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Distance to work (ranges) (DTWP)

Census of Population and Housing: Census dictionary
Reference period
2021

Definition

This variable presents the distance in kilometres between a person's Place of usual residence (PURP) and Place of work (POWP). The calculation of this variable uses existing Census data. This provides a way to increase the value of Census data without asking additional questions on the Census form.

Scope

Persons aged 15 years and over who stated their labour force status as ‘employed’

Categories

Distance to work (ranges) categories

1Nil distance    
 10Nil distance   
  100Nil distance 
   1000Nil distance
2Over 0 to less than 2.5   
 20Over 0 to less than 1  
  200Over 0 to less than 0.5 
   2000Over 0 to less than 0.5
  2010.5 to less than 1 
   20100.5 to less than 1
 211 to less than 2.5  
  2101 to less than 2.5 
   21001 to less than 1.5
   21011.5 to less than 2
   21022 to less than 2.5
32.5 to less than 10   
 302.5 to less than 5  
  3002.5 to less than 5 
   30002.5 to less than 3
   30013 to less than 4
   30024 to less than 5
 315 to less than 10  
  3105 to less than 10 
   31005 to less than 6
   31016 to less than 7
   31027 to less than 8
   31038 to less than 9
   31049 to less than 10
410 to less than 30   
 4010 to less than 20  
  40010 to less than 15 
   400010 to less than 11
   400111 to less than 12
   400212 to less than 13
   400313 to less than 14
   400414 to less than 15
  40115 to less than 20 
   401015 to less than 16
   401116 to less than 17
   401217 to less than 18
   401318 to less than 19
   401419 to less than 20
 4120 to less than 30  
  41020 to less than 25 
   410020 to less than 21
   410121 to less than 22
   410222 to less than 23
   410323 to less than 24
   410424 to less than 25
  41125 to less than 30 
   411025 to less than 26
   411126 to less than 27
   411227 to less than 28
   411328 to less than 29
   411429 to less than 30
530 to less than 50   
 5030 to less than 50  
  50030 to less than 40 
   500030 to less than 32
   500132 to less than 34
   500234 to less than 36
   500336 to less than 38
   500438 to less than 40
  50140 to less than 50 
   501040 to less than 42
   501142 to less than 44
   501244 to less than 46
   501346 to less than 48
   501448 to less than 50
650 to less than 250   
 6050 to less than 100  
  60050 to less than 60 
   600050 to less than 52
   600152 to less than 54
   600254 to less than 56
   600356 to less than 58
   600458 to less than 60
  60160 to less than 62 
   601060 to less than 62
   601162 to less than 64
   601264 to less than 66
   601366 to less than 68
   601468 to less than 70
   601570 to less than 72
   601672 to less than 74
   601774 to less than 76
   601876 to less than 78
   601978 to less than 80
  60280 to less than 100 
   602080 to less than 85
   602185 to less than 90
   602290 to less than 95
   602395 to less than 100
 61100 to less than 250  
  610100 to less than 250 
   6100100 to less than 110
   6101110 to less than 120
   6102120 to less than 130
   6103130 to less than 140
   6104140 to less than 150
   6105150 to less than 200
   6106200 to less than 250
7250 and over   
 70250 and over  
  700250 and over 
   7000250 to less than 300
   7001300 to less than 350
   7002350 to less than 400
   7003400 to less than 600
   7004600 to less than 800
   7005800 to less than 1000
   70061000 to less than 3000
   70073000 and over
@Not applicable   
 @@Not applicable  
  @@@Not applicable 
   @@@@Not applicable

Number of categories:

  • One digit: 8
  • Two digit: 12
  • Three digit: 18
  • Four digit: 79

The nil distance category comprises: 

  • Persons whose mesh block of PURP and mesh block of POWP were the same and stated they:
    • 'Worked from home'
    • 'Did not go to work'
    • 'Mode not stated’
  • Persons with the same mesh block of PURP and mesh block of POWP where the centre points were not weighted to different locations

The Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Persons who were unemployed, not in the labour force, or whose labour force status was not stated
  • Persons under 15 years of age
  • Overseas visitors
  • Persons who were coded to Special purpose codes

Question(s) from the Census form

Where does the person usually live?

    Where does the person usually live?
    Where does Person 1 usually live?

    For people who usually live in another country and who are visiting Australia for less than one year, select 'Other country'.

    For other people, 'usually live' means the address at which the person has lived, or intends to live, for a total of six months or more in 2021.

    For people who have no fixed or return address (for example, due to family conflict or eviction), select 'Elsewhere in Australia' and write 'None' in the 'Suburb/Locality' box.

    For boarders at boarding school, provide the address of the boarding school or college.

    More information

    Person's usual address

    1 Smith Street Belconnen ACT 2617

    Elsewhere in Australia (please specify address)

    Other country

      More Information

      Additional information relating to the question on: Where does the person usually live?

      More Information

      Where does Person 1 usually live?

      For people who usually live in another country and who are visiting Australia for less than one year, select 'Other country'.

      For other people, 'usually live' means the address at which the person has lived, or intends to live, for a total of six months or more in 2021.

      For people who have no fixed or return address (for example, due to family conflict or eviction), select 'Elsewhere in Australia' and write 'None' in the 'Suburb/Locality' box.

      For boarders at boarding school, provide the address of the boarding school or college.

      More information

      If you have written 'None' in the 'Suburb/Locality' box, make sure the other boxes are empty.

      If the person is providing an address for 'Elsewhere in Australia' and they usually live in Norfolk Island or other external territories, such as Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Jervis Bay, please select 'Other external territory' in the State/Territory box.

      For the main job held last week, what was the person’s workplace address?

        For the main job held last week, what was the person’s workplace address?
        For the main job held last week, what was Person 1's workplace address?

        For people who work from home for an employer, write the employer's workplace address.

        For people with no fixed place of work:
        • if the person usually travels to a depot to start work, provide the depot address
        • otherwise enter ‘None’ in the ‘Suburb/Locality’ box.
        This information is used to calculate daytime populations and to plan transport activities.

        More information

        Street number Street name (examples: Graham Avenue, George Street)

        Suburb/Locality State/Territory Postcode

        Property/Building name (if any)

          More information

          Additional information relating to the question on: For the main job held last week, what was the person’s workplace address?

          More information

          For the main job held last week, what was Person 1's workplace address?

          For people who work from home for an employer, write the employer's workplace address.

          For people with no fixed place of work:
          • if the person usually travels to a depot to start work, provide the depot address
          • otherwise enter ‘None’ in the ‘Suburb/Locality’ box.
          This information is used to calculate daytime populations and to plan transport activities.

          More information

          If the complete address is not known, please provide as much of the address as possible.

          Include the name of the building or property where the person works, if known.

          For Norfolk Island and other external territories, such as Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Jervis Bay, please select 'Other external territory' in the State/Territory box.

          For people currently working from home due to lockdown or other COVID-related reasons, write the employer's workplace address.

          How this variable is created

          This variable is created using a combination of existing statistical and geospatial data to make new calculations of the distance travelled by a respondent from their usual residence (PURP) mesh block, to that of their workplace (POWP).

          History and changes

          This variable was first introduced in 2016.

          No changes have been made in 2021.

          Data use considerations

          Mesh blocks are the smallest geographical area defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and form the building blocks for the larger regions within the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).

          The distance to work data should be considered an estimate as it is a measurement between the centre point (or centroid) of the mesh block of PURP and mesh block of POWP. The location of the centroid in the mesh block was weighted based on the location of residential and commercial addresses respectively.

          For some people, a small distance is calculated where the centre points for mesh block of PURP and mesh block of POWP are weighted to different locations.  This is the case for people who lived and worked in the same mesh block and their Method of travel to work (MTWP) was not recorded as:

          • Worked from home
          • Did not go to work
          • Mode not stated
          Lockdown

          A number of regions across the country were in various stages of lockdown on Census day, and the week preceding it, resulting in a greater number of people working from their homes.  Not only may this impact their responses for their place of work, but also, their travel to work.  Guidance on how to correctly respond was provided at the time on the Census website, as follows:

          Answering questions about your workplace and job role

          If you are currently working from home due to COVID restrictions, but usually attend a workplace, please write the employer's usual workplace address.

          Answering questions about whether you had a job

          If you were employed in the 4 weeks prior to the current lockdown period, but haven't been able to work in the last week due to lockdown or requirement to self-isolate, please select 'Yes, but absent on holidays, on paid leave, on strike or temporarily stood down'.

          Answering questions about your workplace and job role

          If you were employed in the 4 weeks prior to the current lockdown period, but haven't been able to work in the last week due to COVID restrictions or requirement to self-isolate, please answer all questions reflecting your usual occupation. This includes your role (such as occupation and tasks performed) and  information about your employer (such as industry and number of employees). 

          Related variables and glossary terms

          • Place of usual residence (PURP)
          • Place of work (POWP)
          • Imputed distance to work (IFDTWP)

          Other ABS sources