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National Study of Mental Health and Wellbeing

Summary statistics on key mental health issues including the prevalence of mental disorders and the use of services

Reference period
2020-21

Key statistics

  • Over two in five Australians aged 16-85 years (43.7% or 8.6 million people) had experienced a mental disorder at some time in their life
  • One in five (21.4% or 4.2 million people) had a 12-month mental disorder
  • Anxiety was the most common group of 12-month mental disorders (16.8% or 3.3 million people)
  • Almost two in five people (39.6%) aged 16-24 years had a 12-month mental disorder

COVID-19 context

The National Study of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2020-21 was collected between December 2020 and July 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interviews were conducted with respondents in person where social distancing restrictions and other jurisdictional requirements allowed. During this time initiatives were in place to help reduce the spread of COVID-19 including border control measures for some states and territories, stay at home orders, remote learning, shutting down non-essential services, limits on gatherings and social distancing rules.

 

Mental health is a key component of overall health and wellbeing. A mental illness can be defined as ‘a clinically diagnosable disorder that significantly interferes with an individual’s cognitive, emotional or social abilities’[1]. The term itself covers a range of illnesses including anxiety, affective and substance use disorders.

A person does not need to meet the criteria for a mental disorder to be negatively affected by their mental health. Mental ill-health affects and is affected by multiple socioeconomic factors, including a person’s access to services, living conditions and employment status, and impacts not only the individual but also their families and carers.[2]

The ABS recognises people who have a lived experience of mental ill-health and that having - or not having - mental ill-health does not define a person. We acknowledge that people are living productive, purposeful and meaningful lives with mental ill-health. We acknowledge their unique experiences, and those of carers, families and supporters of people living with mental ill-health.

The ABS uses, and supports the use of, the Mindframe guidelines on responsible, accurate and safe reporting on suicide, mental ill-health and alcohol and other drugs. The ABS recommends referring to these guidelines when reporting on statistics in this report.

Some of these statistics may cause distress. Services you can contact are detailed in blue boxes throughout this page and in the Mental health resources section at the bottom of this page.

Crisis support services

24 hours, 7 days

Lifeline: 13 11 14 

Suicide Call Back Service: 1300 659 467 

Beyond Blue: 1300 224 636

MensLine Australia: 1300 789 978

Kids Helpline: 1800 551 800

For further information see Mental health resources

Prevalence of mental disorders

Definition of lifetime and 12-month mental disorders

The 2020-21 National Study of Mental Health and Wellbeing (NSMHW) measures the prevalence of mental disorders among Australians aged 16-85 years using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0).

Respondents were asked about their experiences and symptoms of mental ill-health throughout their lifetime, from which two key measures are analysed:

  • lifetime mental disorders, which refers to the number of people who met the diagnostic criteria for having a mental disorder at some time in their life. This does not imply that a person has had a mental disorder throughout their entire life
  • 12-month mental disorders, which refers to the number of people who met the diagnostic criteria for having a mental disorder at some time in their life and had sufficient symptoms of that disorder in the 12 months prior to the survey.

Three groups of mental disorders are assessed—Anxiety, Affective and Substance Use disorders—based on definitions and criteria of the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10).

See Methodology for more information.

In 2020-21, of the 19.6 million Australians aged 16-85 years:

  • Over two in five (43.7% or 8.6 million people) had experienced a mental disorder at some time in their life
  • One in five people (21.4% or 4.2 million people) had a 12-month mental disorder (that is, they had experienced a mental disorder at some time in their life and had sufficient symptoms of that disorder in the 12 months prior to the survey)
  • There were 4.4 million people (22.3%) who had experienced a mental disorder at some time in their life but did not have a 12-month mental disorder.

Lifetime and 12-month mental disorders, 2020-21

Loading chart...

Flowchart showing numbers of people aged 16-85 years with lifetime and 12-month mental disorders.

Total population aged 16-85 years is 19,637,000, or 100%. This branches into two groups: 

  • People with any lifetime mental disorder, which is 8,589,100, or 43.7%. See footnote (a)
  • People with no lifetime mental disorder, which is 11,065,500 or 56.4%.

The population group with a lifetime mental disorder branches into:

  • People with any 12-month mental disorder, which is 4,198,700, or 21.4%. See footnote (b)
  • People without any 12-month mental disorder, which is 4,386,900, or 22.3%.
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  1. People who had experienced a mental disorder at some time in their life.
  2. People who had experienced a mental disorder at some time in their life and had sufficient symptoms of that disorder in the 12 months prior to the survey.

Prevalence of 12-month mental disorders

In 2020-21, one in five people (21.4% or 4.2 million) had a 12-month mental disorder:

  • 16.8% (3.3 million people) had a 12-month Anxiety disorder
  • 7.5% (1.5 million people) had a 12-month Affective disorder
  • 3.3% (650,800 people) had a 12-month Substance Use disorder.
12-month mental disorders by type of disorder, 2020-21
Any 12-month mental disorder(a)(b) (21.4%)Anxiety disorders(b) (16.8%)Panic Disorder (3.7%)
Agoraphobia (4.6%)
Social Phobia (7.0%)
Generalised Anxiety Disorder (3.8%)
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (3.1%)
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (5.7%)
Affective disorders(b) (7.5%)Depressive Episode (4.6%)
Dysthymia (1.7%)
Bipolar Affective Disorder (2.2%)
Substance Use disorders(b) (3.3%)Alcohol Harmful Use (1.6%)
Alcohol Dependence (0.9%)
Drug Use Disorders (1.0%)

a.    People who had experienced a mental disorder at some time in their life and had sufficient symptoms of that disorder in the 12 months prior to the survey.
b.    A person may have had more than one mental disorder. 

One in four females (24.6%) had a 12-month mental disorder in 2020-21, compared with 18.0% of males:

  • Females experienced higher rates than males of Anxiety disorders (21.0% compared with 12.4%) and Affective disorders (8.5% compared with 6.2%)
  • Males had almost twice the rate of Substance Use disorder (4.4% compared with 2.3%).

The prevalence of 12-month mental disorders varied by age, with younger people having higher rates:

  • Almost two in five people (39.6%) aged 16-24 years had a 12-month mental disorder in 2020-21
  • Around one in four people (27.1%) aged 25-34 years had a 12-month mental disorder
  • Almost half (46.6%) of females aged 16-24 years and almost one third (31.2%) of males aged 16-24 years had a 12-month mental disorder.

Type of 12-month mental disorder

12-month Anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders typically involve feelings of tension, distress or nervousness. A person may avoid situations they believe cause these feelings, potentially limiting their interactions with the wider world and impacting the way they live.[3]

Support Services 

Beyond Blue: 1300 224 636 (24 hours, 7 days)

Kids Helpline: 1800 551 800 (24 hours, 7 days)

QLife (LGBTIQ+): 1800 184 527 (3pm - midnight, 7 days)

In 2020-21, 16.8% of people aged 16-85 years (3.3 million people) had a 12-month Anxiety disorder:

  • Females were more likely than males to have had a 12-month Anxiety disorder (21.0% compared to 12.4%)
  • Almost one third (31.5%) of people aged 16-24 years had a 12-month Anxiety disorder, with 41.3% of females this age having a 12-month Anxiety disorder
  • 44.7% of people who identified as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or who used a different term such as Asexual, Pansexual or Queer had a 12-month Anxiety disorder
  • Over one quarter (28.7%) of people living in one parent family households with dependent children had a 12-month Anxiety disorder
  • 7.0% of people had a 12-month Social Phobia disorder while 5.7% had a 12-month Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Females experienced higher rates of Social Phobia (9.8% compared with 4.3%) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7.6% compared with 3.6%) than males.

12-month Affective disorders

Affective disorders refer to conditions that disturb a person’s mood to the point where it becomes difficult to function in relationships or at work. While people’s experiences with affective disorders vary, they can cause a person to withdraw from social contact, lose interest in the important things in their life and make enjoyable activities seem like too much effort.[4][5]

Support services

Lifeline: 13 11 14 (24 hours, 7 days)

Beyond Blue: 1300 224 636 (24 hours, 7 days)

QLife (LGBTIQ+): 1800 184 527  (3pm - midnight, 7 days)

1800RESPECT: 1800 737 732 (24 hours, 7 days)

In 2020-21, 7.5% of people aged 16-85 years (1.5 million people) had a 12-month Affective disorder:

  • Females had higher rates of 12-month Affective disorders than males (8.5% compared to 6.2%)
  • One in seven (13.6%) people aged 16-24 years and more than one in ten (11.0%) people aged 25-34 years had a 12-month Affective disorder
  • Three in ten (30.0%) people who identified as Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual or who used a different term such as Asexual, Pansexual or Queer had a 12-month Affective disorder
  • Depressive Episode was the most common Affective disorder (4.6%)
  • 5.3% of females experienced a Depressive Episode in 2020-21, compared with 3.8% of males
  • People who had been without a permanent place to live at some time in their life were more likely to have had a 12-month Affective disorder than people who had not (17.0% compared with 6.4%).
  1. A disorder characterised by at least two years of constant (or constantly recurring) chronic depressed mood, where intervening periods of normal mood rarely last for longer than a few weeks.

12-month Substance Use disorders

Substance Use disorders involve the harmful use or dependence on alcohol or drugs. While people use substances for a range of reasons, misuse of substances may have serious long-term consequences on a person’s health and wellbeing, as well as negatively impacting families and communities.[6] Substances included in the NSMHW were alcohol and four groups of drugs: sedatives, stimulants, cannabinoids and opioids.

Support services

National Alcohol and Other Drugs Hotline: 1800 250 015 (24 hours, 7 days)

Family Drug Support: 1300 368 186 (24 hours, 7 days)

MensLine Australia: 1300 789 978 (24 hours, 7 days)

In 2020-21, 3.3% of people aged 16-85 years (650,800 people) had a 12-month Substance Use disorder:

  • Males were almost twice as likely as females to have had a 12-month Substance Use disorder (4.4% compared with 2.3%)
  • People aged 16-24 years had the highest rates of 12-month Substance Use disorders (9.1%) compared with other age groups
  • Alcohol Harmful Use was more common among males (2.2%) than females (0.9%)
  • People who identified as current smokers were four times more likely than people who had never smoked to have a 12-month Substance Use disorder (9.2% compared with 2.3%)
  • People who had been without a permanent place to live at some time in their life were more likely to have had a 12-month Substance Use disorder than people who had not (8.2% compared with 2.9%).
  1. Includes Drug Harmful Use and Drug Dependence.

Psychological distress

The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) is a widely used indicator which gives a simple measure of psychological distress in the past 4 weeks. In 2020-21, 15.4% of Australians aged 16-85 years experienced high or very high levels of psychological distress:

  • Females were more likely to experience high or very high levels of psychological distress than males (18.6% compared with 12.0%)
  • One in five (20.0%) people aged 16-34 years experienced high or very high levels of psychological distress, twice the rate of people aged 65-85 years (9.6%)
  • 64.2% of people with high or very high levels of psychological distress had a 12-month mental disorder.

Lived experience of suicide

Suicidal behaviour is complex, with many influencing factors. Dealing with stressful or traumatic past or present events, death, separation, loss, bullying, mental illness, alcohol and drugs can play a role in causing emotional pain. Other factors may include life-changing events, family history and relationships, work, education, and social pressures.[7]

Suicide can also have a profound emotional effect not only on family and friends, but on the whole community.[8] The ABS acknowledges the individuals, families and communities affected by suicide each year in Australia.

Support services

24 hours, 7 days:

Lifeline: 13 11 14

Suicide Call Back Service: 1300 659 467 

Kids Helpline: 1800 551 800 (for people aged 5 to 25 years)

MensLine Australia: 1300 789 978

StandBy - Support After Suicide: 1300 727 247

Suicidal thoughts and behaviours in the NSMHW refer to whether a person had ever seriously thought about taking their own life, made a plan to take their own life, or attempted to take their own life, and whether they had done so in the last 12 months.

In 2020-21, one in six (16.7%) Australians aged 16-85 years had experienced any suicidal thoughts or behaviours in their life. This comprises 16.7% of people who had ever seriously thought about taking their own life, 7.7% who had ever made a plan to take their own life, and 4.8% who had ever attempted to take their own life.

  • Females were more likely than males to have experienced any suicidal thoughts or behaviours in their lifetime (18.7% compared with 14.5%)
  • 3.4% of all Australians aged 16-85 years had experienced any suicidal thoughts or behaviours in the last 12 months.
  1. A person must have said they had seriously thought about taking their life to be then asked if they had made a plan or attempt to take their own life. Rates for ‘Any suicidal thoughts or behaviours’ are therefore the same as for ‘Thoughts’.

The NSMHW asked people whether they have ever been close to someone who had taken or attempted to take their own life. Almost two in five (38.0%) people aged 16-85 years had been close to someone who had taken or attempted to take their own life, while 5.9% had been close to someone who had taken or attempted to take their own life in the last 12 months.

Self-harm

Self-harm refers to a person intentionally causing pain or damage to their own body. This behaviour may be motivated as a way of expressing or controlling distressing feelings or thoughts. Self-harm and suicide are distinct and separate acts although some people who self-harm are at an increased risk of suicide.[9]

In 2020-21, 8.8% of Australians aged 16-85 years had ever self-harmed in their lifetime:

  • Females had higher lifetime rates of self-harm than males (11.4% compared with 6.2%)
  • Almost one in four (24.7%) females aged 16-34 years had self-harmed in their lifetime
  • One in fourteen (7.0%) females aged 16-34 years had self-harmed in the last 12 months.
  1. Confidence interval for males not available for publication.

Aspects of disordered eating

Binge eating in the NSMHW is defined as a person eating a large amount of food during a short period of time (more than what most people would eat given the circumstances), associated with feeling this eating is out of control (that is, being unable to prevent these eating behaviours or feeling unable to stop). To be considered binge eating, these behaviours must have occurred at least once a week for several months or longer. These data are not estimates of the prevalence of diagnosed binge eating disorders in Australia, however binge eating and other disordered eating behaviours are the most common indicators of the development of an eating disorder.[10]

Support services

Butterfly: 1800 334 673 (8am - midnight, 7 days. Online chat and email support also available www.butterfly.org.au)

InsideOut: insideoutinstitute.org.au

In 2020-21, one in twenty people (5.1% or 1.0 million) aged 16-85 years experienced binge eating in their lifetime:

  • Females were more than twice as likely as males to have experienced binge eating in their lifetime (7.4% compared with 3.0%)
  • 7.0% of people aged 16-34 years experienced binge eating in their lifetime, compared with 2.1% of people aged 65-85 years.
  1. Confidence interval for males not available for publication.

In 2020-21, 2.4% of all people aged 16-85 years experienced binge eating in the last 12 months. Of females aged 16-34 years, 5.6% experienced binge eating in the last 12-months.

The importance of weight and/or shape to how a person thinks of themselves can be a risk factor for the development of eating disorders.[11] In 2020-21, more than one in five people (21.0%) rated their weight and/or shape as being very or extremely important to how they thought about themselves as a person:

  • Females were more likely than males to rate their weight and/or shape as being very or extremely important (24.2% compared with 17.6%)
  • 31.9% of females aged 16-34 years rated their weight and/or shape as being very or extremely important.

Use of services

Consultations with health professionals for mental health

In 2020-21, 3.4 million Australians aged 16-85 years (17.5%) saw a health professional for their mental health:

  • More than one in five (22.8%) females saw a health professional for their mental health, compared with one in eight males (12.2%)
  • Around one in four (24.1%) people aged 16-34 years saw a health professional for their mental health, compared with 16.8% of people aged 35-64 years and 7.5% of people aged 65-85 years
  • 12.9% of people saw a general practitioner for their mental health
  • 7.6% saw a psychologist.

Of the 3.4 million people who saw a health professional for their mental health in 2020-21:

  • 57.4% had a 12-month mental disorder
  • 17.7% had experienced a mental disorder at some time in their life but did not have a 12-month mental disorder
  • 24.0% had no lifetime mental disorder.

There were 4.2 million people with a 12-month mental disorder in 2020-21. Almost half (47.1%) of these saw a health professional for their mental health:

  • More than half (54.7%) of all females with a 12-month mental disorder saw a health professional for their mental health, compared with 37.0% of all males with a 12-month mental disorder
  • 47.7% of people aged 16-34 years with a 12-month mental disorder saw a health professional for their mental health.
  1. In the 12 months prior to interview.
  2. Includes mental health nurse and other mental health professional.
  3. Also includes specialist doctor or surgeon, other health professional and hospital admissions for mental health.

Perceived need for help

Perceived need for help assesses whether people felt they received enough help to manage their mental health, such as counselling, information and medicine.

In 2020-21 there were 2.0 million people with a 12-month mental disorder who had consultations with health professionals for their mental health. Of these people:

  • 28.5% did not have their need for counselling met or only had their need partially met
  • 26.1% did not have their need for information met or only had their need partially met.

Of the 989,000 people aged 16-34 years with a 12-month mental disorder who had consultations with health professionals for their mental health:

  • 35.3% did not have their need for counselling met or only had their need partially met
  • 32.0% did not have their need for information met or only had their need partially met.
  1. In the 12 months prior to interview. 
  2. Need partially met and need not met.

In 2020-21 there were 2.2 million people with a 12-month mental disorder who did not have any consultations with health professionals for their mental health. Of these people, one in five (20.3%) reported that their need for counselling was not met.

Of the 1.1 million people aged 16-34 years with a 12-month mental disorder who did not have any consultations with health professionals for their mental health, one in four (26.2%) reported that their need for counselling was not met.

  1. No consultations with health professionals for mental health in the last 12 months, including hospital admissions for mental health.

Other services for mental health accessed via digital technologies

In addition to mental health-related consultations with health professionals, 4.4% of people aged 16-85 (864,100 people) accessed other services for their mental health via phone or digital technologies such as crisis support or counselling services, online treatment programs and tools to improve mental health, and mental health support groups and forums in 2020-21:

  • Females were more than twice as likely as males to have used a digital service (6.0% compared with 2.9%)
  • 8.0% of people aged 16-34 years used a digital service in 2020-21, compared with 0.6% of people aged 65-85 years.

Self-management strategies for mental health

The connections people make through relationships, places and social activities can build a safety net for their physical and mental health. Healthy connections with family, friends, partners and co-workers are known to lower levels of anxiety and depression.[12]

In 2020-21:

  • 94.2% of people aged 16-85 years did activities with family or friends in the last four weeks
  • 93.7% rated their ability to get support from family and friends when they needed it as good, very good or excellent
  • 86.9% had a good, very good or excellent sense of being part of a group or community.

In 2020-21, 15.5% of people aged 16-85 years reported feeling lonely in the previous four weeks.

Three in five people (60.8%) took actions to help manage their mental health such as increasing their level of exercise or physical activity (37.5%).

Mental health resources

Crisis support: available 24 hours, 7 days
OrganisationAboutTelephone numberWebsite
LifelineProvides access to crisis support and suicide prevention services.13 11 14lifeline.org.au
Suicide Call Back ServiceProvides immediate telephone counselling and support in a crisis.1300 659 467suicidecallbackservice.org.au
Beyond BlueSupporting people affected by anxiety, depression and suicide.1300 224 636beyondblue.org.au
MensLine AustraliaTelephone and online support, information and referral service for men with concerns about family and relationships, mental health, anger management, family violence (using and experiencing), substance abuse and wellbeing. The service is available from anywhere in Australia and is staffed by professional counsellors, experienced in men’s issues.1300 789 978mensline.org.au
Kids HelplineTelephone and online counselling service for young people aged 5 to 25.1800 551 800kidshelpline.com.au
ReachOutOnline mental health service for under-25s and their parents. au.reachout.com
National Alcohol and Other Drugs HotlineHotline for anyone affected by alcohol or other drugs. Support includes counselling, advice and referral to local services.1800 250 015 
Family Drug Support

Help for individuals and families dealing with drug and alcohol use. Also provide support groups, education programs, counselling and bereavement services for families.

1300 368 186fds.org.au
1800RESPECT

National domestic, family and sexual violence counselling, information and support service.

1800 737 7321800respect.org.au
13YARN

Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander crisis support line for people feeling overwhelmed or having difficulty coping.

13 92 7613yarn.org.au
StandBy - Support After SuicideAustralia’s leading suicide postvention program dedicated to assisting people and communities bereaved or impacted by suicide, including individuals, families, friends, witnesses, first responders and service providers.1300 727 247standbysupport.com.au

Other support and resources

 
OrganisationAboutTelephone numberWebsite
Head to HealthA resource to help you find free and low-cost, trusted online and telephone mental health resources including apps, forums and online programs from some of Australia's most trusted mental health organisations.1800 595 212 (Mon-Fri 8.30am - 5pm, NSW, VIC, ACT only)headtohealth.gov.au
headspaceOnline and telephone counselling service supporting young people aged 12 to 25 and their families who need help with mental health, physical health (including sexual health), alcohol and other drugs, or work and study support.1800 650 890headspace.org.au
SANE AustraliaA national online and freecall service, providing information, support and referral to people concerned about complex mental health issues, including friends, family members and health professionals.1800 187 263 (10am - 10pm Mon-Fri AEST/AEDT)sane.org
QLife (LGBTIQ+)Anonymous nation-wide, early intervention, peer supported telephone and web based services to diverse people of all ages to talk about sexuality, identity, gender, bodies, feelings or relationships, including those experiencing poor mental health, psychological distress, social isolation, discrimination, experiences of being misgendered and/or other social determinants that impact on their health and wellbeing.1800 184 527 (3pm - midnight, 7 days)qlife.org.au
Embrace Multicultural Mental Health (Culturally and Linguistically Diverse)A national platform for people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, multicultural communities and mental health services to access resources, services and information in a culturally accessible format with a national focus on mental health and suicide prevention. embracementalhealth.org.au
ButterflyPhone, webchat and email support for those experiencing an eating disorder or body image issues, their friends, family, carers and professionals. Also factsheets and other resources.1800 334 673butterfly.org.au
National Eating Disorders CollaborationBringing research, expertise and evidence from leaders in the field together in one place. nedc.com.au
InsideOutAustralia's national eating disorder research and clinical excellence institute, including resources and support programs. insideoutinstitute.org.au
Counselling OnlineA confidential service that provides support to people across Australia affected by alcohol or other drug use, 24 hours, 7 days. counsellingonline.org.au
Alcohol and Drug FoundationMission is to inspire positive change and deliver evidence-based approaches to minimise alcohol and drug harm. adf.org.au
Black Dog InstituteA wide range of mental health resources and support tools including links to support groups and fact sheets. blackdoginstitute.org.au
Life in MindA national gateway connecting Australian suicide prevention services to each other and the community. lifeinmind.org.au
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNetProvides the knowledge and other information needed for practitioners and policy-makers to make informed decisions in their work about many health topics, including links to programs for individuals. healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au
Turning PointA national addiction treatment, training and research centre, which seeks to transform the way society provides treatment, specialist care and support for those affected by addiction. turningpoint.org.au
Health DirectA government-funded site with links to resources. healthdirect.gov.au/mental-health-resources-for-me
Positive ChoicesAn online portal to help Australian schools and communities access accurate, up-to-date evidence based alcohol and other drug education resources. positivechoices.org.au

Footnotes

  1. Department of Health and Aged Care, 'Glossary', https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/publications/publishing.nsf/Content/pub-sqps-rights-toc~pub-sqps-rights-glo; accessed 5 July 2022.
  2. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 'Mental Health', https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/mental-health; accessed 22 June 2022.
  3. Head to Health, ‘Anxiety disorders’, https://www.headtohealth.gov.au/mental-health-difficulties/mental-health-conditions/anxiety-disorders; accessed 22 June 2022.
  4. Health Direct, ‘Mood disorders’, https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/mood-disorders; accessed 23 June 2022.
  5. Head to Health, 'Depressive disorders', https://www.headtohealth.gov.au/mental-health-difficulties/mental-health-conditions/depressive-disorders; accessed 23 June 2022.
  6. Lifeline, 'Substance abuse, misuse and addiction', https://www.lifeline.org.au/get-help/information-and-support/substance-misuse-and-addiction; accessed 23 June 2022.
  7. Head to Health, 'Suicidal thoughts', https://www.headtohealth.gov.au/mental-health-difficulties/challenging-situations/suicidal-thoughts; accessed 23 June 2022.
  8. Headspace, 'Understanding Suicide - Information for Communities', https://www.headspace.org.au/assets/Uploads/Corporate/Understanding-Suicide-Information-for-communities-web.pdf; accessed 5 July 2022.
  9. Mindframe, 'Communicating about euthanasia and self-harm', https://mindframe.org.au/suicide/communicating-about-suicide/mindframe-guidelines/communicating-about-euthanasia-and-self-harm; accessed 5 July 2022.
  10. Butterfly, 'Eating disorders explained', https://butterfly.org.au/eating-disorders/eating-disorders-explained/; accessed 5 July 2022.
  11. Eating Disorders Victoria, 'Eating disorders explained', https://www.eatingdisorders.org.au/eating-disorders-a-z/eating-disorders-explained/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI-uuSyNu9-AIVozdyCh1m8Q3fEAAYAiAAEgL_cvD_BwE; accessed 5 July 2022.
  12. Head to Health, 'Connectedness', https://www.headtohealth.gov.au/meaningful-life/connectedness/connectedness; accessed 23 June 2022.

Data downloads

Data files

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 4326.0.