuatu
   14 Micronesia
     1400 Micronesia, nfd
     1401 Guam
     1402 Kiribati
     1403 Marshall Islands
     1404 Micronesia, Federated States of
     1405 Nauru
     1406 Northern Mariana Islands
     1407 Palau
   15 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii)
     1500 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii), nfd
     1501 Cook Islands
     1502 Fiji
     1503 French Polynesia
     1504 Niue
     1505 Samoa
     1506 Samoa, American
     1507 Tokelau
     1508 Tonga
     1511 Tuvalu
     1512 Wallis and Futuna
     1513 Pitcairn Islands
     1599 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii), nec
   16 Antarctica  
     1600 Antarctica, nfd
     1601 Adelie Land (France)
     1602 Argentinian Antarctic Territory
     1603 Australian Antarctic Territory
     1604 British Antarctic Territory
     1605 Chilean Antarctic Territory
     1606 Queen Maud Land (Norway)
     1607 Ross Dependency (New Zealand)

2 North-West Europe

 2 North-West Europe  
   20 North-West Europe, nfd
     2000 North-West Europe, nfd
   21 United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man
     2100 United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man, nfd
     2102 England
     2103 Isle of Man
     2104 Northern Ireland
     2105 Scotland
     2106 Wales
     2107 Guernsey
     2108 Jersey
   22 Ireland  
     2201 Ireland
   23 Western Europe
     2300 Western Europe, nfd
     2301 Austria
     2302 Belgium
     2303 France
     2304 Germany
     2305 Liechtenstein
     2306 Luxembourg
     2307 Monaco
     2308 Netherlands
     2311 Switzerland
   24 Northern Europe
     2400 Northern Europe, nfd
     2401 Denmark
     2402 Faroe Islands
     2403 Finland
     2404 Greenland
     2405 Iceland
     2406 Norway
     2407 Sweden
     2408 Aland Islands

3 Southern and Eastern Europe

 3 Southern and Eastern Europe
   30 Southern and Eastern Europe, nfd
     3000 Southern and Eastern Europe, nfd
   31 Southern Europe
     3100 Southern Europe, nfd
     3101 Andorra
     3102 Gibraltar
     3103 Holy See
     3104 Italy
     3105 Malta
     3106 Portugal
     3107 San Marino
     3108 Spain
   32 South Eastern Europe
     3200 South Eastern Europe, nfd
     3201 Albania
     3202 Bosnia and Herzegovina
     3203 Bulgaria
     3204 Croatia
     3205 Cyprus
     3206 North Macedonia
     3207 Greece
     3208 Moldova
     3211 Romania
     3212 Slovenia
     3214 Montenegro
     3215 Serbia
     3216 Kosovo
   33 Eastern Europe
     3300 Eastern Europe, nfd
     3301 Belarus
     3302 Czechia
     3303 Estonia
     3304 Hungary
     3305 Latvia
     3306 Lithuania
     3307 Poland
     3308 Russian Federation
     3311 Slovakia
     3312 Ukraine

4 North Africa and the Middle East

 4 North Africa and the Middle East
   40 North Africa and the Middle East, nfd
     4000 North Africa and the Middle East, nfd
   41 North Africa
     4100 North Africa, nfd
     4101 Algeria
     4102 Egypt
     4103 Libya
     4104 Morocco
     4105 Sudan
     4106 Tunisia
     4107 Western Sahara
     4108 Spanish North Africa
     4111 South Sudan
   42 Middle East
     4200 Middle East, nfd
     4201 Bahrain
     4202 Gaza Strip and West Bank
     4203 Iran
     4204 Iraq
     4205 Israel
     4206 Jordan
     4207 Kuwait
     4208 Lebanon
     4211 Oman
     4212 Qatar
     4213 Saudi Arabia
     4214 Syria
     4215 Turkey
     4216 United Arab Emirates
     4217 Yemen

5 South-East Asia

 5 South-East Asia  
   50 South-East Asia, nfd
     5000 South-East Asia, nfd
   51 Mainland South-East Asia
     5100 Mainland South-East Asia, nfd
     5101 Myanmar
     5102 Cambodia
     5103 Laos
     5104 Thailand
     5105 Vietnam
   52 Maritime South-East Asia
     5200 Maritime South-East Asia, nfd
     5201 Brunei Darussalam
     5202 Indonesia
     5203 Malaysia
     5204 Philippines
     5205 Singapore
     5206 Timor-Leste

6 North-East Asia

 6 North-East Asia  
   60 North-East Asia, nfd
     6000 North-East Asia, nfd
   61 Chinese Asia (includes Mongolia)
     6100 Chinese Asia (includes Mongolia), nfd
     6101 China (excludes SARs and Taiwan)
     6102 Hong Kong (SAR of China)
     6103 Macau (SAR of China)
     6104 Mongolia
     6105 Taiwan
   62 Japan and the Koreas
     6200 Japan and the Koreas, nfd
     6201 Japan
     6202 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North)
     6203 Korea, Republic of (South)

7 Southern and Central Asia

 7 Southern and Central Asia
   70 Southern and Central Asia, nfd
     7000 Southern and Central Asia, nfd
   71 Southern Asia
     7100 Southern Asia, nfd
     7101 Bangladesh
     7102 Bhutan
     7103 India
     7104 Maldives
     7105 Nepal
     7106 Pakistan
     7107 Sri Lanka
   72 Central Asia
     7200 Central Asia, nfd
     7201 Afghanistan
     7202 Armenia
     7203 Azerbaijan
     7204 Georgia
     7205 Kazakhstan
     7206 Kyrgyzstan
     7207 Tajikistan
     7208 Turkmenistan
     7211 Uzbekistan

8 Americas

 8 Americas    
   80 Americas, nfd
     8000 Americas, nfd
   81 Northern America
     8100 Northern America, nfd
     8101 Bermuda
     8102 Canada
     8103 St Pierre and Miquelon
     8104 United States of America
   82 South America
     8200 South America, nfd
     8201 Argentina
     8202 Bolivia
     8203 Brazil
     8204 Chile
     8205 Colombia
     8206 Ecuador
     8207 Falkland Islands
     8208 French Guiana
     8211 Guyana
     8212 Paraguay
     8213 Peru
     8214 Suriname
     8215 Uruguay
     8216 Venezuela
     8299 South America, nec
   83 Central America
     8300 Central America, nfd
     8301 Belize
     8302 Costa Rica
     8303 El Salvador
     8304 Guatemala
     8305 Honduras
     8306 Mexico
     8307 Nicaragua
     8308 Panama
   84 Caribbean  
     8400 Caribbean, nfd
     8401 Anguilla
     8402 Antigua and Barbuda
     8403 Aruba
     8404 Bahamas
     8405 Barbados
     8406 Cayman Islands
     8407 Cuba
     8408 Dominica
     8411 Dominican Republic
     8412 Grenada
     8413 Guadeloupe
     8414 Haiti
     8415 Jamaica
     8416 Martinique
     8417 Montserrat
     8421 Puerto Rico
     8422 St Kitts and Nevis
     8423 St Lucia
     8424 St Vincent and the Grenadines
     8425 Trinidad and Tobago
     8426 Turks and Caicos Islands
     8427 Virgin Islands, British
     8428 Virgin Islands, United States
     8431 St Barthelemy
     8432 St Martin (French part)
     8433 Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba
     8434 Curacao
     8435 Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

9 Sub-Saharan Africa

 9 Sub-Saharan Africa  
   90 Sub-Saharan Africa, nfd
     9000 Sub-Saharan Africa, nfd
   91 Central and West Africa
     9100 Central and West Africa, nfd
     9101 Benin
     9102 Burkina Faso
     9103 Cameroon
     9104 Cabo Verde
     9105 Central African Republic
     9106 Chad
     9107 Congo, Republic of
     9108 Congo, Democratic Republic of
     9111 Cote d'Ivoire
     9112 Equatorial Guinea
     9113 Gabon
     9114 Gambia
     9115 Ghana
     9116 Guinea
     9117 Guinea-Bissau
     9118 Liberia
     9121 Mali
     9122 Mauritania
     9123 Niger
     9124 Nigeria
     9125 Sao Tome and Principe
     9126 Senegal
     9127 Sierra Leone
     9128 Togo
   92 Southern and East Africa
     9200 Southern and East Africa, nfd
     9201 Angola
     9202 Botswana
     9203 Burundi
     9204 Comoros
     9205 Djibouti
     9206 Eritrea
     9207 Ethiopia
     9208 Kenya
     9211 Lesotho
     9212 Madagascar
     9213 Malawi
     9214 Mauritius
     9215 Mayotte
     9216 Mozambique
     9217 Namibia
     9218 Reunion
     9221 Rwanda
     9222 St Helena
     9223 Seychelles
     9224 Somalia
     9225 South Africa
     9226 Eswatini
     9227 Tanzania
     9228 Uganda
     9231 Zambia
     9232 Zimbabwe
     9299 Southern and East Africa, nec

Supplementary Codes

0 Supplementary codes
  00 Supplementary codes
     0000 Inadequately described
     0001 At sea
& Not stated  
  && Not stated  
     &&&& Not stated
V Overseas visitor  
  VV Overseas visitor
     VVVV Overseas visitor

Number of categories:

  • One-digit level: 12
  • Two-digit level: 39  
  • Four-digit level: 293

Question(s) from the Census form

In which country was the person born?

In which country was the person born?
In which country was Person 1 born?

The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

Person's country of birth

Australia

England

New Zealand

India

Philippines

Vietnam

Italy

Other (please specify)

Example

Example response to: In which country was the person born? England response selected.
In which country was Person 1 born?

The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

Person's country of birth

Australia

England (selected response)

New Zealand

India

Philippines

Vietnam

Italy

Other (please specify)

Example 2

Example response to: In which country was the person born? Australia response selected.
In which country was Person 1 born?

The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

Person's country of birth

Australia (selected response)

England

New Zealand

India

Philippines

Vietnam

Italy

Other (please specify)

Arrival in Australia
This question does not apply, based on your answer to the Country of Birth question.

How this variable is created

This variable is created based on the response to the country of birth of person question. Respondents may either use a mark box to indicate the country of birth or write the name of the country in the text field.

The majority of responses for country of birth of person are captured automatically from the mark box response. Written responses are coded using a combination of automatic reading and coding processes. The remaining responses require manual coding processes when they cannot be coded or derived automatically.

If a person:

  • uses a former country name, it is coded to the current country name (for example, Siam would be coded to Thailand)
  • has marked Australia and given a text response, the responses are accepted in the order they appear on the form and the extra response is rejected

In a small number of cases where country of birth is not stated, the category 'Born in Australia' is derived. This occurs when the person's father or mother was counted in the same dwelling and reported that they were born in Australia. If insufficient information was provided to derive a country response category, it remains as ‘Not stated’.

Country of birth is coded using the SACC. If a response is not listed in the classification, it is coded to 'Inadequately described'.

History and changes

This variable was first reported in 1911, and prior to 2006, it was referred to as 'Birthplace' rather than 'Country of birth'.

For 2021, the order of the response categories has been updated to reflect the most common answers from the 2016 Census:

  • ‘Philippines’ moved from 7th to 5th position
  • ‘Italy’ moved from 5th to 7th position.

Although China is a country in which a large proportion of Australia's population were born, China does not have a response category on the form. This is to allow people to write in:

  • China
  • Hong Kong
  • Macau, or
  • Taiwan.

There have been changes to the SACC for 2021:

  • 3302 'Czech Republic' has been changed to 'Czechia'
  • 9226 'Swaziland' has been changed to 'Eswatini'
  • 3206 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia' has been changed to 'North Macedonia'
  • 2402 spelling of 'Faeroe Islands' has been changed to 'Faroe Islands'.

Data use considerations

The measurement of the ethnic and cultural diversity of the Australian population, and the degree to which Australians retain their ethnic and cultural identity, is primarily based on the use of a number of Census variables related to a person's origin, including:

  • Ancestry multi response (ANCP)
  • Language used at home (LANP)
  • Religious affiliation (RELP)

Related variables and glossary terms

Data downloads

Country of birth of person classification

Country of birth of father (BPMP)

Definition

This variable indicates the country of birth of each person's father.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Country of birth of father is coded using the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page. 

1 Oceania and Antarctica

 1 Oceania and Antarctica
   10 Oceania and Antarctica, nfd
     1000 Oceania and Antarctica, nfd
   11 Australia (includes External Territories)
     1100 Australia (includes External Territories), nfd
     1101 Australia
     1102 Norfolk Island
     1199 Australian External Territories, nec
   12 New Zealand
     1201 New Zealand
   13 Melanesia  
     1300 Melanesia, nfd
     1301 New Caledonia
     1302 Papua New Guinea
     1303 Solomon Islands
     1304 Vanuatu
   14 Micronesia
     1400 Micronesia, nfd
     1401 Guam
     1402 Kiribati
     1403 Marshall Islands
     1404 Micronesia, Federated States of
     1405 Nauru
     1406 Northern Mariana Islands
     1407 Palau
   15 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii)
     1500 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii), nfd
     1501 Cook Islands
     1502 Fiji
     1503 French Polynesia
     1504 Niue
     1505 Samoa
     1506 Samoa, American
     1507 Tokelau
     1508 Tonga
     1511 Tuvalu
     1512 Wallis and Futuna
     1513 Pitcairn Islands
     1599 Polynesia (excludes Hawaii), nec
   16 Antarctica  
     1600 Antarctica, nfd
     1601 Adelie Land (France)
     1602 Argentinian Antarctic Territory
     1603 Australian Antarctic Territory
     1604 British Antarctic Territory
     1605 Chilean Antarctic Territory
     1606 Queen Maud Land (Norway)
     1607 Ross Dependency (New Zealand)

2 North-West Europe

 2 North-West Europe  
   20 North-West Europe, nfd
     2000 North-West Europe, nfd
   21 United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man
     2100 United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man, nfd
     2102 England
     2103 Isle of Man
     2104 Northern Ireland
     2105 Scotland
     2106 Wales
     2107 Guernsey
     2108 Jersey
   22 Ireland  
     2201 Ireland
   23 Western Europe
     2300 Western Europe, nfd
     2301 Austria
     2302 Belgium
     2303 France
     2304 Germany
     2305 Liechtenstein
     2306 Luxembourg
     2307 Monaco
     2308 Netherlands
     2311 Switzerland
   24 Northern Europe
     2400 Northern Europe, nfd
     2401 Denmark
     2402 Faroe Islands
     2403 Finland
     2404 Greenland
     2405 Iceland
     2406 Norway
     2407 Sweden
     2408 Aland Islands

3 Southern and Eastern Europe

 3 Southern and Eastern Europe
   30 Southern and Eastern Europe, nfd
     3000 Southern and Eastern Europe, nfd
   31 Southern Europe
     3100 Southern Europe, nfd
     3101 Andorra
     3102 Gibraltar
     3103 Holy See
     3104 Italy
     3105 Malta
     3106 Portugal
     3107 San Marino
     3108 Spain
   32 South Eastern Europe
     3200 South Eastern Europe, nfd
     3201 Albania
     3202 Bosnia and Herzegovina
     3203 Bulgaria
     3204 Croatia
     3205 Cyprus
     3206 North Macedonia
     3207 Greece
     3208 Moldova
     3211 Romania
     3212 Slovenia
     3214 Montenegro
     3215 Serbia
     3216 Kosovo
   33 Eastern Europe
     3300 Eastern Europe, nfd
     3301 Belarus
     3302 Czechia
     3303 Estonia
     3304 Hungary
     3305 Latvia
     3306 Lithuania
     3307 Poland
     3308 Russian Federation
     3311 Slovakia
     3312 Ukraine

4 North Africa and the Middle East

 4 North Africa and the Middle East
   40 North Africa and the Middle East, nfd
     4000 North Africa and the Middle East, nfd
   41 North Africa
     4100 North Africa, nfd
     4101 Algeria
     4102 Egypt
     4103 Libya
     4104 Morocco
     4105 Sudan
     4106 Tunisia
     4107 Western Sahara
     4108 Spanish North Africa
     4111 South Sudan
   42 Middle East
     4200 Middle East, nfd
     4201 Bahrain
     4202 Gaza Strip and West Bank
     4203 Iran
     4204 Iraq
     4205 Israel
     4206 Jordan
     4207 Kuwait
     4208 Lebanon
     4211 Oman
     4212 Qatar
     4213 Saudi Arabia
     4214 Syria
     4215 Turkey
     4216 United Arab Emirates
     4217 Yemen

5 South-East Asia

 5 South-East Asia  
   50 South-East Asia, nfd
     5000 South-East Asia, nfd
   51 Mainland South-East Asia
     5100 Mainland South-East Asia, nfd
     5101 Myanmar
     5102 Cambodia
     5103 Laos
     5104 Thailand
     5105 Vietnam
   52 Maritime South-East Asia
     5200 Maritime South-East Asia, nfd
     5201 Brunei Darussalam
     5202 Indonesia
     5203 Malaysia
     5204 Philippines
     5205 Singapore
     5206 Timor-Leste

6 North-East Asia

 6 North-East Asia  
   60 North-East Asia, nfd
     6000 North-East Asia, nfd
   61 Chinese Asia (includes Mongolia)
     6100 Chinese Asia (includes Mongolia), nfd
     6101 China (excludes SARs and Taiwan)
     6102 Hong Kong (SAR of China)
     6103 Macau (SAR of China)
     6104 Mongolia
     6105 Taiwan
   62 Japan and the Koreas
     6200 Japan and the Koreas, nfd
     6201 Japan
     6202 Korea, Democratic People's Republic of (North)
     6203 Korea, Republic of (South)

7 Southern and Central Asia

 7 Southern and Central Asia
   70 Southern and Central Asia, nfd
     7000 Southern and Central Asia, nfd
   71 Southern Asia
     7100 Southern Asia, nfd
     7101 Bangladesh
     7102 Bhutan
     7103 India
     7104 Maldives
     7105 Nepal
     7106 Pakistan
     7107 Sri Lanka
   72 Central Asia
     7200 Central Asia, nfd
     7201 Afghanistan
     7202 Armenia
     7203 Azerbaijan
     7204 Georgia
     7205 Kazakhstan
     7206 Kyrgyzstan
     7207 Tajikistan
     7208 Turkmenistan
     7211 Uzbekistan

8 Americas

 8 Americas    
   80 Americas, nfd
     8000 Americas, nfd
   81 Northern America
     8100 Northern America, nfd
     8101 Bermuda
     8102 Canada
     8103 St Pierre and Miquelon
     8104 United States of America
   82 South America
     8200 South America, nfd
     8201 Argentina
     8202 Bolivia
     8203 Brazil
     8204 Chile
     8205 Colombia
     8206 Ecuador
     8207 Falkland Islands
     8208 French Guiana
     8211 Guyana
     8212 Paraguay
     8213 Peru
     8214 Suriname
     8215 Uruguay
     8216 Venezuela
     8299 South America, nec
   83 Central America
     8300 Central America, nfd
     8301 Belize
     8302 Costa Rica
     8303 El Salvador
     8304 Guatemala
     8305 Honduras
     8306 Mexico
     8307 Nicaragua
     8308 Panama
   84 Caribbean  
     8400 Caribbean, nfd
     8401 Anguilla
     8402 Antigua and Barbuda
     8403 Aruba
     8404 Bahamas
     8405 Barbados
     8406 Cayman Islands
     8407 Cuba
     8408 Dominica
     8411 Dominican Republic
     8412 Grenada
     8413 Guadeloupe
     8414 Haiti
     8415 Jamaica
     8416 Martinique
     8417 Montserrat
     8421 Puerto Rico
     8422 St Kitts and Nevis
     8423 St Lucia
     8424 St Vincent and the Grenadines
     8425 Trinidad and Tobago
     8426 Turks and Caicos Islands
     8427 Virgin Islands, British
     8428 Virgin Islands, United States
     8431 St Barthelemy
     8432 St Martin (French part)
     8433 Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba
     8434 Curacao
     8435 Sint Maarten (Dutch part)

9 Sub-Saharan Africa

 9 Sub-Saharan Africa  
   90 Sub-Saharan Africa, nfd
     9000 Sub-Saharan Africa, nfd
   91 Central and West Africa
     9100 Central and West Africa, nfd
     9101 Benin
     9102 Burkina Faso
     9103 Cameroon
     9104 Cabo Verde
     9105 Central African Republic
     9106 Chad
     9107 Congo, Republic of
     9108 Congo, Democratic Republic of
     9111 Cote d'Ivoire
     9112 Equatorial Guinea
     9113 Gabon
     9114 Gambia
     9115 Ghana
     9116 Guinea
     9117 Guinea-Bissau
     9118 Liberia
     9121 Mali
     9122 Mauritania
     9123 Niger
     9124 Nigeria
     9125 Sao Tome and Principe
     9126 Senegal
     9127 Sierra Leone
     9128 Togo
   92 Southern and East Africa
     9200 Southern and East Africa, nfd
     9201 Angola
     9202 Botswana
     9203 Burundi
     9204 Comoros
     9205 Djibouti
     9206 Eritrea
     9207 Ethiopia
     9208 Kenya
     9211 Lesotho
     9212 Madagascar
     9213 Malawi
     9214 Mauritius
     9215 Mayotte
     9216 Mozambique
     9217 Namibia
     9218 Reunion
     9221 Rwanda
     9222 St Helena
     9223 Seychelles
     9224 Somalia
     9225 South Africa
     9226 Eswatini
     9227 Tanzania
     9228 Uganda
     9231 Zambia
     9232 Zimbabwe
     9299 Southern and East Africa, nec

 Supplementary Codes

0 Supplementary codes
  00 Supplementary codes
     0000 Inadequately described
     0001 At sea
& Not stated  
  && Not stated  
     &&&& Not stated
V Overseas visitor  
  VV Overseas visitor
     VVVV Overseas visitor

Number of categories:

  • One-digit level: 12
  • Two-digit level: 39  
  • Four-digit level: 293

Question(s) from the Census form

In which country was the person’s father born?

In which country was the person’s father born?
In which country was Person 1's father born?

If the person does not know their birth father, and has a second parent, please include the country of birth of the second parent here.

If the person has same-sex parents, include the country of birth of one of the two parents here.

This information is collected from everybody, even children whose parents have already provided their country of birth. This avoids making assumptions about family relationships.

Father's country of birth

Australia

England

New Zealand

India

Philippines

Vietnam

Italy

Other (please specify)

How this variable is created

Country of birth of father (BPMP) is a person variable that is created based on the response to country of birth of father question. On the paper form, respondents may either use a mark box to indicate Australia or write the name of any other country in the text field. On the online form, the question uses a combination of mark boxes for the most frequent responses expected, accompanied by a text field to capture all other responses. The options are ordered based on the relative number of responses received in the 2016 Census.

Any typed country of birth response will also appear as an option for that person’s country of birth of father.

The majority of responses for country of birth of person are captured automatically from the mark box response. Written responses are coded using a combination of automatic reading and coding processes. The remaining responses require manual coding processes when they cannot be coded or derived automatically.

If a person:

  • uses a former country name, it is coded to the current country name (for example, Siam would be coded to Thailand)
  • has marked Australia and given a text response, the responses are accepted in the order they appear on the form and the extra response is rejected
  • does not answer the question, and a father has been identified for the family unit on the same Census form, then the father's birthplace is coded as the father's country of birth, for that respondent.

BPMP is coded using the SACC. If a response is not listed in the classification, it is coded to 'Inadequately described'.

History and changes

A question relating to BPMP was first asked in the 1921 Census, but not included again until 1971. It has been included in all Australian Censuses from 1971.

Prior to the 2001 Census, respondents were asked to write in their father's birthplace as a text response.

From 2001 to 2011, the question was simplified to a simple mark box with two options for either Australia or Overseas. This was done following the introduction of a question on a person's ancestry.

For the 2016 Census, the question format was changed to again allow respondents to provide details for the country of birth of their father where it was not Australia. Respondents were asked to use a mark box to respond for Australia, or a text field to specify any other country.

For the first time, the 2021 Census included instructions to provide guidance on situations where the birth parent is unknown and there is a second parent, or the person has same-sex parents.

There have been changes to the SACC for 2021:

  • 3302 'Czech Republic' has been changed to 'Czechia'
  • 9226 'Swaziland' has been changed to 'Eswatini'
  • 3206 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia' has been changed to 'North Macedonia'
  • 2402 spelling of 'Faeroe Islands' has been changed to 'Faroe Islands'

Data use considerations

Data on country of birth provide important information on ethnicity when used with Ancestry multi response (ANCP), Language used at home (LANP) and Religious affiliation (RELP).

Related variables and glossary terms

Data downloads

Country of birth of father classification

Country of birth of parents (BPPP)

Definition

This variable indicates if a person's father and/or mother was born in Australia or overseas. It combines responses for Country of birth of mother (BPFP) and Country of birth father (BPMP) to identify the country of birth of a person’s parents (Country of birth of parents, BPPP).

The data gained from this variable, together with Country of birth of person (BPLP), allows the study of first-generation and second-generation Australians.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Code Category

1

Both parents born overseas

2

Father only born overseas

3

Mother only born overseas

4

Both parents born in Australia

&

Not stated – birthplace for either or both parents not stated

V

Overseas visitor

Number of categories: 6

Question(s) from the Census form

In which country was the person’s father born?

In which country was the person’s father born?
In which country was Person 1's father born?

If the person does not know their birth father, and has a second parent, please include the country of birth of the second parent here.

If the person has same-sex parents, include the country of birth of one of the two parents here.

This information is collected from everybody, even children whose parents have already provided their country of birth. This avoids making assumptions about family relationships.

Father's country of birth

Australia

England

New Zealand

India

Philippines

Vietnam

Italy

Other (please specify)

In which country was the person’s mother born?

In which country was the person’s mother born?
In which country was Person 1's mother born?

If the person does not know their birth mother, and has a second parent, please include the country of birth of the second parent here.

If the person has same-sex parents, include the country of birth of one of the two parents here.

This information is collected from everybody, even children whose parents have already provided their country of birth. This avoids making assumptions about family relationships.

Mother's country of birth

Australia

England

New Zealand

India

Philippines

Vietnam

Italy

Other (please specify)

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from responses for BPFP and BPMP. Responses are captured automatically from mark boxes and text responses on the form.

If a person has a 'Not stated' response for their father and/or mother’s country of birth, then BPPP is coded to 'Not stated'.’

History and changes

The two questions used to derive this variable were first asked in the 1921 Census, but not asked again until 1971. Since then, they have been asked in every Census.

Until 2001, the question asked people to write in their parents’ birthplaces. In the 2001 Census a question was also asked on ancestry. As a result, for the 2001-2011 Censuses the country of birth of parents response categories were changed to ask whether a person’s parents were born in Australia or overseas rather than collect detail on the parents’ overseas birthplaces.

For 2016 the name of the variable changed from 'Birthplace of parents' to 'Country of birth of parents'. After consultation with key data users, the question responses changed to again ask the specific birthplace of parents where it is not Australia.

No changes have been made for 2021.

Data use considerations

The questions used to derive BPPP (Country of birth of mother and Country of birth of father) changed in 2016. In 2011 both items only asked if a person's mother and father were born in Australia or overseas, whereas since 2016 the specific country of birth is asked for both parents.

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Country of birth of mother (BPFP)
  • Country of birth of person (BPLP)
  • Country of birth of father (BPMP)

Other ABS Sources

Australian citizenship (CITP)

Definition

This variable records whether a person has Australian citizenship. The data is used to understand the tendency of different migrant groups to take up citizenship and to measure the size of the groups eligible to vote.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Code Category

1

Australian citizen

2

Not an Australian citizen

&

Not stated

V

Overseas visitor

Number of categories: 4

Question(s) from the Census form

Is the person an Australian citizen?

Is the person an Australian citizen?
Is Person 1 an Australian citizen?

If the person holds dual citizenship and one is Australian, select ‘Yes, Australian citizen’.

Person's Australian citizenship

Yes, Australian citizen

No

How this variable is created

This variable is created from responses to the Australian citizen question. The responses are captured automatically from mark box responses so the risk of processing error is minimal. Respondents are asked to mark only one response. When respondents provide more than one, responses are accepted in the order they appeared on the form and the extra response is rejected.

History and changes

A question on national citizenship has been asked on every Census since 1911. However, prior to 1986 the specific question wording asked to specify country of citizenship or their 'nationality' rather than ask if they were an Australian citizen.

For 2021 the category labels have been updated:

  • Category 1 has changed from 'Australian' to 'Australian citizen'
  • Category 2 has changed from 'Not Australian' to 'Not an Australian citizen'

Data use considerations

CITP data is useful when cross-classified with Country of birth of person (BPLP), Year of arrival in Australia (YARP) and Age (AGEP) data.

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Age (AGEP)
  • County of birth of person (BPLP)
  • Year of arrival in Australia (YARP)

Proficiency in spoken English (ENGLP)

Definition

This variable classifies a person's self-assessed proficiency in spoken English where they have identified they use a main language other than English at home (LANP). While people who use English only at home are included in this variable as a distinct category, they are not included in categories 2 to 5 which is the self-assessed ability in spoken English.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Code Category

1

Speaks English only

2

Uses other language and speaks English: Very well

3

Uses other language and speaks English: Well

4

Uses other language and speaks English: Not well

5

Uses other language and speaks English: Not at all

6

Not stated - both language (LANP) and proficiency in spoken English not stated

&

Not stated - language (LANP) stated, proficiency in spoken English not stated

V

Overseas visitor

Number of categories: 8

Question(s) from the Census form

Does the person use a language other than English at home?

Does the person use a language other than English at home?
Does Person 1 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

Include use of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box.

More information

Person's language at home

No, English only

Yes, Mandarin

Yes, Arabic

Yes, Cantonese

Yes, Vietnamese

Yes, Italian

Yes, Greek

Yes, other (please specify)

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: Does the person use a language other than English at home?
Does Person 1 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

Include use of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box.

More information

If the person uses only English at home, select 'No, English only', even if they can speak another language.

If the person lives alone, answer with the language they most commonly use with visitors in their home.

The languages listed were the most commonly reported languages spoken at home, other than English in the 2016 Census.

For a language not listed, please select the 'Yes, other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the language in the box.

For people who cannot speak, or if the person is too young to speak, record 'Not able to speak' in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box for this question.

How well does the person speak English?

How well does the person speak English?
How well does Person 1 speak English?

Leave this question blank for people who cannot speak, or if the person is too young to speak.

Person's English ability

Very well

Well

Not well

Not at all

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from the responses to two questions on the 2021 Census.

Speaks English only

Where respondents mark that they use English only at home, they are coded to category 1, 'Speaks English only'.

Uses other language

The remainder of respondents who do use a language other than English at home are asked, 'How well does the person speak English?'. Responses to this question are captured automatically from mark box responses on the form so the risk of processing error is minimal. Respondents are asked only to mark one response. These responses are output in categories 2 to 5. Where an incorrect number of responses is provided, responses are accepted in the order they appeared on the form and the extra responses are rejected.

Not Stated

Where a respondent marks that they do use a language other than English at home but does not answer the 'How well does the person speak English?' question, they are coded to category &, 'Not stated - language (LANP) stated, proficiency in spoken English not stated'. 

Where a respondent does not answer the Language used at home question and the proficiency in spoken English question, they are coded to category 6, 'Not stated - both language (LANP) and proficiency in spoken English not stated'.

History and changes

A question relating to proficiency in spoken English/Language (ENGLP) was first asked in 1981. Prior to this, some censuses had also asked what languages were regularly used.

For 2021, the variable name changed from 'Proficiency in spoken English/language' to 'Proficiency in spoken English'.

For 2021, some category labels have been updated:

  • Categories 2 to 5 changed from 'Speaks other languages and speaks English' to 'Uses other language and speaks English'
  • Not stated categories 6 and & have had references to 'ENGP' removed.

Data use considerations

This variable is used to understand how well people can speak English, when they use a language at home that is not English. It is useful in planning and providing multilingual services.

2016 variables

In 2016 there were two output variables relating to proficiency in spoken English:

  • Proficiency in spoken English (ENGP)
  • Proficiency in spoken English/Language (ENGLP)

The ENGP variable was only applicable to those who used a language other than English or who did not state a language, whereas ENGLP was applicable to all persons. This difference caused confusion for users.

ENGP has been removed for the 2021 Census to avoid data misuse. ENGLP will be output for 2021, however the name of the variable has been changed to 'Proficiency in spoken English'.

Measurement issues

Responses to the question on proficiency in English are subjective. For example, one respondent may consider that a response of 'Well' is appropriate if they can communicate well enough to do the shopping, while another respondent may consider such a response appropriate only for people who can hold a social conversation. Proficiency in spoken English should be regarded as an indicator of a person's ability to speak English rather than a definitive measure of their ability and should be interpreted with care.

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Language Spoken at Home (LANP)

Other ABS Sources

Language used at home (LANP)

Definition

This variable identifies whether a person uses a language other than English at home and if so, records the main non-English language which is used. The purpose of this variable is to identify the main languages other than English which are used in households across Australia.

Scope

All persons

Categories

Language used at home (LANP) is classified using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL), 2016. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page.

1 Northern European Languages

 1 Northern European Languages    
   10 Northern European Languages, nfd  
        1000 Northern European Languages, nfd
   11 Celtic      
        1100 Celtic, nfd
        1101 Gaelic (Scotland)
        1102 Irish
        1103 Welsh
        1199 Celtic, nec
   12 English      
        1201 English
   13 German and Related Languages  
        1300 German and Related Languages, nfd
        1301 German
        1302 Letzeburgish
        1303 Yiddish
   14 Dutch and Related Languages  
        1400 Dutch and Related Languages, nfd
        1401 Dutch
        1402 Frisian
        1403 Afrikaans
   15 Scandinavian      
        1500 Scandinavian, nfd
        1501 Danish
        1502 Icelandic
        1503 Norwegian
        1504 Swedish
        1599 Scandinavian, nec
   16 Finnish and Related Languages  
        1600 Finnish and Related Languages, nfd
        1601 Estonian
        1602 Finnish
        1699 Finnish and Related Languages, nec

2 Southern European Languages

 2 Southern European Languages    
   20 Southern European Languages, nfd  
        2000 Southern European Languages, nfd
   21 French      
        2101 French
   22 Greek      
        2201 Greek
   23 Iberian Romance    
        2300 Iberian Romance, nfd
        2301 Catalan
        2302 Portuguese
        2303 Spanish
        2399 Iberian Romance, nec
   24 Italian      
        2401 Italian
   25 Maltese      
        2501 Maltese
   29 Other Southern European Languages
        2900 Other Southern European Languages, nfd
        2901 Basque
        2902 Latin
        2999 Other Southern European Languages, nec

3 Eastern European Languages

 3 Eastern European Languages      
   30 Eastern European Languages, nfd  
        3000 Eastern European Languages, nfd
   31 Baltic      
        3100 Baltic, nfd
        3101 Latvian
        3102 Lithuanian
   33 Hungarian      
        3301 Hungarian
   34 East Slavic      
        3400 East Slavic, nfd
        3401 Belorussian
        3402 Russian
        3403 Ukrainian
   35 South Slavic      
        3500 South Slavic, nfd
        3501 Bosnian
        3502 Bulgarian
        3503 Croatian
        3504 Macedonian
        3505 Serbian
        3506 Slovene
        3507 Serbo-Croatian/Yugoslavian, so described
   36 West Slavic      
        3600 West Slavic, nfd
        3601 Czech
        3602 Polish
        3603 Slovak
        3604 Czechoslovakian, so described
   39 Other Eastern European Languages  
        3900 Other Eastern European Languages, nfd
        3901 Albanian
        3903 Aromunian (Macedo-Romanian)
        3904 Romanian
        3905 Romany
        3999 Other Eastern European Languages, nec

4 Southwest and Central Asian Languages

 4 Southwest and Central Asian Languages    
   40 Southwest and Central Asian Languages, nfd
        4000 Southwest and Central Asian Languages, nfd
   41 Iranic      
        4100 Iranic, nfd
        4101 Kurdish
        4102 Pashto
        4104 Balochi
        4105 Dari
        4106 Persian (excluding Dari)
        4107 Hazaraghi
        4199 Iranic, nec
   42 Middle Eastern Semitic Languages  
        4200 Middle Eastern Semitic Languages, nfd
        4202 Arabic
        4204 Hebrew
        4206 Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
        4207 Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
        4208 Mandaean (Mandaic)
        4299 Middle Eastern Semitic Languages, nec
   43 Turkic      
        4300 Turkic, nfd
        4301 Turkish
        4302 Azeri
        4303 Tatar
        4304 Turkmen
        4305 Uygur
        4306 Uzbek
        4399 Turkic, nec
   49 Other Southwest and Central Asian Languages
        4900 Other Southwest and Central Asian Languages, nfd
        4901 Armenian
        4902 Georgian
        4999 Other Southwest and Central Asian Languages, nec

5 Southern Asian Languages

 5 Southern Asian Languages      
   50 Southern Asian Languages, nfd  
        5000 Southern Asian Languages, nfd
   51 Dravidian      
        5100 Dravidian, nfd
        5101 Kannada
        5102 Malayalam
        5103 Tamil
        5104 Telugu
        5105 Tulu
        5199 Dravidian, nec
   52 Indo-Aryan      
        5200 Indo-Aryan, nfd
        5201 Bengali
        5202 Gujarati
        5203 Hindi
        5204 Konkani
        5205 Marathi
        5206 Nepali
        5207 Punjabi
        5208 Sindhi
        5211 Sinhalese
        5212 Urdu
        5213 Assamese
        5214 Dhivehi
        5215 Kashmiri
        5216 Oriya
        5217 Fijian Hindustani
        5299 Indo-Aryan, nec
   59 Other Southern Asian Languages  
        5999 Other Southern Asian Languages

6 Southeast Asian Languages

 6 Southeast Asian Languages      
   60 Southeast Asian Languages, nfd  
        6000 Southeast Asian Languages, nfd
   61 Burmese and Related Languages  
        6100 Burmese and Related Languages, nfd
        6101 Burmese
        6102 Chin Haka
        6103 Karen
        6104 Rohingya
        6105 Zomi
        6199 Burmese and Related Languages, nec
   62 Hmong-Mien      
        6200 Hmong-Mien, nfd
        6201 Hmong
        6299 Hmong-Mien, nec
   63 Mon-Khmer      
        6300 Mon-Khmer, nfd
        6301 Khmer
        6302 Vietnamese
        6303 Mon
        6399 Mon-Khmer, nec
   64 Tai      
        6400 Tai, nfd
        6401 Lao
        6402 Thai
        6499 Tai, nec
   65 Southeast Asian Austronesian Languages
        6500 Southeast Asian Austronesian Languages, nfd
        6501 Bisaya
        6502 Cebuano
        6503 Ilokano
        6504 Indonesian
        6505 Malay
        6507 Tetum
        6508 Timorese
        6511 Tagalog
        6512 Filipino
        6513 Acehnese
        6514 Balinese
        6515 Bikol
        6516 Iban
        6517 Ilonggo (Hiligaynon)
        6518 Javanese
        6521 Pampangan
        6599 Southeast Asian Austronesian Languages, nec
   69 Other Southeast Asian Languages  
        6999 Other Southeast Asian Languages

7 Eastern Asian Languages

 7 Eastern Asian Languages      
   70 Eastern Asian Languages, nfd  
        7000 Eastern Asian Languages, nfd
   71 Chinese      
        7100 Chinese, nfd
        7101 Cantonese
        7102 Hakka
        7104 Mandarin
        7106 Wu
        7107 Min Nan
        7199 Chinese, nec
   72 Japanese      
        7201 Japanese
   73 Korean      
        7301 Korean
   79 Other Eastern Asian Languages  
        7900 Other Eastern Asian Languages, nfd
        7901 Tibetan
        7902 Mongolian
        7999 Other Eastern Asian Languages, nec

8 Australian Indigenous Languages

 8 Australian Indigenous Languages    
   80 Australian Indigenous Languages, nfd
        8000 Australian Indigenous Languages, nfd
   81 Arnhem Land and Daly River Region Languages
        8100 Arnhem Land and Daly River Region Languages, nfd
        8101 Anindilyakwa
        8111 Maung
        8113 Ngan'gikurunggurr
        8114 Nunggubuyu
        8115 Rembarrnga
        8117 Tiwi
        8121 Alawa
        8122 Dalabon
        8123 Gudanji
        8127 Iwaidja
        8128 Jaminjung
        8131 Jawoyn
        8132 Jingulu
        8133 Kunbarlang
        8136 Larrakiya
        8137 Malak Malak
        8138 Mangarrayi
        8141 Maringarr
        8142 Marra
        8143 Marrithiyel
        8144 Matngala
        8146 Murrinh Patha
        8147 Na-kara
        8148 Ndjebbana (Gunavidji)
        8151 Ngalakgan
        8152 Ngaliwurru
        8153 Nungali
        8154 Wambaya
        8155 Wardaman
        8156 Amurdak
        8157 Garrwa
        8158 Kuwema
        8161 Marramaninyshi
        8162 Ngandi
        8163 Waanyi
        8164 Wagiman
        8165 Yanyuwa
        8166 Marridan (Maridan)
    817 Kunwinjkuan  
        8170 Kunwinjkuan, nfd
        8171 Gundjeihmi
        8172 Kune
        8173 Kuninjku
        8174 Kunwinjku
        8175 Mayali
        8179 Kunwinjkuan, nec
    818 Burarran    
        8180 Burarran, nfd
        8181 Burarra
        8182 Gun-nartpa
        8183 Gurr-goni
        8189 Burarran, nec
        8199 Arnhem Land and Daly River Region Languages, nec
   82 Yolngu Matha      
        8200 Yolngu Matha, nfd
    821 Dhangu    
        8210 Dhangu, nfd
        8211 Galpu
        8212 Golumala
        8213 Wangurri
        8219 Dhangu, nec
    822 Dhay'yi    
        8220 Dhay'yi, nfd
        8221 Dhalwangu
        8222 Djarrwark
        8229 Dhay'yi, nec
    823 Dhuwal    
        8230 Dhuwal, nfd
        8231 Djambarrpuyngu
        8232 Djapu
        8233 Daatiwuy
        8234 Marrangu
        8235 Liyagalawumirr
        8236 Liyagawumirr
        8239 Dhuwal, nec
    824 Dhuwala    
        8240 Dhuwala, nfd
        8242 Gumatj
        8243 Gupapuyngu
        8244 Guyamirrilili
        8246 Manggalili
        8247 Wubulkarra
        8249 Dhuwala, nec
    825 Djinang    
        8250 Djinang, nfd
        8251 Wurlaki
        8259 Djinang, nec
    826 Djinba    
        8260 Djinba, nfd
        8261 Ganalbingu
        8262 Djinba
        8263 Manyjalpingu
        8269 Djinba, nec
    827 Yakuy    
        8270 Yakuy, nfd
        8271 Ritharrngu
        8272 Wagilak
        8279 Yakuy, nec
    828 Nhangu    
        8281 Nhangu
        8282 Yan-nhangu
        8289 Nhangu, nec
    829 Other Yolngu Matha  
        8291 Dhuwaya
        8292 Djangu
        8293 Madarrpa
        8294 Warramiri
        8295 Rirratjingu
        8299 Other Yolngu Matha, nec
   83 Cape York Peninsula Languages  
        8300 Cape York Peninsula Languages, nfd
        8301 Kuku Yalanji
        8302 Guugu Yimidhirr
        8303 Kuuku-Ya'u
        8304 Wik Mungkan
        8305 Djabugay
        8306 Dyirbal
        8307 Girramay
        8308 Koko-Bera
        8311 Kuuk Thayorre
        8312 Lamalama
        8313 Yidiny
        8314 Wik Ngathan
        8315 Alngith
        8316 Kugu Muminh
        8317 Morrobalama
        8318 Thaynakwith
        8321 Yupangathi
        8322 Tjungundji
        8399 Cape York Peninsula Languages, nec
   84 Torres Strait Island Languages  
        8400 Torres Strait Island Languages, nfd
        8401 Kalaw Kawaw Ya/Kalaw Lagaw Ya
        8402 Meriam Mir
        8403 Yumplatok (Torres Strait Creole)
   85 Northern Desert Fringe Area Languages
        8500 Northern Desert Fringe Area Languages, nfd
        8504 Bilinarra
        8505 Gurindji
        8506 Gurindji Kriol
        8507 Jaru
        8508 Light Warlpiri
        8511 Malngin
        8512 Mudburra
        8514 Ngardi
        8515 Ngarinyman
        8516 Walmajarri
        8517 Wanyjirra
        8518 Warlmanpa
        8521 Warlpiri
        8522 Warumungu
        8599 Northern Desert Fringe Area Languages, nec
   86 Arandic      
        8600 Arandic, nfd
        8603 Alyawarr
        8606 Kaytetye
        8607 Antekerrepenh
    861 Anmatyerr    
        8610 Anmatyerr, nfd
        8611 Central Anmatyerr
        8612 Eastern Anmatyerr
        8619 Anmatyerr, nec
    862 Arrernte    
        8620 Arrernte, nfd
        8621 Eastern Arrernte
        8622 Western Arrarnta
        8629 Arrernte, nec
        8699 Arandic, nec
   87 Western Desert Languages    
        8700 Western Desert Languages, nfd
        8703 Antikarinya
        8704 Kartujarra
        8705 Kukatha
        8706 Kukatja
        8707 Luritja
        8708 Manyjilyjarra
        8711 Martu Wangka
        8712 Ngaanyatjarra
        8713 Pintupi
        8714 Pitjantjatjara
        8715 Wangkajunga
        8716 Wangkatha
        8717 Warnman
        8718 Yankunytjatjara
        8721 Yulparija
        8722 Tjupany
        8799 Western Desert Languages, nec
   88 Kimberley Area Languages    
        8800 Kimberley Area Languages, nfd
        8801 Bardi
        8802 Bunuba
        8803 Gooniyandi
        8804 Miriwoong
        8805 Ngarinyin
        8806 Nyikina
        8807 Worla
        8808 Worrorra
        8811 Wunambal
        8812 Yawuru
        8813 Gambera
        8814 Jawi
        8815 Kija
        8899 Kimberley Area Languages, nec
   89 Other Australian Indigenous Languages
        8900 Other Australian Indigenous Languages, nfd
        8901 Adnymathanha
        8902 Arabana
        8903 Bandjalang
        8904 Banyjima
        8905 Batjala
        8906 Bidjara
        8907 Dhanggatti
        8908 Diyari
        8911 Gamilaraay
        8913 Garuwali
        8914 Githabul
        8915 Gumbaynggir
        8916 Kanai
        8917 Karajarri
        8918 Kariyarra
        8921 Kaurna
        8922 Kayardild
        8924 Kriol
        8925 Lardil
        8926 Mangala
        8927 Muruwari
        8928 Narungga
        8931 Ngarluma
        8932 Ngarrindjeri
        8933 Nyamal
        8934 Nyangumarta
        8935 Nyungar
        8936 Paakantyi
        8937 Palyku/Nyiyaparli
        8938 Wajarri
        8941 Wiradjuri
        8943 Yindjibarndi
        8944 Yinhawangka
        8945 Yorta Yorta
        8946 Baanbay
        8947 Badimaya
        8948 Barababaraba
        8951 Dadi Dadi
        8952 Dharawal
        8953 Djabwurrung
        8954 Gudjal
        8955 Keerray-Woorroong
        8956 Ladji Ladji
        8957 Mirning
        8958 Ngatjumaya
        8961 Waluwarra
        8962 Wangkangurru
        8963 Wargamay
        8964 Wergaia
        8965 Yugambeh
        8998 Aboriginal English, so described
        8999 Other Australian Indigenous Languages, nec

 

 

9 Other Languages

 9 Other Languages      
   90 Other Languages, nfd    
        9000 Other Languages, nfd
   91 American Languages    
        9101 American Languages
   92 African Languages    
        9200 African Languages, nfd
        9201 Acholi
        9203 Akan
        9205 Mauritian Creole
        9206 Oromo
        9207 Shona
        9208 Somali
        9211 Swahili
        9212 Yoruba
        9213 Zulu
        9214 Amharic
        9215 Bemba
        9216 Dinka
        9217 Ewe
        9218 Ga
        9221 Harari
        9222 Hausa
        9223 Igbo
        9224 Kikuyu
        9225 Krio
        9226 Luganda
        9227 Luo
        9228 Ndebele
        9231 Nuer
        9232 Nyanja (Chichewa)
        9233 Shilluk
        9234 Tigre
        9235 Tigrinya
        9236 Tswana
        9237 Xhosa
        9238 Seychelles Creole
        9241 Anuak
        9242 Bari
        9243 Bassa
        9244 Dan (Gio-Dan)
        9245 Fulfulde
        9246 Kinyarwanda (Rwanda)
        9247 Kirundi (Rundi)
        9248 Kpelle
        9251 Krahn
        9252 Liberian (Liberian English)
        9253 Loma (Lorma)
        9254 Lumun (Kuku Lumun)
        9255 Madi
        9256 Mandinka
        9257 Mann
        9258 Moro (Nuba Moro)
        9261 Themne
        9262 Lingala
        9299 African Languages, nec
   93 Pacific Austronesian Languages  
        9300 Pacific Austronesian Languages, nfd
        9301 Fijian
        9302 Gilbertese
        9303 Maori (Cook Island)
        9304 Maori (New Zealand)
        9306 Nauruan
        9307 Niue
        9308 Samoan
        9311 Tongan
        9312 Rotuman
        9313 Tokelauan
        9314 Tuvaluan
        9315 Yapese
        9399 Pacific Austronesian Languages, nec
   94 Oceanian Pidgins and Creoles    
        9400 Oceanian Pidgins and Creoles, nfd
        9402 Bislama
        9403 Hawaiian English
        9404 Norf'k-Pitcairn
        9405 Solomon Islands Pijin
        9499 Oceanian Pidgins and Creoles, nec
   95 Papua New Guinea Languages  
        9500 Papua New Guinea Languages, nfd
        9502 Kiwai
        9503 Motu (HiriMotu)
        9504 Tok Pisin (Neomelanesian)
        9599 Papua New Guinea Languages, nec
   96 Invented Languages    
        9601 Invented Languages
   97 Sign Languages      
        9700 Sign Languages, nfd
        9701 Auslan
        9702 Key Word Sign Australia
        9799 Sign Languages, nec

 Supplementary codes 

0 Supplementary codes      
  00 Supplementary codes    
        0000 Inadequately described
        0001 Non-verbal, so described
        0003 Swiss, so described
        0004 Cypriot, so described
        0005 Creole, nfd
        0006 French Creole, nfd
        0007 Spanish Creole, nfd
        0008 Portuguese Creole, nfd
        0009 Pidgin, nfd
& Not stated        
  && Not stated      
        &&&& Not stated
V Overseas visitor      
  VV Overseas visitor    
        VVVV Overseas visitor

Number of categories:

  • One digit level: 12
  • Two digit level: 63
  • Three digit level: 63
  • Four digit level: 505

Question(s) from the Census form

Does the person use a language other than English at home?

Does the person use a language other than English at home?
Does Person 1 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

Include use of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box.

More information

Person's language at home

No, English only

Yes, Mandarin

Yes, Arabic

Yes, Cantonese

Yes, Vietnamese

Yes, Italian

Yes, Greek

Yes, other (please specify)

Alternative response options - Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Alternative response options to the question: Does the person use a language other than English at home? Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander option included.
Does Person 2 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

More information

Person's language at home

No, English only

Yes, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language

Yes, Mandarin

Yes, Arabic

Yes, Cantonese

Yes, Vietnamese

Yes, Italian

Yes, Greek

Yes, other (please specify)

Example

Example response to: Does the person use a language other than English at home? Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander option selected.
Does Person 2 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

More information
Person's language at home

No, English only

Yes, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language
Please specify (optional)

More information

Additional information relating to the question: Does the person use a language other than English at home?
Does Person 1 use a language other than English at home?

If more than one language other than English, select the one that is used most often.

Include use of sign languages (for example, AUSLAN) in the 'please specify' box.

Include use of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box.

More information

If the person uses only English at home, select ‘No, English only’, even if they can speak another language.

If the person lives alone, answer with the language they most commonly use with visitors in their home.

The languages listed were the most commonly reported languages spoken at home, other than English in the 2016 Census.

For a language not listed, please select the 'Yes, other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the language in the box.

For people who cannot speak, or if the person is too young to speak, record 'Not able to speak' in the 'Yes, other (please specify)' box for this question.

How this variable is created

This variable is created from responses to the language used at home question. Respondents may either use a mark box to indicate the language used at home or write the name of the language in the text field. When a person marks more than one language or marks a language and gives a text response, responses are accepted in the order they appeared on the form and the extra response is rejected.

The majority of responses for LANP are captured automatically from the mark box response. Written responses are coded using a combination of automatic reading and coding processes. The remaining responses require manual coding processes when they could not be coded or derived automatically.

If a response is not listed in the classification, it is coded to 'Inadequately described'.

History and changes

A question relating to languages spoken was first asked in the 1933 Census, but not again until the 1976 Census. All Censuses since then have included a similar question.

In 1933, the question asked people who could not read and write in English but were able to read and write in a foreign language, to state that language. In 1976, people were asked for all languages spoken. In 1981 and 1986, all people were asked if they spoke a language other than English at home and, if so, how well they spoke English. In addition to this, since 1991 people have been asked to name their non-English language.

In the 2021 Census, the question wording was amended to include the word 'use' rather than 'speak' to better accommodate members of the community who use sign language. 

The response category order has changed based on the most common answers from the 2016 Census:

  • 'Yes, Italian' changed from 3rd to 6th position
  • 'Yes, Arabic' changed from 4th to 3rd position
  • 'Yes, Cantonese' changed from 5th to 4th position
  • 'Yes, Greek' changed from 6th to 7th position
  • 'Yes, Vietnamese' changed from 7th to 5th position

An enhancement to the online form presented a check box for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language for those respondents who identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander in the Indigenous status question. To improve the data collected on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander languages, the person also had the option of specifying the language.

Data use considerations

This question only allows for one answer and therefore the number of responses shown in the category '1201 English' is not all persons who use English, but specifically persons who use only English at home.

Persons who report a language other than English to the 'language used at home' question are then asked 'How well does the person speak English?'. Responses to this question are coded to the variable Proficiency in spoken English (ENGLP).

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Proficiency in spoken English (ENGLP)
  • Whether reported using an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander language at home (LNGP)
  • Indigenous Status (INGP)
  • Ethnicity

Other ABS Sources

Data downloads

Language used at home classification

Religious affiliation (RELP)

Definition

This variable records a person's religious affiliation. Answering this Census question is optional.

    Scope

    All persons

    Categories

    This variable is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG), 2016. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page.

    1 Buddhism

    1  Buddhism    
      101 Buddhism  
        1011 Buddhism

    2 Christianity

    2 Christianity  
      200 Christianity, nfd
        2000 Christianity, nfd
      201 Anglican  
        2012 Anglican Church of Australia
        2013 Anglican Catholic Church
        2019 Anglican, nec
      203 Baptist  
        2031 Baptist
      205 Brethren  
        2051 Brethren
      207 Catholic  
        2070 Catholic, nfd
        2071 Western Catholic
        2072 Maronite Catholic
        2073 Melkite Catholic
        2074 Ukrainian Catholic
        2075 Chaldean Catholic
        2076 Syro Malabar Catholic
        2079 Catholic, nec
      211 Churches of Christ
        2110 Churches of Christ, nfd
        2111 Churches of Christ (Conference)
        2112 Church of Christ (Non-denominational)
        2113 International Church of Christ
      213 Jehovah's Witnesses
        2131 Jehovah's Witnesses
      215 Latter-day Saints
        2150 Latter-day Saints, nfd
        2151 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
        2152 Community of Christ
      217 Lutheran  
        2171 Lutheran
      221 Oriental Orthodox
        2210 Oriental Orthodox, nfd
        2212 Armenian Apostolic
        2214 Coptic Orthodox Church
        2215 Syrian Orthodox Church
        2216 Ethiopian Orthodox Church
        2219 Oriental Orthodox, nec
      222 Assyrian Apostolic
        2220 Assyrian Apostolic, nfd
        2221 Assyrian Church of the East
        2222 Ancient Church of the East
        2229 Assyrian Apostolic, nec
      223 Eastern Orthodox
        2230 Eastern Orthodox, nfd
        2231 Albanian Orthodox
        2232 Antiochian Orthodox
        2233 Greek Orthodox
        2234 Macedonian Orthodox
        2235 Romanian Orthodox
        2236 Russian Orthodox
        2237 Serbian Orthodox
        2238 Ukrainian Orthodox
        2239 Eastern Orthodox, nec
      225 Presbyterian and Reformed
        2250 Presbyterian and Reformed, nfd
        2251 Presbyterian
        2252 Reformed
        2253 Free Reformed
      227 Salvation Army
        2271 Salvation Army
      231 Seventh-day Adventist
        2311 Seventh-day Adventist
      233 Uniting Church
        2331 Uniting Church
      24 Pentecostal  
        2400 Pentecostal, nfd
        2401 Apostolic Church (Australia)
        2402 Australian Christian Churches (Assemblies of God)
        2403 Bethesda Ministries International (Bethesda Churches)
        2404 C3 Church Global (Christian City Church)
        2406 International Network of Churches (Christian Outreach Centres)
        2407 CRC International (Christian Revival Crusade)
        2411 Foursquare Gospel Church
        2412 Full Gospel Church of Australia (Full Gospel Church)
        2413 Revival Centres
        2414 Rhema Family Church
        2415 United Pentecostal
        2416 Acts 2 Alliance
        2417 Christian Church in Australia
        2418 Pentecostal City Life Church
        2421 Revival Fellowship
        2422 Victory Life Centre
        2423 Victory Worship Centre
        2424 Worship Centre Network
        2499 Pentecostal, nec
      28 Other Protestant
        2800 Other Protestant, nfd
        2801 Aboriginal Evangelical Missions
        2802 Born Again Christian
        2803 Christian and Missionary Alliance
        2804 Church of the Nazarene
        2805 Congregational
        2806 Ethnic Evangelical Churches
        2807 Independent Evangelical Churches
        2808 Wesleyan Methodist Church
        2811 Christian Community Churches of Australia
        2812 Methodist, so described
        2813 United Methodist Church
        2899 Other Protestant, nec
      29 Other Christian
        2900 Other Christian, nfd
        2901 Apostolic Church of Queensland
        2902 Christadelphians
        2903 Christian Science
        2904 Gnostic Christians
        2905 Liberal Catholic Church
        2906 New Apostolic Church
        2907 New Churches (Swedenborgian)
        2908 Ratana (Maori)
        2911 Religious Science
        2912 Religious Society of Friends (Quakers)
        2913 Temple Society
        2915 Grace Communion International (Worldwide Church of God)
        2999 Other Christian, nec

    3 Hinduism

    3 Hinduism    
      301 Hinduism  
        3011 Hinduism

    4 Islam

    4 Islam    
      401 Islam  
        4011 Islam

    5 Judaism

    5 Judaism    
      501 Judaism  
        5011 Judaism

    6 Other Religions

    6 Other Religions  
      601 Australian Aboriginal Traditional Religions
        6011 Australian Aboriginal Traditional Religions
      603 Baha'i  
        6031 Baha'i
      605 Chinese Religions
        6050 Chinese Religions, nfd
        6051 Ancestor Veneration
        6052 Confucianism
        6053 Taoism
        6059 Chinese Religions, nec
      607 Druse  
        6071 Druse
      611 Japanese Religions
        6110 Japanese Religions, nfd
        6111 Shinto
        6112 Sukyo Mahikari
        6113 Tenrikyo
        6119 Japanese Religions, nec
      613 Nature Religions
        6130 Nature Religions, nfd
        6131 Animism
        6132 Druidism
        6133 Paganism
        6135 Wiccan (Witchcraft)
        6139 Nature Religions, nec
      615 Sikhism  
        6151 Sikhism
      617 Spiritualism  
        6171 Spiritualism
      69 Miscellaneous Religions
        6901 Mandaean
        6902 Yezidi
        6991 Caodaism
        6992 Church of Scientology
        6993 Eckankar
        6994 Rastafari
        6995 Satanism
        6996 Theosophy
        6997 Jainism
        6998 Zoroastrianism
        6999 Religious Groups, nec

    7 Secular Beliefs and Other Spiritual Beliefs and No Religious Affiliation

    7 Secular Beliefs and Other Spiritual Beliefs and No Religious Affiliation
        7000 Secular Beliefs and Other Spiritual Beliefs and No Religious Affiliation, nfd
      71 No Religion, (so described)
        7101 No Religion, so described
      72 Secular Beliefs
        7200 Secular Beliefs, nfd
        7201 Agnosticism
        7202 Atheism
        7203 Humanism
        7204 Rationalism
        7299 Secular Beliefs, nec
      73 Other Spiritual Beliefs
        7300 Other Spiritual Beliefs, nfd
        7301 Multi Faith
        7302 New Age
        7303 Own Spiritual Beliefs
        7304 Theism
        7305 Unitarian Universalism
        7399 Other Spiritual Beliefs, nec

    Supplementary Codes

    Supplementary Codes  
    0 Inadequately described  
      000 Inadequately described
         0000  Inadequately described
    & Not stated    
      &&& Not stated  
         &&&&  Not stated
    V Overseas visitor  
      VVV Overseas visitor
         VVVV  Overseas visitor

    Number of categories:

    • One digit level: 10
    • Two digit/three digit level: 38
    • Four digit level: 151

    Question(s) from the Census form

    What is the person's religion?

    What is the person’s religion?
    What is Person 1's religion?

    Answering this question is OPTIONAL.

    Examples of 'Other': Lutheran, Salvation Army, Judaism, Taoism, Atheism.

    More information

    Person's religion

    No religion

    Catholic

    Anglican (Church of England)

    Uniting Church

    Islam

    Buddhism

    Presbyterian

    Hinduism

    Greek Orthodox

    Baptist

    Other (please specify)

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: What is the person's religion?
    What is Person 1's religion?

    Answering this question is OPTIONAL.

    Examples of 'Other': Lutheran, Salvation Army, Judaism, Taoism, Atheism.

    More information

    The religious groups listed were those most commonly reported in the 2016 Census. For all other religions, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the details in the box.

    If the person's religion is an Eastern Catholic religion such as Maronite Catholic, Melkite Catholic, Syro Malabar Catholic or Ukrainian Catholic, provide the full name of the religion in the 'Other (please specify)' box.

    If the person's religion is an Orthodox religion such as Macedonian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox or Armenian Orthodox, provide the full name of the religion in the 'Other (please specify)' box.

    People who have non-theistic religious beliefs or other life philosophies should record their response in the 'Other (please specify)' box.

    Examples of non-religious beliefs include Agnosticism, Atheism and Rationalism.

    If the person identifies with no religion at all, select the 'No religion' response.

    How this variable is created

    This variable is created from responses to the religious affiliation question, which are coded to the ASCRG.

    Respondents could use one of the mark boxes to indicate their religious affiliation or write the name of their religion in the text field. The question includes the 10 most common responses from the 2016 Census as mark boxes, as well as a write in text box. 

    Responses are coded accordingly:

    • Most responses are captured automatically from a mark box response.
    • Written responses are coded using a combination of automatic reading and coding processes.
    • Remaining responses require manual coding processes when they could not be coded or derived automatically.
    • When more than one religion or a mark box religion and a text response is recorded, the responses are accepted in the order they appear on the form and the extra response is rejected.
    • If a religion is not listed in the classification, it is coded to 'Inadequately described'.

    History and changes

    A question on religion has been included in all Australian censuses since 1911. Answering this question has always been optional, the very nature of which is provided for in legislation.

    The ASCRG was first published in 1996 and has been used to code religious affiliation for all Australian censuses since. Throughout this time, the classification has evolved to reflect the diverse religious affiliations identified amongst Australia’s population.

    From 1991 to 2011 the 'No religion' response category was the last response option. For 2016, a change was made to the question format, moving this category to the first response option. This change was made following the 2016 Census topic review process, where many submissions recommended changes to the Religious affiliation question. 'No religion' was again the first response option in 2021.

    For 2021, the response category order has been updated based on the most common responses in the 2016 Census:

    • 'Presbyterian' moved from 5th to 7th position
    • 'Islam' moved from 7th to 5th position
    • 'Greek Orthodox' moved from 8th to 9th position
    • 'Baptist' moved from 9th to 10th position
    • 'Hinduism' moved from 10th to 8th position.

    Changes have also been made to the 'other' examples given in the question instructions.

    Data use considerations

    The Census question is intended to measure religious affiliation, which may be different from a person's practice of or participation in a religious activity. It allows people to respond with secular or spiritual beliefs and to indicate if they have no religious affiliation at all.

    Data on religious affiliation is used for:

    • planning the location of educational facilities, aged care and other social services provided by religion-based organisations
    • planning the location of church buildings
    • the assigning of chaplains to hospitals, prisons, armed services, and universities
    • the allocation of time on public radio and other media
    • sociological research.

    Related variable and glossary terms

    Data downloads

    Religious affiliation classification

    Year of arrival in Australia (YARP)

    Definition

    This variable is applicable to persons born overseas and records the year they first arrived in Australia to live for one year or more.

    See also: Year of arrival in Australia (ranges) (YARRP)

    Scope

    Persons born overseas who will be in Australia for more than one year

    Categories

    Code Category

    1905 - 2021

    1905 to 2021 singly

    &&&&

    Not stated

    @@@@

    Not applicable

    VVVV

    Overseas visitor

    Number of categories: 120

    Not applicable (@@@@) category comprises:

    • Persons who did not state their country of birth
    • Persons born in Australia (includes Other Territories)

    Question(s) from the Census form

    In which country was the person born?

    In which country was the person born?
    In which country was Person 1 born?

    The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

    Person's country of birth

    Australia

    England

    New Zealand

    India

    Philippines

    Vietnam

    Italy

    Other (please specify)

    Example

    Example response to the question: In which country was the person born? England option selected
    In which country was Person 1 born?

    The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

    Person's country of birth

    Australia

    England (selected response)

    New Zealand

    India

    Philippines

    Vietnam

    Italy

    Other (please specify)

    Example

    Example response to the question: In which country was the person born? Australia option selected
    In which country was Person 1 born?

    The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

    Person's country of birth

    Australia (selected response)

    England

    New Zealand

    India

    Philippines

    Vietnam

    Italy

    Other (please specify)

    Arrival in Australia
    This question does not apply, based on your answer to the Country of Birth question.

    In what year did the person first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?

    In what year did the person first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?
    In what year did Person 1 first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?

    More information

    Year

    OR

    Will be in Australia for less than one year

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question: In what year did the person first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?
    In what year did Person 1 first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?

    More information

    This question asks overseas-born people to provide the calendar year when they first arrived in Australia with the intention of staying for at least one year. Please enter the year of first arrival in Australia and not the year of the most recent arrival.

    How this variable is created

    The Country of birth of person (BPLP) variable is used to determine if a person was born in Australia or overseas. Australia refers to the geographical Australia defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).

    Data for this variable is captured automatically from written numeric responses, or the 'Will be in Australia less than one year' mark box. High and low values are checked manually to ensure that they match the actual response on the form. A check is made to ensure that a person's stated age is compatible with period of residence.

    If a respondent answers they:

    • Usually reside in another country, they are coded to 'Overseas visitor'
    • Were born overseas and usually reside in Australia but will be in Australia for less than one year, they are coded to 'Not stated'
    • Were born in Australia, they are coded to 'Not applicable'

    History and changes

    A question on year of arrival in Australia, or length of residence, was first asked in the 1911 Census and has been asked in every Census since.

    In Censuses prior to 1991, the question was asked in terms of number of completed years of residence in Australia.

    In 1996, data was collected in categories ranging from 'Before 1981' to '1996'.

    From 2001 onwards, data was collected by single year with valid responses in 2011 being in the range 1895 to 2011. For 2016, data was collected by single year with valid responses in the range 1900 to 2016.

    For 2021, data is collected by single year with valid responses in the range of 1905 to 2021.

    Data use considerations

    When this variable is cross-classified with other Census data, it is useful for analysing how the characteristics of migrants change with their length of time in Australia. 

    Data is available in years singly from 1905 to 2021 (YARP), with 2021 referring to the period from 1 January to 10 August 2021 only.

    A check is performed to ensure that a person's stated age is compatible with their period of residence.

    Related variables and glossary terms

    • Year of arrival in Australia (ranges) (YARRP)
    • Country of birth of person (BPLP)
    • Ethnicity

    Year of arrival in Australia (ranges) (YARRP)

    Definition

    This variable is applicable to persons born overseas and records the year in ranges when they first arrived in Australia to live for one year or more.

    See also: Year of Arrival in Australia (YARP)

    Scope

    Persons born overseas who will be in Australia for more than one year

    Categories

    Code Category

    1

    Arrived 1905 - 1950

    2

    Arrived 1951 - 1960

    3

    Arrived 1961 - 1970

    4

    Arrived 1971 - 1980

    5

    Arrived 1981 - 1990

    6

    Arrived 1991 - 2000

    7

    Arrived 2001 - 2010

    8

    Arrived 2011 - 2020

    9

    Arrived 1 January 2021 - 10 August 2021

    &

    Not stated

    @

    Not applicable

    V

    Overseas visitor

    Number of categories: 12

    Not applicable (@) category comprises:

    • Persons who did not state their country of birth
    • Persons born in Australia (includes Other Territories)

    Question(s) from the Census form

    In which country was the person born?

    In which country was the person born?
    In which country was Person 1 born?

    The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

    Person's country of birth

    Australia

    England

    New Zealand

    India

    Philippines

    Vietnam

    Italy

    Other (please specify)
    Example response to the question: In which country was the person born? England option selected.
    In which country was Person 1 born?

    The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

    Person's country of birth

    Australia

    England (selected response)

    New Zealand

    India

    Philippines

    Vietnam

    Italy

    Other (please specify)
    Example response to the question: In which country was the person born? Australia option selected.
    In which country was Person 1 born?

    The countries listed were the most commonly reported countries of birth in the 2016 Census. For all other countries of birth, please select the 'Other (please specify)' option and enter the name of the country in the box.

    Person's country of birth

    Australia (selected response)

    England

    New Zealand

    India

    Philippines

    Vietnam

    Italy

    Other (please specify)

    Arrival in Australia
    This question does not apply, based on your answer to the Country of Birth question.

    In what year did the person first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?

    In what year did the person first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?
    In what year did Person 1 first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?

    More information

    Year

    OR

    Will be in Australia for less than one year

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: In what year did the person first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?
    In what year did Person 1 first arrive in Australia to live for one year or more?

    More information

    This question asks overseas-born people to provide the calendar year when they first arrived in Australia with the intention of staying for at least one year. Please enter the year of first arrival in Australia and not the year of the most recent arrival.

    How this variable is created

    The Country of birth of person (BPLP) variable is used to determine if a person was born in Australia or overseas. Australia refers to the geographical Australia defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).

    Data for this variable is captured automatically from written numeric responses, or the 'Will be in Australia less than one year' mark box. High and low values are checked manually to ensure that they match the actual response on the form. A check is made to ensure that a person's stated age is compatible with period of residence.

    If a respondent answers they:

    • Usually reside in another country, they are coded to 'Overseas visitor'
    • Were born overseas and usually reside in Australia but will be in Australia for less than one year, they are coded to 'Not stated'
    • Were born in Australia, they are coded to 'Not applicable'

    History and changes

    A question on year of arrival in Australia, or length of residence, was first asked in the 1911 Census and has been asked in every Census since.

    In Censuses prior to 1991, the question was asked in terms of number of completed years of residence in Australia.

    In 1996, data was collected in categories ranging from 'Before 1981' to '1996'.

    From 2001 onwards, data was collected by single year with valid responses in 2011 being in the range 1895 to 2011. For 2016, data was collected by single year with valid responses in the range 1900 to 2016.

    For 2021, the year ranges for Year of arrival (YARRP) have been updated.

    Related variables and glossary terms

    • Year of arrival in Australia (YARP)
    • Country of birth of person (BPLP)

    Disability and carers

    Mnemonic  Variable  Release  
    ASSNP Core activity need for assistance June 2022
    UNCAREP Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, health condition, or due to old age June 2022

    Core activity need for assistance (ASSNP)

    Definition

    This variable records the number of people with a profound or severe core activity limitation. People with a profound or severe core activity limitation are those needing assistance in their day to day lives in one or more of the three core activity areas of self-care, mobility and communication because of:

    • a long-term health condition (lasting six months or more)
    • a disability (lasting six months or more)
    • old age

    Scope

    All persons

    Categories

    Code Category

    1

    Has need for assistance with core activities

    2

    Does not have need for assistance with core activities

    &

    Not stated

    V

    Overseas visitor

    Number of categories: 4

    Question(s) from the Census form

    Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, self-care activities?

    Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, self-care activities?
    Does Person 1 ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, self-care activities?

    For example: doing everyday activities such as eating, showering, dressing or toileting.

    More information

    Person's need for help with self-care

    Yes, always

    Yes, sometimes

    No

    More Information

    Additional information relating to the question on: Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, self-care activities?
    Does Person 1 ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, self-care activities?

    For example: doing everyday activities such as eating, showering, dressing or toileting.

    More information

    This question refers to the extra help or supervision needed by someone because of a disability, long-term illness or old age.

    If Person 1 cannot do a task at all, for example, cannot dress themselves, select 'Yes, always'.

    For young children who have a similar need for assistance as most other children of the same age, select the most appropriate response for their situation.

    Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, body movement activities?

    Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, body movement activities?
    Does Person 1 ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, body movement activities?

    For example: getting out of bed, moving around at home or at places away from home.

    More information

    Person's need for help with body movement

    Yes, always

    Yes, sometimes

    No

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, body movement activities?
    Does Person 1 ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, body movement activities?

    For example: getting out of bed, moving around at home or at places away from home.

    More information

    This question refers to the extra help or supervision needed by someone because of a disability, long-term illness or old age.

    If Person 1 cannot do a task at all, for example, is confined to bed, select 'Yes, always'.

    For young children who have a similar need for assistance as most other children of the same age, select the most appropriate response for their situation.

    Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, communication activities?

    Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, communication activities?
    Does Person 1 ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, communication activities?

    For example: understanding, or being understood by, others.

    More information

    Person's need for help with communication

    Yes, always

    Yes, sometimes

    No

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: Does the person ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, communication activities?
    Does Person 1 ever need someone to help with, or be with them for, communication activities?

    For example: understanding, or being understood by, others.

    More information

    This question refers to the extra help or supervision needed by someone because of a disability, long-term illness or old age.

    If Person 1 cannot do a task at all, for example, cannot communicate, select 'Yes, always'.

    For young children who have a similar need for assistance as most other children of the same age, select the most appropriate response for their situation.

    What are the reasons for the need for assistance or supervision shown in Questions 24, 25 and 26?

    What are the reasons for the need for assistance or supervision shown in Questions 24, 25 and 26?
    What are the reasons for the need for assistance or supervision?

    Select all applicable reasons.

    More information

    Reason person needs help

    No need for assistance

    Short-term health condition (lasting less than six months)

    Long-term health condition (lasting six months or more)

    Disability (lasting six months or more)

    Old or young age

    Difficulty with English language

    Other reason

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: What are the reasons for the need for assistance or supervision shown in Questions 24, 25 and 26?
    What are the reasons for the need for assistance or supervision?

    Select all applicable reasons.

    More information

    For young children, select ‘Old or young age' if the need for assistance is similar to most other children of the same age.

    Where a person needs assistance with communication due to difficulties with English, and if the need for assistance would not be present when communicating in their own language, select 'Difficulty with English language'.

    How this variable is created

    The Census uses a set of four questions (paper form questions 24-27) to derive ‘core activity need for assistance’. Responses to the questions are captured automatically from mark box responses.

    To determine if a person’s need for assistance in one or more of the three core activity areas is due to a long-term health condition, disability or old age, the question on the Census form asks, ‘What are the reasons for the need for assistance or supervision?’.

    To be coded to the category ‘Has need for assistance with core activities’, the response needs to be one or more of the following:

    • Long-term health condition (lasting six months or more)
    • Disability (lasting six months or more)

    To be coded to the category ‘Does not have need for assistance with core activities’, the response needs to be one or more of the following:

    • No need for assistance
    • Short-term health condition (lasting less than six months)
    • Difficulty with English language
    • Other cause

    If a person’s only response is ‘Old or young age’, they are coded as follows:

    • If under 40 years of age – ‘Does not have need for assistance with core activities’
    • If 40 years or over – ‘Has need for assistance with core activities’

    History and changes

    The Census ‘Core activity need for assistance’ concept was developed for the 2006 Census to indicate the disability status of people in Australia according to geographic area, and for small groups within the population.

    No changes have been made for 2021.

    Data use considerations

    This variable helps service providers and governments plan what local facilities, services and support are required, such as in-home support, respite care and support to carers.

    Of all ABS collections of disability data, only the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) is considered to comprehensively measure disability populations, and to provide rates of prevalence at the national and state levels.  The Census concept ‘Core activity need for assistance’ is related to the ‘disability status’ information collected in the SDAC.  The purpose of the Census is to identify people with a ‘profound or severe core activity limitation’ using similar criteria to the SDAC.

    Users wanting more comprehensive information about the disability status of people in Australia should instead refer to the publication Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2018. Despite the conceptual consistency of the measures in the Census and SDAC, abbreviating the set of questions used to collect data on disability, as required for the Census, reduces the number of people who can be classified as having a disability or to a particular level of disability, depending on the concept being collected. The publication, ABS Sources of Disability Information, 2012-2016 examines the different ABS sources of disability data. 

    Related variables and glossary terms

    Other ABS Sources

    A measure of need for assistance with core activities is also collected in the ABS Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC). While the concept is similar, the estimates differ due to different collection methodologies and population sizes. See more ABS statistics on Disability.

    Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, health condition or due to old age (UNCAREP)

    Definition

    This variable records the number of people who in the two weeks prior to Census night spent time providing unpaid care, help or assistance to family members or others because of:

    • a disability
    • a long-term health condition
    • problems related to old age 

    This includes people who are in receipt of a Carer Allowance or Carer Payment. It does not include care provided through a voluntary organisation or group. Occasional help or assistance, such as shopping, is included if the person needs this type of assistance because of their condition.

    Scope

    Persons aged 15 years and over

    Categories

    Code Category

    1

    No unpaid assistance provided

    2

    Provided unpaid assistance

    &

    Not stated

    @

    Not applicable

    V

    Overseas visitor

    Number of categories: 5

    Not applicable (@) category comprises:

    • persons aged under 15 years

    Question(s) from the Census form

    In the last two weeks did the person spend time providing unpaid care, help or assistance to family members or others because of a disability, a long-term health condition or problems related to old age?

    In the last two weeks did the person spend time providing unpaid care, help or assistance to family members or others because of a disability, a long-term health condition or problems related to old age?
    In the last two weeks did Person 1 spend time providing unpaid care, help or assistance to family members or others because of a disability, a long-term health condition or problems related to old age?

    People who receive Carer Allowance or Carer Payment should state that they provided unpaid care.

    Occasional help or assistance, such as shopping, should only be included if the person needs this type of assistance because of their condition.

    Do not include work done through a voluntary organisation or group.

    More information

    Person's unpaid care for others

    No, did not provide unpaid care, help or assistance

    Yes, provided unpaid care, help or assistance

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question: In the last two weeks did the person spend time providing unpaid care, help or assistance to family members or others because of a disability, a long-term health condition or problems related to old age?
    In the last two weeks did Person 1 spend time providing unpaid care, help or assistance to family members or others because of a disability, a long-term health condition or problems related to old age?

    People who receive Carer Allowance or Carer Payment should state that they provided unpaid care.

    Occasional help or assistance, such as shopping, should only be included if the person needs this type of assistance because of their condition.

    Do not include work done through a voluntary organisation or group.

    More information

    A long-term health condition is one that has lasted, or is likely to last for six months or more.

    Unpaid care can include:
    • bathing, dressing, toileting or feeding someone
    • helping someone to move around
    • helping someone to understand or be understood by others
    • providing emotional support to someone and helping them maintain friendships and social activities
    • helping with or supervising medication or dressing wounds
    • cleaning, laundry, cooking, managing diets and preparing meals
    • performing housework, light household repairs or maintenance
    • managing household finances
    • driving or accompanying someone to appointments or activities.

    How this variable is created

    The responses to the unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, health condition or due to old age question are captured automatically from the mark box responses on the Census form.

    History and changes

    Questions on unpaid work and care, including ‘Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability’, were first asked for the 2006 Census.

    In 2021, the name of the variable changed from ‘Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability’ to ‘Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, health condition or due to old age’.

    Data use considerations

    The question asked about care or assistance provided to another person to assist with daily activities because of disability, long-term illness or problems related to old age in the two weeks prior to the Census. No information on the amount of time spent on providing such unpaid care was collected. Further to the instructions in the question, the online form prompted respondents to include activities such as (but not limited to):

    • bathing
    • dressing
    • toileting and feeding someone
    • helping someone to move around
    • helping someone be understood by others
    • providing emotional support and helping maintain friendships and social activities
    • helping with or supervising medication or dressing wounds
    • cleaning
    • laundry
    • cooking
    • managing diets and preparing meals
    • performing housework
    • light household repairs or maintenance
    • managing household finances
    • driving or accompanying someone to appointments or activities

    Care should be taken when comparing Census data on ‘Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, health condition or due to old age’ with information from other surveys and publications. The Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers collects information on the number of carers and their characteristics. Definitions and methodology can differ between different statistical collections and may not match Census definitions.

    The name of this variable changed in 2021, however the scope and content remains the same. If using time series data, the variable was previously called ‘Unpaid assistance to a person with a disability’.

    Related variables and glossary terms

    Other ABS sources

    A measure of the number of carers and their characteristics is also collected in the ABS Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers. While the concept is similar, the estimates differ due to different collection methodologies and population sizes. See more ABS statistics on Disability.

    Education and training

    Mnemonic  Variable Release  
    EETP Engagement in employment, education and training October 2022
    HEAP Level of highest educational attainment October 2022
    HSCP Highest year of school completed June 2022
    QALFP Non-school qualification: field of study October 2022
    QALLP Non-school qualification: level of education October 2022
    STUP Full-time/part-time student status June 2022
    TYPP Type of educational institution attending June 2022
    TYSTAP Educational institution: attendee status June 2022

    Engagement in employment, education and training (EETP)

    Definition

    This variable indicates whether a person is engaged or not engaged in work and/or study. Data can be used to better understand groups of interest, such as youth, or people approaching retirement age, by analysing by age cohorts.

    Scope

    Persons aged 15 years and over

    Categories

    Code Category

    1

    Fully engaged

    11

    Fully engaged - Engaged through full-time study and full-time employment

    12

    Fully engaged - Primarily engaged through full-time study

    13

    Fully engaged - Primarily engaged through full-time employment

    14

    Fully engaged - Engaged through part-time study and part-time employment

    15

    Fully engaged - Engaged other

    2

    Partially engaged

    21

    Partially engaged - Engaged in part-time study only

    22

    Partially engaged - Engaged in part-time work only

    3

    At least partially engaged

    31

    At least partially engaged

    4

    Not engaged

    41

    Not engaged

    &

    Engagement status undetermined/not stated

    &&

    Engagement status undetermined/not stated

    @

    Not applicable

    @@

    Not applicable

    V

    Overseas visitor

    VV

    Overseas visitor

    Number of categories:

    • One digit: 7
    • Two digit: 12

    Not applicable (@@) comprises:

    • Persons aged under 15 years

    Question(s) from the Census form

    What is the person’s date of birth and age?

    What is the person’s date of birth and age?
    What is Person 1's date of birth?

    If date of birth is not known, please select 'Don't know date of birth' and provide Person 1's age.

    More information

    Day Month Year

    OR

    Don't know date of birth

    Age

    Example

    Example response to the question: What is the person’s date of birth and age? Don't know response selected
    What is Person 1's date of birth?

    If date of birth is not known, please select 'Don't know date of birth' and provide Person 1's age.

    More information

    Day Month Year

    OR

    Don't know date of birth (selected response)

    Age years

    Example

    Age example
    What is Person 1's date of birth?

    If date of birth is not known, please select 'Don't know date of birth' and provide Person 1's age.

    More information

    Day Month Year
    18 March 1993

    OR

    Don't know date of birth

    Age
    28 years

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question: What is the person’s date of birth and age?
    What is Person 1's date of birth?

    If date of birth is not known, please select 'Don't know date of birth' and provide Person 1's age.

    More information

    It is important to note:
    •Date of birth is the date that the person was born.
    •Age is required only if the person's date of birth is not known. Please report age at Census night – Tuesday 10 August 2021.

    If the person is less than one year old and their date of birth is not known, enter '0' in the age box.

    Is the person attending a school or other education institution?

    Is the person attending a school or other education institution?
    Is Person 1 attending a school or any other education institution?

    Include tertiary education and vocational education and training providers (e.g. TAFE and private training providers).

    Include external, online or correspondence study.

    More information

    Person's school attendance

    No

    Yes, full-time student

    Yes, part-time student

    More Information

    Additional information relating to the question on: . Did the person actively look for work at any time in the last four weeks?
    Is Person 1 attending a school or any other education institution?

    Include tertiary education and vocational education and training providers (e.g. TAFE and private training providers).

    Include external, online or correspondence study.

    More information

    Select full-time student or part-time student based on whether the institution considers the person to be a full-time or part-time student.

    For a person who attends only hobby or recreational courses, select 'No'.

    If the person is currently studying at home because of lockdowns or other COVID-related reasons, but usually attends a school or other education institution, select one of the 'Yes' options.

    Last week, did the person have a job of any kind?

    Last week, did the person have a job of any kind?
    Last week, did Person 1 have a job of any kind?

    A ‘job’ means any type of work including casual, temporary, part-time or full-time work, if it was for one hour or more.

    More information

    Person's job last week

    Yes, worked for payment or profit

    Yes, but absent on holidays, on paid leave, on strike, or temporarily stood down

    Yes, unpaid work in a family business

    Yes, other unpaid work

    No, did not have a job

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: Last week, did the person have a job of any kind?
    Last week, did Person 1 have a job of any kind?

    A ‘job’ means any type of work including casual, temporary, part-time or full-time work, if it was for one hour or more.

    More information

    Last week refers to the week before Census night – Tuesday 10 August 2021.

    People who did some work for which they will receive some payment (including casual, temporary or part-time work) and it was for one hour or more in the last week select the 'Yes, worked for payment or profit' response.

    People not working due to a COVID lockdown...
    • who worked at all in the four weeks before the current lockdown, select 'Yes, but absent on holidays, on paid leave, on strike, or temporarily stood down'.
    • who did not work in the four weeks before the current lockdown, select 'No, did not have a job'.

    People on paid leave, for example holiday leave, maternity leave or sick leave, should select 'Yes, but absent on holidays, on paid leave, on strike, or temporarily stood down'.

    People who have been on unpaid leave...
    • for less than four weeks and are not being paid, select ‘Yes, but absent on holidays, on paid leave, on strike, or temporarily stood down'.
    • for four weeks or more and are not being paid, select 'No, did not have a job'.

    People who are on workers' compensation and...
    • are planning to return to work, select ‘Yes, but absent on holidays, on paid leave, on strike, or temporarily stood down'.
    • won't be returning to work, select 'No, did not have a job'.

    People working for the dole are considered not to be in paid work and should select 'No, did not have a job'.

    People who are casual or freelance workers and...
    • worked in the week before Census night, select 'Yes, worked for payment or profit'.
    • did not work last week but worked at some stage in the four weeks before Census night, select ‘Yes, but absent on holidays, on paid leave, on strike, or temporarily stood down'.
    • did not work in the four weeks before Census night, select 'No, did not have a job'.


    People who work from home and...
    • get paid, select the appropriate 'Yes' response.
    • do not get paid, select 'No, did not have a job'.

    Retired people should select 'No, did not have a job'. This also applies to people who have never had a job.

    In the main job held last week, was the person: Working for an employer; Working in own business

    This question is only applicable for people aged 15 years and over who responded 'Yes, worked for payment or profit' or 'Yes, but absent on holidays, on paid leave, on strike, or temporarily stood down' to the previous question, 'Last week, did the person have a job of any kind?'

    In the main job held last week, was Person 1: Working for an employer, Working in own business
    In the main job held last week, was Person 1:

    If the person had more than one job last week, then ‘main job’ refers to the job in which the person usually works the most hours.

    For all persons conducting their own business, including those with their own incorporated (e.g. Pty Ltd) company, as well as sole traders, partnerships and contractors, select ‘Working in own business’.

    Person's type of employment

    Working for an employer

    Working in own business

    Last week, how many hours did the person work in all jobs?

    Last week, how many hours did the person work in all jobs?
    Last week, how many hours did Person 1 work in all jobs?

    Add any overtime or extra time worked and subtract any time off.

    More information

    Hours worked

    More information

    Additional instructions relating to the question on: Last week, how many hours did the person work in all jobs?
    Last week, how many hours did Person 1 work in all jobs?

    Add any overtime or extra time worked and subtract any time off.

    More information

    Include all hours the person worked for all jobs, even if those hours are not the hours they usually work.

    Include any overtime and hours spent working at home.

    Do not include time off work, for example, sick leave or annual leave.

    If the person did not work any hours, please enter '0'.

    Did the person actively look for work at any time in the last four weeks?

    Did the person actively look for work at any time in the last four weeks?
    Did Person 1 actively look for work at any time in the last four weeks?

    Full-time work means 35 hours or more per week.

    Examples of actively looking for work include:
    • Writing, telephoning or applying to an employer for work
    • Having a job interview
    • Checking or registering with an employment agency
    • Taking steps to purchase or start a business
    • Advertising or tendering for work
    • Contacting friends or relatives in order to obtain work
    • Answering an advertisement for a job

    More information

    Whether person looked for work

    No, did not look for work

    Yes, looked for full-time work

    Yes, looked for part-time work

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: . Did the person actively look for work at any time in the last four weeks?
    Did Person 1 actively look for work at any time in the last four weeks?

    Full-time work means 35 hours or more per week.

    Examples of actively looking for work include:
    • Writing, telephoning or applying to an employer for work
    • Having a job interview
    • Checking or registering with an employment agency
    • Taking steps to purchase or start a business
    • Advertising or tendering for work
    • Contacting friends or relatives in order to obtain work
    • Answering an advertisement for a job

    More information

    All people who are not looking for work, including retired people, should select 'No, did not look for work'.

    Select 'No, did not look for work' if the person only looked in newspapers, on the internet or checked notice boards, and did not take any of the active steps listed in the question.

    If the person had found a job, could the person have started work last week?

    If the person had found a job, could the person have started work last week?
    If Person 1 had found a job, could they have started work last week?

    Whether person could have started work last week

    Yes, could have started work last week

    No, already had a job to go to

    No, temporarily ill or injured

    No, other reason

    This question is only applicable to people aged 15 years and over who responded 'Yes, looked for full-time work' or 'Yes, looked for part-time work' to the previous question, 'Did the person actively look for work at any time in the last four weeks?'

    How this variable is created

    Data is derived from the following variables:

    • Labour force status and hours worked not stated (LFHRP)
    • Full-time/part-time student status (STUP)
    • Age (AGEP)

    The variables are cross tabulated to identify the type of engagement in work and/or study. Further information is shown in the matrix in the Data downloads section below. 

    History and changes

    This variable was first reported in 2016.

    In 2021, the categories have been expanded to provide a more detailed breakdown for 'fully engaged' and 'partially engaged'. This is required for several national reporting measures and allows for more complex analysis.

    Data use considerations

    For the 2006 and 2011 Censuses, data for this variable can be derived based on existing data items.

    People are included in the variable categories according to the criteria below:

    Engagement in Employment, Education and Training categories People included in this category

    Fully engaged

    People engaged in full-time work or study

    People engaged in both work and study (regardless of hours for each)

    Partially engaged

    People employed or studying part-time (and not engaged in both work and study)

    Examples:

    • Employed part-time and not attending an educational institution
    • Studying part-time and either unemployed or not in the labour force

    At least partially engaged

    People engaged in study or in the labour force, but did not provide enough information to determine if they were fully or partially engaged.

    Example:

    • Person who was studying part-time but who did not state their labour force status

    Not engaged

    People who are unemployed or not in the labour force (and not attending an educational institution)

    Engagement status undetermined/Not stated

    People who did not state their student status and who were either unemployed or not in the labour force.

    This category also includes persons who were non-responding (not stated) for both their student status and their labour force status

    Related variables and glossary terms

    • Age (AGEP)
    • Labour force status (LFSP)
    • Labour force status and hours worked not stated (LFHRP)
    • Hours worked (HRSP)
    • Full-time/part-time student status (STUP)

    Downloads

    National reporting indicators 2021

    Level of highest educational attainment (HEAP)

    Definition

    This variable records a single measure of a person’s overall highest level of educational attainment, whether it be a school or non-school qualification. It helps to build a picture of education attainment and qualifications across Australia and can be used to:

    • compare with data collected in previous Censuses to help understand the changes of educational achievement in Australia over time
    • determine the general level of educational achievement of the Australian population and of specific groups in Australian society
    • investigate the relationship between levels of education and employment outcomes, income and other socioeconomic variables.

    Scope

    Persons aged 15 years and over

    Categories

    Categories for Level of highest educational attainment (HEAP)

    1 Postgraduate Degree Level
      10 Postgraduate Degree Level, nfd
        100 Postgraduate Degree Level, nfd
      11 Doctoral Degree Level
        110 Doctoral Degree Level, nfd
        111 Higher Doctorate
        114 Professional Specialist Qualification at Doctoral Degree Level
      12 Master Degree Level
        120 Master Degree Level, nfd
    2 Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate Level
      20 Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate Level, nfd
        200 Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate Level, nfd
      21 Graduate Diploma Level
        211 Graduate Diploma
      22 Graduate Certificate Level
        221 Graduate Certificate
    3 Bachelor Degree Level
      31 Bachelor Degree Level
        310 Bachelor Degree Level, nfd
    4 Advanced Diploma and Diploma Level
      40 Advanced Diploma and Diploma Level, nfd
        400 Advanced Diploma and Diploma Level, nfd
      41 Advanced Diploma and Associate Degree Level
        411 Advanced Diploma
        413 Associate Degree
      42 Diploma Level
        420 Diploma Level, nfd
        421 Diploma
    5 Certificate Level III & IV
      51 Certificate III & IV Level
        510 Certificate III & IV Level, nfd
        511 Certificate IV
        514 Certificate III
    6 Secondary Education - Years 10 and above
      61 Secondary Education - Years 10 and above
        611 Year 12
        613 Year 11
        621 Year 10
    7 Certificate Level I & II Level
      72 Certificate I & II Level
        720 Certificate I & II Level, nfd
        721 Certificate II
        724 Certificate I
    8 Secondary Education - Years 9 and below
      81 Secondary Education - Years 9 and below
        811 Year 9
        812 Year 8 or below
    Supplementary Codes  
    9 Supplementary Codes
      90 Level of education inadequately described
        001 Indadequately described
      91 No educational attainment
        998 No educational attainment
    & Not stated  
      && Not stated
        &&& Not stated
    @ Not applicable  
      @@ Not applicable
        @@@ Not applicable
    V Overseas visitor  
      VV Overseas visitor
        VVV Overseas visitor

    Not applicable (@@@) comprises:
    • Persons aged under 15 years 

    Number of categories:
    • 1 digit - 12
    • 2 digit - 20
    • 3 digit - 31

    Question(s) from the Census form

    What is the highest year of primary or secondary school the person has completed?

    What is the highest year of primary or secondary school the person has completed?
    What is the highest year of primary or secondary school Person 1 has completed?

    For people currently at school, select the highest year of schooling they have completed, not the year they are currently undertaking.

    More information

    Person's highest year of school completed

    Year 12 or equivalent

    Year 11 or equivalent

    Year 10 or equivalent

    Year 9 or equivalent

    Year 8 or below

    Did not go to school

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question: What is the highest year of primary or secondary school the person has completed?
    What is the highest year of primary or secondary school Person 1 has completed?

    For people currently at school, select the highest year of schooling they have completed, not the year they are currently undertaking.

    More information

    Select 'Year 12 or equivalent' if the person has completed:
    • Year 13
    • 6th form
    • Matriculation
    • Highest year of school available.

    If the highest year of schooling the person has completed was in primary school, select 'Year 8 or below'.

    For persons who left school and then returned after a break, select the highest year of schooling they have completed irrespective of when it was completed.

    Include school level education undertaken at other institutions (e.g. at a TAFE).

    Has the person completed any educational qualification?

    Has the person completed any educational qualification?
    Has Person 1 completed any educational qualification?

    More information

    Person's completed qualification

    No

    No, still studying for first qualification

    Yes, trade certificate/apprenticeship

    Yes, other qualification (certificate, diploma or degree)

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: Has the person completed any educational qualification?
    Has Person 1 completed any educational qualification?

    More information

    If the person completed any vocational qualifications as part of their secondary schooling, select 'Yes, other qualification'.

    If the person has completed any other qualifications, select the appropriate 'Yes' response. Non-school or higher education qualifications include Certificates I-IV; Trade Certificates; Diplomas and Advanced Diplomas; Bachelor Degrees; Graduate Certificates and Graduate Diplomas; and higher degrees such as a Masters or Doctorate.

    What is the level of the highest qualification the person has completed?

    What is the level of the highest qualification the person has completed?
    What is the level of the highest qualification Person 1 has completed?

    For example: Trade Certificate, Bachelor Degree, Associate Diploma, Certificate II, Advanced Diploma.

    More information

    Level of qualification

    More information

    Additional instructions relating to the question on: What is the level of the highest qualification the person has completed?
    What is the level of the highest qualification Person 1 has completed?

    For example: Trade Certificate, Bachelor Degree, Associate Diploma, Certificate II, Advanced Diploma.

    More information

    If the person has two or more qualifications, only state the highest qualification obtained. For example, if the person has a Graduate Diploma of Education and a Bachelor Degree in Economics, the Graduate Diploma should be reported as the higher qualification.

    Qualification levels listed from highest to lowest:
    • Doctorate
    • Master Degree
    • Graduate Diploma
    • Graduate Certificate
    • Bachelor Degree with Honours
    • Bachelor Degree
    • Associate Degree
    • Advanced Diploma
    • Diploma
    • Associate Diploma
    • Advanced Certificate
    • Certificate IV (or Post-trade)
    • Certificate III (or Trade)
    • Certificate II
    • Certificate I

    What is the main field of study for the person’s highest qualification completed?

    What is the main field of study for the person’s highest qualification completed?
    What is the main field of study for Person 1's highest qualification completed?

    For example: Plumbing, Primary school teaching, Accounting, Hairdressing, Psychology, Hospitality.

    More information

    Field of study

    More information

    Additional instructions relating to the question on: What is the main field of study for the person’s highest qualification completed?
    What is the main field of study for Person 1's highest qualification completed?

    For example: Plumbing, Primary school teaching, Accounting, Hairdressing, Psychology, Hospitality.

    More information

    The main field of study is in relation to the highest qualification entered in the previous question.

    If the person has two or more qualifications and they are at the same level, provide the field of the one obtained most recently.

    If the person has two qualifications of the same level, completed at the same time (for example, double degrees), select the qualification considered the most important to them.

    How this variable is created

    Level of highest educational attainment (HEAP) is derived using a combination of two variables:

    • Highest year of school completed (HSCP)
    • Non-school qualification: level of education (QALLP)

    These variables are sourced from the Census questions.

    The derivation process determines which of the 'non-school' and 'school' attainments will be regarded as the highest. Usually the higher-ranking attainment is self-evident, but in some cases Secondary education is regarded as higher than some Certificate level attainments. The following decision table describes how Certificate levels and Highest year of school completed are coded.

    Table 1. Derivation of level of Highest educational attainment decision table
    Highest year of school completed (HSCP) Certificate nfd*
    (500)
    Certificate III & IV nfd
    (510)
    Certificate IV
    (511)
    Certificate III
    (514)
    Certificate I & II nfd
    (520)
    Certificate II
    (521)
    Certificate I (524) Level of education inadequately described
    (011)
    Level of education
    not stated
    (&&&)

    Year 12 (1)

    Inadequately described

    Certificate III & IV, nfd

    Certificate IV

    Certificate III

    Year 12

    Year 12

    Year 12

    Inadequately described

    Not stated

    Year 11 (2)

    Inadequately described

    Certificate III & IV, nfd

    Certificate IV

    Certificate III

    Year 11

    Year 11

    Year 11

    Inadequately described

    Not stated

    Year 10 (3)

    Inadequately described

    Certificate III & IV, nfd

    Certificate IV

    Certificate III

    Year 10

    Year 10

    Year 10

    Inadequately described

    Not stated

    Year 9 (4)

    Inadequately described

    Certificate III & IV, nfd

    Certificate IV

    Certificate III

    Certificate I & II nfd

    Certificate II

    Certificate I

    Inadequately described

    Not stated

    Year 8 or below (5)

    Inadequately described

    Certificate III & IV, nfd

    Certificate IV

    Certificate III

    Certificate I & II nfd

    Certificate II

    Certificate I

    Inadequately described

    Not stated

    Did not go to school (6)

    Inadequately described

    Certificate III & IV, nfd

    Certificate IV

    Certificate III

    Certificate I & II nfd

    Certificate II

    Certificate I

    Inadequately described

    Not stated

    Not stated (&)

    Not stated

    Certificate III & IV, nfd

    Certificate IV

    Certificate III

    Not stated

    Not stated

    Not stated

    Not stated

    Not stated

    Note: the number in brackets refer to the classification code used for Highest year of school completed (HSCP) and Non-school qualification: level of education (QALLP).

    *nfd: not further defined

    History and changes

    While questions regarding educational qualifications in general have been asked for every Census since 1911, Level of highest educational attainment, which combines measures of school and non-school education, was first reported in 2006.

    In 2011, people in the following categories were assigned a Level of highest educational attainment the same as their highest year of school completed:

    • Highest Year of School Completed of Year 8 or below to Year 12
    • Certificate not further defined

    In 2016, people with ‘Highest Year of School Completed of Year 8 or below to Year 12’ and a ‘Certificate not further defined’ were assigned a Level of highest educational attainment as 'Inadequately described'.

    For 2021, Undergraduate certificates are a new qualification and will be coded to category '420 Diploma level, nfd'. In previous Censuses, nothing has been coded to this category. See also Non-school qualification: level of education (QALLP).

    Data use considerations

    This variable can be used to provide data on Target 6 for the National Agreement for Closing the Gap.

    • By 2031, increase the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 25-34 years who have completed a tertiary qualification (Certificate III and above) to 70 per cent.

    Related variables and glossary terms

    Other ABS sources

    Highest year of school completed (HSCP)

    Definition

    This variable records the highest level of primary or secondary schooling completed. The data is used to help build a picture of the education levels attained in each area of Australia and to assist in the planning of educational facilities.

    Scope

    Persons aged 15 years and over

    Categories

    Code Category

    1

    Year 12 or equivalent

    2

    Year 11 or equivalent

    3

    Year 10 or equivalent

    4

    Year 9 or equivalent

    5

    Year 8 or below

    6

    Did not go to school

    &

    Not stated

    @

    Not applicable

    V

    Overseas visitor

    Coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001.

    See the Glossary for further information about the meaning of ‘or equivalent level of education’.

    Number of categories: 9

    Not applicable (@) category comprises:

    • Persons aged under 15 years

    Question(s) from the Census form

    What is the highest year of primary or secondary school the person has completed?

    What is the highest year of primary or secondary school the person has completed?
    What is the highest year of primary or secondary school Person 1 has completed?

    For people currently at school, select the highest year of schooling they have completed, not the year they are currently undertaking.

    More information

    Person's highest year of school completed

    Year 12 or equivalent

    Year 11 or equivalent

    Year 10 or equivalent

    Year 9 or equivalent

    Year 8 or below

    Did not go to school

    More information

    Additional information relating to the question on: What is the highest year of primary or secondary school the person has completed?
    What is the highest year of primary or secondary school Person 1 has completed?

    For people currently at school, select the highest year of schooling they have completed, not the year they are currently undertaking.

    More information

    Select 'Year 12 or equivalent' if the person has completed:
    • Year 13
    • 6th form
    • Matriculation
    • Highest year of school available.
    If the highest year of schooling the person has completed was in primary school, select 'Year 8 or below'.

    For persons who left school and then returned after a break, select the highest year of schooling they have completed irrespective of when it was completed.

    Include school level education undertaken at other institutions (e.g. at a TAFE).

    How this variable is created

    This variable is sourced directly from the highest year of primary or secondary school question on the Census form. The responses are captured automatically from mark box responses. Respondents are asked to only mark one response. Where respondents provided more than one response, the responses are accepted in the order they appear on the form and extra responses are rejected.

    History and changes

    The question relating to Highest year of school completed where respondents reported their highest level of educational attainment was first asked in the 1911 Census. In 2016 some minor adjustment to the wording of the question instructions was made for the purposes of clarity.

    No changes have been made for 2021.

    Data use considerations

    The 'Still at school' category has been excluded from the classification since 2006. It allowed the level of highest educational attainment to be determined for people still at school. From 2006 onwards, those still studying at school and the year level they are currently in can be identified by cross-classifying Highest year of school completed (HSCP) and Type of educational institution attending (TYPP). Full-time/part-time student status (STUP) may also be used.

    Related variables and glossary terms

    • Type of educational institution attending (TYPP)
    • Full-time/part-time student status (STUP)
    • Level of highest educational attainment (HEAP)
    • Attainment of Year 12 or Certificate II or higher (YR12C2P)
    • Attainment of Year 12 or Certificate III or higher (YR12C3P)

    Other ABS sources

    Non-school qualification: field of study (QALFP)

    Definition

    This variable describes the field of study of a person’s highest completed non-school qualification. Qualifications data is used to:

    • help build a picture of the different non-school qualifications undertaken in Australia and how this has changed over time
    • assess the skill level of the labour force, and potential labour force
    • understand the characteristics of Australia’s workforce when compared with occupation and industry of employment.

    Scope

    Persons aged 15 years and over who stated a completed qualification

    Categories

    Non-school qualification: field of study (QALFP) is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001. The categories are listed in groups below. The full list is available from the Data downloads on this page.

    01 Natural and Physical Sciences

     01  Natural and Physical Sciences
       0100 Natural and Physical Sciences, nfd
         010000 Natural and Physical Sciences, nfd
       0101 Mathematical Sciences
         010100 Mathematical Sciences, nfd
         010101 Mathematics
         010103  Statistics
         010199 Mathematical Sciences, nec
       0103 Physics and Astronomy
         010300 Physics and Astronomy, nfd
         010301 Physics
         010303  Astronomy
       0105 Chemical Sciences
         010500 Chemical Sciences, nfd
         010501  Organic Chemistry
         010503 Inorganic Chemistry
         010599 Chemical Sciences, nec
       0107 Earth Sciences  
         010700 Earth Sciences, nfd
         010701 Atmospheric Sciences
         010703 Geology
         010705 Geophysics
         010707 Geochemistry
         010709 Soil Science
         010711 Hydrology
         010713 Oceanography
         010799 Earth Sciences, nec
       0109 Biological Sciences
         010900 Biological Sciences, nfd
         010901 Biochemistry and Cell Biology
         010903 Botany
         010905 Ecology and Evolution
         010907 Marine Science
         010909 Genetics
         010911 Microbiology
         010913 Human Biology
         010915 Zoology
         010999 Biological Sciences, nec
       0199 Other Natural and Physical Sciences
         019900  Other Natural and Physical Sciences, nfd
         019901  Medical Science
         019903  Forensic Science
         019905  Food Science and Biotechnology
         019907 Pharmacology
         019909  Laboratory Technology
         019999  Natural and Physical Sciences, nec

    02 Information Technology

     02  Information Technology  
       0200 Information Technology, nfd
         020000  Information Technology, nfd
       0201  Computer Science
         020100  Computer Science, nfd
         020101  Formal Language Theory
         020103 Programming
         020105 Computational Theory
         020107 Compiler Construction
         020109 Algorithms
         020111  Data Structures
         020113 Networks and Communications
         020115  Computer Graphics
         020117 Operating Systems
         020119 Artificial Intelligence
         020199  Computer Science, nec
       0203 Information Systems
         020300  Information Systems, nfd
         020301 Conceptual Modelling
         020303 Database Management
         020305 Systems Analysis and Design
         020307 Decision Support Systems
         020399 Information Systems, nec
       0299 Other Information Technology
         029900 Other Information Technology, nfd
         029901 Security Science
         029999 Information Technology, nec

    03 Engineering and Related Technologies

     03 Engineering and Related Technologies
       0300  Engineering and Related Technologies, nfd
         030000 Engineering and Related Technologies, nfd
       0301  Manufacturing Engineering and Technology
         030100  Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, nfd
         030101 Manufacturing Engineering
         030103 Printing
         030105  Textile Making
         030107 Garment Making
         030109  Footwear Making
         030111  Wood Machining and Turning
         030113 Cabinet Making
         030115 Furniture Upholstery and Renovation
         030117  Furniture Polishing
         030199  Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, nec
       0303  Process and Resources Engineering
         030300  Process and Resources Engineering, nfd
         030301  Chemical Engineering
         030303  Mining Engineering
         030305  Materials Engineering
         030307  Food Processing Technology
         030399  Process and Resources Engineering, nec
       0305  Automotive Engineering and Technology
         030500  Automotive Engineering and Technology, nfd
         030501  Automotive Engineering
         030503  Vehicle Mechanics
         030505  Automotive Electrics and Electronics
         030507 Automotive Vehicle Refinishing
         030509 Automotive Body Construction
         030511  Panel Beating
         030513  Upholstery and Vehicle Trimming
         030515  Automotive Vehicle Operations
         030599 Automotive Engineering and Technology, nec
       0307 Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Technology
         030700 Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Technology, nfd
         030701 Mechanical Engineering
         030703  Industrial Engineering
         030705 Toolmaking
         030707  Metal Fitting, Turning and Machining
         030709 Sheetmetal Working
         030711 Boilermaking and Welding
         030713 Metal Casting and Patternmaking
         030715 Precision Metalworking
         030717 Plant and Machine Operations
         030799  Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Technology, nec
       0309  Civil Engineering
         030900 Civil Engineering, nfd
         030901 Construction Engineering
         030903  Structural Engineering
         030905  Building Services Engineering
         030907  Water and Sanitary Engineering
         030909 Transport Engineering
         030911  Geotechnical Engineering
         030913 Ocean Engineering
         030999 Civil Engineering, nec
       0311  Geomatic Engineering
         031100  Geomatic Engineering, nfd
         031101 Surveying
         031103 Mapping Science
         031199  Geomatic Engineering, nec
       0313  Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Technology
         031300 Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Technology, nfd
         031301  Electrical Engineering
         031303  Electronic Engineering
         031305  Computer Engineering
         031307  Communications Technologies
         031309  Communications Equipment Installation and Maintenance
         031311  Powerline Installation and Maintenance
         031313  Electrical Fitting, Electrical Mechanics
         031315  Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Mechanics
         031317  Electronic Equipment Servicing
         031399  Electrical and Electronic Engineering and Technology, nec
       0315 Aerospace Engineering and Technology
         031500  Aerospace Engineering and Technology, nfd
         031501  Aerospace Engineering
         031503  Aircraft Maintenance Engineering
         031505  Aircraft Operation
         031507  Air Traffic Control
         031599  Aerospace Engineering and Technology, nec
       0317 Maritime Engineering and Technology
         031700 Maritime Engineering and Technology, nfd
         031701  Maritime Engineering
         031703 Marine Construction
         031705  Marine Craft Operation
         031799  Maritime Engineering and Technology, nec
       0399 Other Engineering and Related Technologies
         039900 Other Engineering and Related Technologies, nfd
         039901  Environmental Engineering
         039903  Biomedical Engineering
         039905  Fire Technology
         039907  Rail Operations
         039909  Cleaning
         039999  Engineering and Related Technologies, nec

    04 Architecture and Building

     04  Architecture and Building  
       0400  Architecture and Building, nfd
         040000  Architecture and Building, nfd
       0401 Architecture and Urban Environment
         040100  Architecture and Urban Environment, nfd
         040101  Architecture
         040103 Urban Design and Regional Planning
         040105  Landscape Architecture
         040107 Interior and Environmental Design
         040199 Architecture and Urban Environment, nec
       0403  Building  
         040300  Building, nfd
         040301  Building Science and Technology
         040303 Building Construction Management
         040305 Building Surveying
         040307  Building Construction Economics
         040309  Bricklaying and Stonemasonry
         040311  Carpentry and Joinery
         040313  Ceiling, Wall and Floor Fixing
         040315  Roof Fixing
         040317  Plastering
         040319  Furnishing Installation
         040321  Floor Coverings
         040323 Glazing
         040325  Painting, Decorating and Sign Writing
         040327  Plumbing
         040329  Scaffolding and Rigging
         040399 Building, nec

    05 Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies

     05 Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies
       0500  Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies, nfd
         050000  Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies, nfd
       0501 Agriculture  
         050100  Agriculture, nfd
         050101 Agricultural Science
         050103  Wool Science
         050105 Animal Husbandry
         050199 Agriculture, nec
       0503  Horticulture and Viticulture
         050300  Horticulture and Viticulture, nfd
         050301  Horticulture
         050303  Viticulture
       0505  Forestry Studies
         050501 Forestry Studies
       0507  Fisheries Studies
         050700  Fisheries Studies, nfd
         050701  Aquaculture
         050799  Fisheries Studies, nec
       0509  Environmental Studies
         050900 Environmental Studies, nfd
         050901  Land, Parks and Wildlife Management
         050999  Environmental Studies, nec
       0599  Other Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies
         059900 Other Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies, nfd
         059901 Pest and Weed Control
         059999 Agriculture, Environmental and Related Studies, nec

    06 Health

     06  Health    
       0600  Health, nfd  
         060000 Health, nfd
       0601  Medical Studies
         060100  Medical Studies, nfd
         060101  General Medicine
         060103 Surgery
         060105 Psychiatry
         060107 Obstetrics and Gynaecology
         060109 Paediatrics
         060111  Anaesthesiology
         060113  Pathology
         060115  Radiology
         060117 Internal Medicine
         060119  General Practice
         060199 Medical Studies, nec
       0603 Nursing  
         060300  Nursing, nfd
         060301  General Nursing
         060303  Midwifery
         060305 Mental Health Nursing
         060307 Community Nursing
         060309 Critical Care Nursing
         060311  Aged Care Nursing
         060313  Palliative Care Nursing
         060315  Mothercraft Nursing and Family and Child Health Nursing
         060399  Nursing, nec
       0605  Pharmacy  
         060501  Pharmacy
       0607  Dental Studies  
         060700 Dental Studies, nfd
         060701  Dentistry
         060703 Dental Assisting
         060705 Dental Technology
         060799 Dental Studies, nec
       0609 Optical Science  
         060900 Optical Science, nfd
         060901 Optometry
         060903  Optical Technology
         060999  Optical Science, nec
       0611  Veterinary Studies
         061100  Veterinary Studies, nfd
         061101 Veterinary Science
         061103 Veterinary Assisting
         061199 Veterinary Studies, nec
       0613  Public Health  
         061300  Public Health, nfd
         061301  Occupational Health and Safety
         061303 Environmental Health
         061305 Indigenous Health
         061307 Health Promotion
         061309  Community Health
         061311  Epidemiology
         061399  Public Health, nec
       0615  Radiography  
         061501 Radiography
       0617  Rehabilitation Therapies
         061700  Rehabilitation Therapies, nfd
         061701  Physiotherapy
         061703 Occupational Therapy
         061705  Chiropractic and Osteopathy
         061707  Speech Pathology
         061709 Audiology
         061711  Massage Therapy
         061713  Podiatry
         061799  Rehabilitation Therapies, nec
       0619  Complementary Therapies
         061900  Complementary Therapies, nfd
         061901 Naturopathy
         061903  Acupuncture
         061905  Traditional Chinese Medicine
         061999  Complementary Therapies, nec
       0699  Other Health  
         069900 Other Health, nfd
         069901  Nutrition and Dietetics
         069903 Human Movement
         069905 Paramedical Studies
         069907 First Aid
         069999  Health, nec

    07 Education

     07  Education  
       0700  Education, nfd  
         070000  Education, nfd
       0701  Teacher Education
         070100 Teacher Education, nfd
         070101 Teacher Education: Early Childhood
         070103 Teacher Education: Primary
         070105  Teacher Education: Secondary
         070107 Teacher-Librarianship
         070109  Teacher Education: Vocational Education and Training
         070111  Teacher Education: Higher Education
         070113  Teacher Education: Special Education
         070115  English as a Second Language Teaching
         070117  Nursing Education Teacher Training
         070199  Teacher Education, nec
       0703 Curriculum and Education Studies
         070300  Curriculum and Education Studies, nfd
         070301  Curriculum Studies
         070303  Education Studies
       0799  Other Education  
         079999 Education, nec

    08 Management and Commerce

     08 Management and Commerce
       0800  Management and Commerce, nfd
         080000  Management and Commerce, nfd
       0801  Accounting  
         080101 Accounting
       0803  Business and Management
         080300  Business and Management, nfd
         080301  Business Management
         080303  Human Resource Management
         080305  Personal Management Training
         080307 Organisation Management
         080309  Industrial Relations
         080311  International Business
         080313  Public and Health Care Administration
         080315  Project Management
         080317  Quality Management
         080319  Hospitality Management
         080321  Farm Management and Agribusiness
         080323  Tourism Management
         080399  Business and Management, nec
       0805  Sales and Marketing
         080500  Sales and Marketing, nfd
         080501 Sales
         080503  Real Estate
         080505  Marketing
         080507  Advertising
         080509  Public Relations
         080599  Sales and Marketing, nec
       0807 Tourism  
         080701  Tourism
       0809  Office Studies  
         080900  Office Studies, nfd
         080901 Secretarial and Clerical Studies
         080903  Keyboard Skills
         080905  Practical Computing Skills
         080999  Office Studies, nec
       0811  Banking, Finance and Related Fields
         081100 Banking, Finance and Related Fields, nfd
         081101 Banking and Finance
         081103  Insurance and Actuarial Studies
         081105  Investment and Securities
         081199  Banking, Finance and Related Fields, nec
       0899  Other Management and Commerce
         089900  Other Management and Commerce, nfd
         089901  Purchasing, Warehousing and Distribution
         089903  Valuation
         089999  Management and Commerce, nec

    09 Society and Culture

     09  Society and Culture  
       0900 Society and Culture, nfd
         090000  Society and Culture, nfd
       0901  Political Science and Policy Studies
         090100 Political Science and Policy Studies, nfd
         090101 Political Science
         090103  Policy Studies
       0903  Studies in Human Society
         090300 Studies in Human Society, nfd
         090301 Sociology
         090303 Anthropology
         090305 History
         090307 Archaeology
         090309  Human Geography
         090311  Indigenous Studies
         090313  Gender Specific Studies
         090399 Studies in Human Society, nec
       0905  Human Welfare Studies and Services
         090500 Human Welfare Studies and Services, nfd
         090501  Social Work
         090503 Children's Services
         090505 Youth Work
         090507  Care for the Aged
         090509 Care for the Disabled
         090511  Residential Client Care
         090513  Counselling
         090515  Welfare Studies
         090599 Human Welfare Studies and Services, nec
       0907  Behavioural Science
         090700 Behavioural Science, nfd
         090701  Psychology
         090799 Behavioural Science, nec
       0909  Law  
         090900 Law, nfd
         090901 Business and Commercial Law
         090903  Constitutional Law
         090905  Criminal Law
         090907  Family Law
         090909  International Law
         090911  Taxation Law
         090913  Legal Practice
         090999 Law, nec
       0911  Justice and Law Enforcement
         091100 Justice and Law Enforcement, nfd
         091101  Justi