Imputation flag for place of usual residence (IFPURP)

Latest release
Census of Population and Housing: Census dictionary
Reference period


This variable indicates if a person's place of usual residence was imputed in the Census, and to what geographic level. Some people may provide an incomplete address of usual residence, and this flag indicates the geographic level at which imputation was then required.


All persons


01Not imputed – State/Territory, SA2 and SA1 stated
02SA1 imputed – State/Territory and SA2 stated
03SA2 and SA1 imputed – State/Territory and/or Capital City provided
04State/Territory, SA2 and SA1 imputed

Number of categories: 4

Question(s) from the Census form

Where does the person usually live?

How this variable is created

This is a derived variable created during Census processing to indicate whether usual address is imputed. Where incomplete address of usual residence is given, place of usual residence is imputed at different geography levels using the Australian Statistical Geography Standard. This variable is coded based on what level the respondent’s place of usual residence is imputed.

For more information about imputation, see Place of usual residence (PURP) and imputation in the Census Glossary.

History and changes

Prior to the 1961 Census, questions did not differentiate between place of enumeration and place of usual residence. A question relating to Place of usual residence was first asked in the 1971 Census and has been asked at every Census since then.

No changes have been made for 2021.

Data use considerations

There are no data use considerations for this variable.

Using the Imputation flag for place of usual residence (IFPURP), the non-response rate for Place of usual residence (PURP) at the Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2) geographic level was 4.3% in 2021. This is a decrease from 5.4% in 2016. 

The non-response rate at the Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1) geographic level was 4.4% in 2021. This is a decrease from 5.5% in 2016. For more information on imputation, see Census Methodology.

Related variables and glossary terms

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