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Census of Population and Housing: Census dictionary
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One-parent family

A one-parent family consists of a lone parent with at least one child (regardless of age) who is also usually resident in the household and who has no identified partner or child of their own. The family may also include any number of other related individuals.

Examples of one parent families include: a 25-year-old parent with dependent children; and an 80-year-old living with a 50-year-old child.

Information on people who are temporarily absent is used in family coding to differentiate between lone person households and one parent families (if child was temporarily absent) or between one parent and couple families (if a spouse was temporarily absent).

See also Child, Family, Lone parent, Relationship in household (RLHP) and Temporarily absent.

Or equivalent level of education

The term "or equivalent" can include:

  • other terms used to describe years of schooling in Australia, which may have changed over time, as well as school level education undertaken at other institutions (e.g. TAFE)
  • Year 12 equivalents can include: year 13, 6th form, Higher School Certificate and matriculation
  • Year 10 equivalents can include: 4th form
  • overseas qualifications comparable to Australian levels of schooling, for example the German Abitur is equivalent to year 12 in Australia

The International Baccalaureate is equivalent to year 12 in Australia.

Certificate level qualifications (e.g. Certificate I-IV) attained while studying at school are non-school qualifications and are not equivalent to school level qualifications (e.g. Year 12).

For information about how school and non-school qualifications are treated when determining highest educational attainment, see Level of highest educational attainment (HEAP).

Other family

Other family is defined as a group of related individuals residing in the same household, who cannot be categorised as belonging to a couple or one parent family.

If two brothers, for example, are living together and neither is a spouse or partner, a lone parent or a child, then they are classified as an other family. However, if the two brothers share the household with the daughter of one of the brothers and her husband, then both brothers are classified as other related individuals and are attached to the couple family.

See also Couple family, Family, Family composition (FMCF), One-parent family and Other related individual.

Other related individual

An individual who is related to at least one other member of the household, but who does not form an identified couple relationship or parent-child relationship according to the priority rules of family coding. They can be related through blood, step or in-law relationship and include any direct ancestor or descendant. Relatives beyond first cousin are excluded.

Other related individuals are attached to an existing family nucleus formed by a couple relationship or parent-child relationship. If no such nucleus exists but individuals in a household are related to each other (see list below) they form an 'Other family' in the Family composition (FMCF) classification.

The Relationship in household (RLHP) variable is used to identify other related individuals. The following is a list of relationships used to define an other related individual:
son in-law, daughter in-law, grandmother, step grandmother, grandmother in-law, grandfather, step grandfather, grandfather in-law, granddaughter, step granddaughter, granddaughter in-law, grandson, step grandson, grandson in-law, sister, step sister, half-sister, sister in-law, brother, step brother, half brother, brother in-law, aunt, step aunt, aunt in-law, uncle, step uncle, uncle in-law, nephew, step nephew, nephew in-law, niece, step niece, niece in-law, cousin, step cousin, cousin in-law.

See also Family, Other family, Family composition (FMCF) and Relationship in household (RLHP).


An overcount is when a person was counted more than once, or in error in the Census.

Some reasons why people may have been overcounted include:

  • they were included on the Census form at the dwelling where they usually live, even though they stayed and were counted elsewhere on Census Night
  • they have multiple usual residences
  • they moved during the Census period and completed forms at both their previous and new address
  • they were overseas on Census Night and were included on a Census form.

See also Undercount and/or underenumeration, 2021 Census overcount and undercount and Post Census Review (PCR).

Overseas born

For the 2021 Census, people are classified as overseas born if:

  • they were born in a country other than Australia
  • they were born at sea
  • their response was classified 'Inadequately described'
  • their response was classified 'Not elsewhere classified'.

Australia in this definition is as set out in section 2B of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901, and for the 2021 Census includes the states and territories and the other territories of Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Jervis Bay Territory and Norfolk Island. It excludes the other Australian external territories (Australian Antarctic Territory, Heard and McDonald Islands, Ashmore and Cartier Islands and the Coral Sea Territory).

See also Country of birth of person (BPLP) and Understanding Migrant statistics in the Census and other data sources.

Owner managers

An owner manager is a person who works in their own business, with or without employees, whether or not the business is of limited liability.

See also Labour force status (LFSP), Status in employment (SIEMP) and Number of employees (EMPP).

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