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Housing Variables

Housing standards used to collect information about dwellings and occupancy. Includes structure, tenure, landlord type and number of bedrooms

Reference period
2020
Released
14/12/2020
Next release Unknown

Summary

The ABS housing standards provide standard methods for compiling statistics about the tenure, occupancy and physical characteristics of Australian dwellings. In particular, the standards contain standard definitions, standard data collection methods, standard derivation procedures and standard output classifications. These standard features are recommended for use in all relevant ABS and external statistical collections to ensure consistency across publications. The use of ABS housing standards ensures that consistent information about Australian dwellings is available to inform social and economic policies that relate to housing in Australia. The housing standard variables are used within and outside the ABS to collect information about the types of dwellings in Australia and how they are occupied. They include the variables Dwelling Structure, Tenure, Landlord Type, and Number of Bedrooms. These variables provide a means for standardising the way housing data are collected and disseminated.

Tenure Type

Background

Tenure Type is the variable that describes the legal basis by which a person occupies a dwelling. Data about whether a dwelling is owned, being purchased or rented have been of importance to Australian governments for a long time, having been collected in all Censuses of Population and Housing since 1911, and in more recent decades, in various ABS household surveys. Tenure Type is an important classificatory variable for informing governments and other users on the composition of Australian households, and is also an important analytical variable in household socio-economic research.

The Tenure Type standard accords with, and in some respects exceeds, the requirements set out in the Tenure topic (paragraph 4.556) of the United Nations' Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 3. For example, the Tenure Type standard includes two additional categories, 'Being purchased under a shared equity scheme' and 'Occupied under a life tenure scheme', that reflect the particular policy priorities of Australia. The Tenure Type standard provides a more detailed categorisation of tenure than those of most comparable countries. The United States of America and Canada each have a two category tenure classification: owner occupied; and renter occupied. The United Kingdom has a three category system of tenure, with renters being split into 'Social Renters' and 'Private Renters' while New Zealand is an exception, having a tenure classification with more categories than the Tenure Type standard. 

Introduction to the standard

Nominal definition

Tenure Type is the nature of a person's, income unit's, or household's legal right to occupy the dwelling in which they usually reside.  

Tenure is determined according to whether the person, income unit, or household owns the dwelling without a mortgage, owns the dwelling but has a mortgage or loan secured against it, is paying rent to live in the dwelling, or has some other arrangement to occupy the dwelling.

Accordingly, the Tenure Type of residents in caravans, manufactured homes, and houseboats is determined according to the tenure of the dwelling, and not the land. Thus, a person who owns a caravan and rents a site in a caravan park is regarded as an owner.

Operational definition

Tenure Type is determined either by responses to questions about ownership, secured loans or mortgages, rental or other arrangements, or by asking the respondent to choose the category that best fits their situation from a range of possible alternatives.

The Tenure Type of the household can be collected by asking the question directly of the household, or of a single reference person. It is inferred that all people or income units in the household have the same Tenure Type unless person or income unit level tenure is collected. If person level tenure information is required, the household reference person may also be asked about the tenure of each other person in the household. 

If person level tenure is collected then this can be used to infer the income unit level tenure using the order of preference specified in 'Input categories' and 'Person/Income unit level input categories' (i.e. the category with the lowest code has the highest Tenure Type). 

Discussion of issues

The Tenure Type standard is closely linked to the Landlord Type standard. Any changes to either classification therefore cannot be undertaken in isolation. All possible ramifications concerning each classification must be investigated before adopting any change. 

Collection and output classification can be at the person, income unit, and household level in this standard. A range of unit levels may be required for understanding within-household transfers and to inform on security of tenure where it differs for the individuals within the household. For example, respondents living within an owner occupied household who pay rent or board to the owner of the household to reside within the dwelling. 

Person and income unit level collections can use the same question module. They are to be asked in addition to the Household level tenure questions and are to be asked of each person or income unit in the household who is not a primary tenure person.

For person level tenure it is possible for a landlord to be someone living in the same dwelling, whether related or not. For example, a non-dependent child living in the home of his or her parents and paying rent, is considered a renter. If rent were not paid, the non-dependent child would be classified to the 'rent-free' category. Generally, the distinction will be made by the individuals themselves.

This standard now contains question modules for self completed surveys, and continues to include a shortened question module for surveys that do not or can not output data for the full Tenure Type classification. Survey designers should determine which module they use based on the data requirements, sample size, and time constraints for the survey.

For this version of the standard a change has been made to the derivation of the shortened versions of output categories. Participants of shared equity schemes, previously included in the 'Other Tenure' category of shortened versions of Tenure Type output categories, are now included in 'Owner with a mortgage'. The main reason for this change is that, conceptually, participants of shared equity schemes are a sub-category of home owners, albeit with government assistance by the taking of a minority share in ownership of the property.

Collection of variable data

Scope

Statistical units

Tenure Type can be collected at the person, income unit or household level.

If person and/or income unit Tenure Type is not collected separately, the inferred Tenure Type of the counting units, income unit or person is based on the Tenure Type of the household. 

When person or income unit Tenure Type is collected, a question to establish the primary tenure person(s) must be asked. This question aims to identify all people in the household where household and individual tenure are the same. Any people who are not identified at this question will be asked about personal tenure arrangements.

The person or income unit level Tenure Type standard questionnaire is a variation on the household level as it includes the additional 'boarder' category, which is only applicable when the person or income unit is a non-primary tenure person.

Question modules

Detailed question module

Household level tenure

Households are sequenced into Landlord Type questions based on Tenure Type answers below.

Face to face and telephone interview methods of data collection

The following question module is to be used for face to face interviewer methods. It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

Q1 The next few questions are about this dwelling.
Is this dwelling owned or partly owned by [you/anyone in this household]?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q6
 5. No5. Go to Q2
Q2 (Is this dwelling) rented by [you/anyone in this household]?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. Go to Q3
Q3 (Is this dwelling) being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in this household]?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q6
 5. No5. Go to Q4
 6. Don't know6. Go to Q4
Q4 (Is this dwelling) occupied under a life tenure scheme?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q6
 5. No5. Go to Q5
 6. Don't know6. Go to Q5
Q5 (Is this dwelling) occupied rent free?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. End of Module
Q6 [Do you/does anyone in this household] currently have any mortgages or secured loans on this dwelling?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q7
 5. No5. Go to Q7
Q7 - Sequencing Guide1. If Q1 = 11. Go to Q8
 2. Otherwise2. End of Module
Q8 (Is this dwelling) being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in this household]?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. End of Module
 6. Don't know6. End of Module

The following question module is to be used for telephone interviewer methods. It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

Q1 Is your dwelling owned or partly owned by [you/anyone in your household]?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q6
 5. No5. Go to Q2
Q2 (Is your dwelling) rented by [you/anyone in your household]?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. Go to Q3
Q3 (Is your dwelling) being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in your household]?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q6
 5. No5. Go to Q4
 6. Don't know6. Go to Q4
Q4 (Is your dwelling) occupied under a life tenure scheme?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q6
 5. No5. Go to Q5
 6. Don't know6. Go to Q5
Q5 (Is your dwelling) occupied rent free?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. End of Module
Q6 [Do you/does anyone in your household] currently have any mortgages or secured loans on your dwelling?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q7
 5. No5. Go to Q7
Q7 - Sequencing Guide1. If Q1 = 11. Go to Q8
 2. Otherwise2. End of Module
Q8 (Is your dwelling) being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in your household]?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. End of Module
 6. Don't know6. End of Module
Recommended Instructions for Household tenure modules — personal or telephone interview methods
Q1Owned includes only cases where no money is owed on any type of loan secured against the dwelling.
 Partly owned includes households that have any type of loan secured against the dwelling, or households who own the dwelling in partnership with someone outside the household.
 For partly owned, include:
 • dwellings that are being jointly paid off with someone who is not a member of the household
 • all households that currently have any type of mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling that was partially or wholly used to purchase the land or dwelling, or to build the dwelling
 • those cases where the loan is in the form of bridging finance, until such time as a loan or mortgage can be obtained or outright purchase is made.
Q2Include: all households that pay rent even in cases that rent is subsidised or partly refunded.
Q3 and Q8Participants of a shared equity scheme are people, income units, or households that have been assisted to buy their home by entering into a formal scheme, typically with a government or not-for-profit organisation. This equity partner assists by sharing ownership, usually up to 30% of the property.
 Exclude: informal arrangements where dwellings are jointly owned by members of the household and someone who is not a member of the household e.g. a relative or friend.
Q4In life tenure schemes a person, income unit, or household has a lease agreement in which they have the right to live in the dwelling for the term of their life but without the full rights of ownership and usually with little or no equity in the dwelling. This is a common arrangement in retirement villages and can also be referred to as leasehold or loan and licence agreements.
Q5Include:
 • if a respondent does not pay rent themselves but rent is paid by someone else (e.g. an employer, or relative outside the household)
 • where a respondent provides a service instead of rent, this is also treated as occupied rent-free.
Q6A secured loan/mortgage is a loan or mortgage where the lender has control over an asset as a guarantee of payment.
 Include: any loans secured by a mortgage on the dwelling that were used for any purpose (e.g. to purchase the dwelling, to finance a business, buy a boat, pay for a trip) or any other combination of purposes.

Self completion methods of data collection

The following question module is to be used for online self completion methods. It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

Question/FieldTo question:
Q1. Is this [dwelling] owned or partly owned by [you/anyone in this household]?
[Include expandable 'More Information' box Q1 here]
☐ YesGo to Q6
☐ NoGo to Q2
Q2 Is this [dwelling] rented by [you/anyone in this household]?
[Include expandable 'More Information' box Q2 here]
☐ YesEnd of Module
☐ NoGo to Q3
Q3 Is this [dwelling] being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in this household]?
[Include expandable 'More Information' box Q3 here]
☐ YesGo to Q6
☐ NoGo to Q4
☐ Don't knowGo to Q4
Q4 Is this [dwelling] occupied under a life tenure scheme?
[Include expandable 'More Information' box Q4 here]
☐ YesGo to Q6
☐ NoGo to Q5
☐ Don't knowGo to Q5
Q5 Is this [dwelling] occupied rent free?
[Include expandable 'More Information' box Q5 here]
☐ YesEnd of Module
☐ NoEnd of Module
Q6 [Do you/does anyone in this household] currently have any mortgages or secured loans on this [dwelling]?
[Include expandable 'More Information' box Q6 here]
☐ YesGo to Q7
☐ NoGo to Q7
Q7 - Sequencing Guide
1. If Q1 = Yes1. Go to Q8
2. Otherwise2. End of Module
Q8 (Is this [dwelling] being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in this household]?
[Include expandable 'More Information' box Q3 here]
☐ YesEnd of Module
☐ NoEnd of Module
☐ Don't knowEnd of Module
'More Information' text to appear in online self-completion question modules
Used in questionInformation
Q1Owned includes only cases where no money is owed on any type of loan secured against the dwelling.
 Partly owned includes households that have any type of loan secured against the dwelling, or households who own the dwelling in partnership with someone outside the household.
Q2Including:
 • all households that pay rent even in cases that rent is subsidised or partly refunded.
Q3 and Q8Definition:
 • Participants of a shared equity scheme are people, income units, or households that have been assisted to buy their home by entering into a formal scheme, typically with a government or not-for-profit organisation. This equity partner assists by sharing ownership, usually up to 30% of the property.
 Excluding:
 • informal arrangements where dwellings are jointly owned by members of the household and someone who is not a member of the household e.g. a relative or friend.
Q4Definition:
 • In life tenure schemes a person has a contract to live in the dwelling for the term of their life but without the full rights of ownership and usually with little or no equity in the dwelling. This is a common arrangement in retirement villages and can also be referred to as leasehold, or loan and licence agreements.
Q5Including:
 • If rent is not paid by the household but is paid by someone else (e.g. an employer, or relative outside the household), the dwelling should be classified as rent-free.
 • If services are provided instead of rent, this is regarded as rent-free.
Q6A secured loan/mortgage is a loan or mortgage where the lender has control over an asset as a guarantee of payment.
 Include: any loans secured by a mortgage on the dwelling that were used for any purpose (e.g. to purchase the dwelling, to finance a business, buy a boat, pay for a trip) or any other combination of purposes.

Alternatively, the following multiple choice question may be used in online, self completed surveys. The current consensus from data collection research is that highest quality responses are achieved through employing a series of forced-choice ('yes'/'no') questions (rather than a multiple choice question) as these engage more cognitive processing and minimise 'satisficing' behaviour (the tendency for respondents to spend the least amount of mental effort in answering questions, thereby only satisfying the minimum requirements). However, for surveys that are time constrained, a single multiple-choice question has the advantage of speed.

Is this [dwelling]?
 
[Include expandable 'More Information' box here]
 
☐ Owned without a mortgage1. End of Module
☐ Owned with a mortgage2. End of Module
☐ Being purchased under a shared equity scheme3. End of Module
☐ Rented4. End of module
☐ Occupied rent-free5. End of module
☐ Occupied under a life tenure scheme6. End of Module
☐ Other7. End of Module
 
...by [you/anyone in this household]? 
'More information' box
Owned without a mortgage
Include:
• only cases where no money is owed on any type of loan secured against the dwelling.
Owned with a mortgage
Include:
• all households that currently have any type of mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling that was partially or wholly used to purchase the land or dwelling, or to build the dwelling
• those cases where the loan is in the form of bridging finance, until such time as a loan or mortgage can be obtained or outright purchase is made
• owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in 'Owned with a mortgage' or 'Owned without a mortgage' regardless of whether or not the site is owned
• households with dwellings that are jointly owned with someone who is not a member of the household (e.g. a relative or friend) in 'Owned with a mortgage' or 'Owned without a mortgage', as the case may be.
Being purchased under a shared equity scheme
Participants of shared equity schemes are households that have been assisted to buy their home by entering into a formal scheme, typically with a government or not-for-profit organisation. This equity partner assists by sharing ownership, usually up to 30% of the property.
Exclude:
• informal arrangements where dwellings are jointly owned by members of the household and someone who is not a member of the household e.g. a relative or friend.
Rented
Include:
• all households that pay rent even in cases that rent is subsidised or partly refunded.
Occupied rent-free
Include:
• if a respondent does not pay rent themselves but rent is paid by someone else (e.g. an employer, or relative outside the household)
• where a respondent provides a service instead of rent, this is also treated as occupied rent-free.
Occupied under a life tenure scheme
In life tenure schemes a person, income unit, or household has a lease agreement in which they have the right to live in the dwelling for the term of their life but without the full rights of ownership and usually with little or no equity in the dwelling. This is a common arrangement in retirement villages and can also be referred to as leasehold or loan and licence agreements.

 

 

 

The following may be used for paper self-completion methods.

Q1. Is this dwelling...?
 Owned without a mortgage1. End of Module
• Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in 'Owned with a mortgage' or 'Owned without a mortgage' regardless of whether or not the site is owned.Owned with a mortgage2. End of Module
• A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.Being purchased under a shared equity scheme3. End of Module
 Rented4. End of Module
 Occupied rent-free5. End of Module
• Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds and loan and license agreements.Occupied under a life tenure scheme6. End of Module
 Other7. End of Module
Word substitutions specifications for household tenure modules
Word substitutionSource itemsConditionsSubstitutionQuestions used in
[you/anyone in this household]Household type1- Lone person households and households with only one person aged 15 years or over.1=youQ1, Q2, Q3, Q8
  2- All other households2=anyone in this household 
[Do you/Does anyone in this household]Household type1- Lone person households and households with only one person aged 15 years or over.1=Do youQ6
  2- All other households2=Does anyone in this household 

Person or Income Unit level tenure

Person or Income Unit level tenure is collected about people who are not primary tenure people.

Determining primary tenure persons

The following question module is to be used for telephone or face to face interviewer methods, or online self completion methods where household tenure has already been collected. It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

This question needs to be asked prior to the person level tenure being collected.

Incoming Population - Households that are not lone person, couple only or couple only with children aged under 15.
 
Q1 Which person(s) in the household [is/are] the [primary tenure person(s)]? 
Select name(s) from picklist of all people aged 15 years and over in household.End of Module
Recommended instructions for determining primary tenure persons
Q1This question aims to identify all people in the household who hold the tenure of the dwelling. These people (primary tenure people) have the legal relationship with the landlord (in the case of renters) or loan provider (in the case of owners with a mortgage) and bear the obligation to make any contracted payments. Once these people have been identified, the household spokesperson will be asked about the tenure of each remaining person in the household (except those aged less than 15, or married to a primary tenure person).
  
 Include:
 • owners if occupying the dwelling
 • participants in shared equity schemes
 • life tenants who buy into retirement homes
 • people who are living rent-free (e.g. caretakers, religious people in the community, farm hands who live on the job, students whose rent is paid by their parents not in the same household).
Word substitutions specifications for determining primary tenure people
Word substitutionSource itemsConditionsSubstitutionQuestions used in
[primary tenure person(s)]Household level tenure1. Household level tenure Q1=1 and Q8=5 or 61. OwnerQ1
  2. Household level tenure Q2=12. Renter 
  3. Household level tenure Q3=1 or Q8=13. Participant in shared equity scheme 
  4. Household level tenure Q4=14. Life tenant 
  5. Household level tenure Q5=15. Rent-free tenant 

Person or Income Unit tenure data collection

The following question should be asked of households in which there are people aged 15+ who are not primary tenure people. All non-primary tenure people aged 15+ should be included.

Q1 I would now like to ask you about [your/(the name of the person)'s] accommodation arrangements.
[Do you/Does (the name of person)] pay board to live here?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. Go to Q2
Q2 [Do you/does (the name of person)] pay rent to live here?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. Go to Q3
Q3 [Do you/does (the name of person)] live here rent free?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. Go to Q4
Q4 What is [your/(name of person's)] current tenure?
 Enter description 
 Allow text entry 100 charactersEnd of Module
Recommended instructions for person or income unit level tenure
Q1Board is paid in return for meals and lodging.
Q2Rent is a payment made periodically by a tenant to an owner or landlord in return for the right to reside in a dwelling or part thereof.
Q3Rent free is where no money is exchanged for lodgement but the person is not an owner of the dwelling.
 If an occupant provides services in lieu of rent, their occupancy is still considered rent free.
Q4Record a description of the other tenure arrangement.
Word Substitutions Specifications for person or income unit level module
Word SubstitutionSource itemsConditionsSubstitutionQuestions used in
[Do you/Does (name of person)]Primary tenure person(s)1. If referring to household spokesperson where they are not a primary tenure person1. Do youQ1, Q2, Q3
  2. If referring to other Usual Residents where they are not a primary tenure person2. Does (name of person) 
[your/(name of person's)]Primary Tenure Person(s)1. If referring to household spokesperson where they are not a primary tenure person1. yourQ4
  2. If referring to other Usual Residents where they are not a primary tenure person2. (name of person's) 

An optional word substitution to replace the word dwelling with the accurate descriptor of the dwelling's structure (e.g. house), or alternatively the address of the dwelling, can be included without requiring a departure from standards. 

Short question module

This following question module is to be used for face to face interviewer methods (household level). It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

Q1 Is this dwelling owned or partly owned by [you/anyone in this household]?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q3
 5. No5. Go to Q2
Q2 (Is this dwelling) rented by [you/anyone in this household]?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. Go to Q4
Q3 [Do you/does anyone in this household] currently have any mortgages or secured loans on this dwelling?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q4
 5. No5. Go to Q4
Q4 Is this dwelling being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in this household]?
 1. Yes 
 5. No 
 6. Don't knowEnd of Module

The following question module is to be used for telephone interviewer methods (household level). It should be asked of one member of the household, the Household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

Q1 Is your dwelling owned or partly owned by [you/anyone in your household]?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q3
 5. No5. Go to Q2
Q2 (Is your dwelling) rented by [you/anyone in your household]?
 1. Yes1. End of Module
 5. No5. Go to Q4
Q3 Do you/Does anyone in this household currently have any mortgages or secured loans on your dwelling?
 1. Yes1. Go to Q4
 5. No5. Go to Q4
Q4 (Is your dwelling) being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in your household]?
 1. Yes 
 5. No 
 6. Don't knowEnd of Module

The following question module is to be used for online self completion (household level). It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

Question/FieldTo question:
Q1. Is this [dwelling] owned or partly owned by [you/anyone in this household]? 
[Include expandable 'More Information' box here with the following text: 
Owned includes only cases where no money is owed on any type of loan secured against the dwelling. 
Partly owned includes households that have any type of loan secured against the dwelling, or households who own the dwelling in partnership with someone outside the household.] 
☐ YesGo to Q3
☐ NoGo to Q2
 
Q2 Is this [dwelling] rented by [you/anyone in this household]? 
[Include expandable 'More Information' box here with the following text: 
Including: 
• all households that pay rent even in cases where rent is subsidised or partly refunded.] 
☐ YesEnd of Module
☐ NoGo to Q4
 
Q6 [Do you/Does anyone in this household] currently have any mortgages or secured loans on this [dwelling]?
[Include expandable 'More Information' box here with the following text: 
A secured loan/mortgage is a loan or mortgage where the lender has control over an asset as a guarantee of payment. 
Include: 
• any loans secured by a mortgage on the dwelling that were used for any purpose (e.g. to purchase the dwelling, to finance a business, buy a boat, pay for a trip) or any other combination of purposes.] 
☐ YesGo to Q4
☐ NoGo to Q4
 
Q4 Is this [dwelling] being purchased under a shared equity scheme by [you/anyone in this household]? 
[Include expandable 'More Information' box here with the following text: 
Definition: 
• Participants of a shared equity scheme are persons, income units, or households that have been assisted to buy their home by entering into a formal scheme, typically with a government or not-for-profit organisation. This equity partner assists by sharing ownership, usually up to 30% of the property.] 
Excluding: 
• informal arrangements where dwellings are jointly owned by members of the household and someone who is not a member of the household e.g. a relative or friend.] 
☐ YesEnd of Module
☐ NoEnd of Module
☐ Don't knowEnd of Module
Recommended instructions for face-to-face or telephone short question modules
Q1Owned includes only cases where no money is owed on any type of loan secured against the dwelling.
 Partly owned includes households that have any type of loan secured against the dwelling, or households who own the dwelling in partnership with someone outside the household.
 For partly owned, include:
 • dwellings that are being jointly paid off with someone who is not a member of the household
 • all households that currently have any type of mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling that was partially or wholly used to purchase the land or dwelling, or to build the dwelling
 • those cases where the loan is in the form of bridging finance, until such time as a loan or mortgage can be obtained or outright purchase is made.
Q2Include: all households that pay rent even in cases that rent is subsidised or partly refunded.
Q3A secured loan is a loan in which the lender is granted the legal right (with a mortgage) to sell the property in the event of failure to repay the loan.
 Include: any loans secured by a mortgage on the dwelling that were used for any purpose (e.g. to purchase the dwelling, to finance a business, buy a boat, pay for a trip) or any other combination of purposes.
Q4Participants of a shared equity scheme are people, income units, or households that have been assisted to buy their home by entering into a formal scheme, typically with a government or not-for-profit organisation. This equity partner assists by sharing ownership, usually up to 30% of the property.
 Exclude: less formal arrangements where dwellings are jointly owned by members of the household and someone who is not a member of the household e.g. a relative or friend.
Word substitutions specifications household level short question modules
Word substitutionSource itemsConditionsSubstitutionQuestions used in
[you/anyone in this household]Household type1- Lone person households and households with only one person aged 15 years or over.1=youQ1, Q2, Q4
  2- All other households2=anyone in this household 
[Do you/does anyone in this household]Household type1- Lone person households and households with only one person aged 15 years or over.1=Do youQ3
  2- All other households2=Does anyone in this household 

An optional word substitution to replace the word dwelling with the accurate descriptor of the dwelling's structure (e.g. house) or, alternatively, the address of the dwelling can be included without requiring a departure from standards. 

Derivation procedures

Standard derivation table for Tenure Type (household level)

Q1 – Owned or partly owned
Q2 – Rented
Q3 – Being purchased under a shared equity scheme
Q4 – Occupied under a life tenure scheme
Q5 – Occupied rent free
Q6 – Does anyone in household currently have any mortgages or secured loans against this dwelling
Q8 – Being purchased under a shared equity scheme

1 = Y 5 = N

Input/Output codesTenure TypeQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5Q6Q8
4Participant of shared equity scheme------Y
1Owner without a mortgageY----N-
2Owner with a mortgageY----Y-
3Life tenure scheme---Y---
4Participant of shared equity scheme--Y----
5Renter-Y-----
6Rent-free----Y--
7Other----N--

Standard derivation table for Tenure Type (person level)

For primary tenure persons: person level tenure = household level tenure (as specified above). Where person is not a primary tenure person see below
Person Tenure Q1 – Boarder
Person Tenure Q2 – Renter
Person Tenure Q3 – Rent Free

1 = Y 5 = N

Input/Output codesTenure TypeQ1Q2Q3
5RenterNY-
6Rent-freeNNY
7BoarderY--
8OtherNNN

Short derivation table for Tenure Type (household level)

Q1 – Owned or partly owned
Q2 – Rented
Q3 – Does anyone in household currently have any mortgages or secured loans against this dwelling
Q4 – Being purchased under a shared equity scheme

1 = Y 5 = N

Input/Output codesTenure TypeQ1Q2Q3Q4
1Owner without a mortgageY-NN
2Owner with a mortgageY-YY or N
2Owner with a mortgageNN-Y
3RenterNY--
4OtherNN-N

Supporting variables

Tenure Type is applicable only to people, income units, or households in private dwellings therefore Dwelling Type may need to be used to restrict it's application to private dwellings. 

Household Composition is required to implement the [you/anyone in this household] word substitution.

Dwelling Structure is required to implement the optional [dwelling] word substitution.

Location of Dwelling informs as to whether a dwelling is located in a caravan park, manufactured home estate, marina, or retirement village. 

Processing the data

Coding

​​​​​​​Input classification

Household unit level input categories:

1 Owner without a mortgage
2 Owner with a mortgage
3 Life tenure scheme
4 Participant of shared equity scheme
5 Renter
6 Rent-free
7 Other*

Shortened household input categories:

1 Owner without a mortgage
2 Owner with a mortgage
3 Renter
4 Other*

Person/income unit level input categories:

1 Owner without a mortgage
2 Owner with a mortgage
3 Life tenure scheme
4 Participant of shared equity scheme
5 Renter
6 Rent-free
7 Boarder
8 Other*

*Tenure Type is 'Other' if the tenure does not fit any of the above categories. Further definitions can be found in the glossary.

Coding indexes

Tenure Type is a single level classification therefore input classifications equal output classifications.

Presenting the data

Output categories

​​​​​​​Output classification

Household output categories:

1 Owner without a mortgage
2 Owner with a mortgage
3 Life tenure scheme
4 Participant of shared equity scheme
5 Renter
6 Rent-free
7 Other*

Shortened household output categories:

1 Owner without a mortgage
2 Owner with a mortgage
3 Renter
4 Other*

Person/income unit level output categories:

1 Owner without a mortgage
2 Owner with a mortgage
3 Life tenure scheme
4 Participant of shared equity scheme
5 Renter
6 Rent-free
7 Boarder
8 Other*

*Tenure Type is 'Other' if the tenure does not fit any of the above categories. Further definitions can be found in the glossary.

Output classification - Tenure and Landlord Type

Landlord Type is commonly used in conjunction with Tenure Type to output a combined tenure and landlord type. Recommended standard output for this item is listed below.

Tenure and Landlord Type - Option 1

1    Owner without a mortgage
2    Owner with a mortgage(a)
3    Renter - State/territory housing authority
4    Renter - Community housing provider
5    Renter - Private landlord(b)
6    Renter - Other landlord(c)
7    Other tenure type(d)

a. including participants of shared equity schemes
b. includes renters with a landlord type of Real estate agent, or Person not in the same household (whether parent, other relative, or other person)
c. includes renters with a landlord type of Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates), Employer - Government (including Defence Housing Australia), Employer - Other employer, and Other 
d. includes rent-free, life tenure scheme, other

Tenure and Landlord Type - Option 2

Tenure and Landlord type
1    Owner without a mortgage
2    Owner with a mortgage(a)
3    Renter - State/territory housing authority
4    Renter - Private landlord(b)
5    Renter - Other landlord(c)
6    Other tenure type(d)

a. including participants of shared equity schemes
b. includes renters with a landlord type of Real estate agent, or Person not in the same household (whether parent, other relative, or other person)
c. includes renters with a landlord type of Community housing provider, Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates), Employer - Government (including Defence Housing Australia), Employer - Other employer, and Other
d. includes rent-free, life tenure scheme, other

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Family, Household and Income Unit variables, 2014

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2004). 1389.0 – Usual Residence Concepts Sources and Methods Paper, Jan 2004

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division. (2017). Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses Revision 3. United Nations, New York, 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2020

Landlord Type

Background

Renting a dwelling in Australia is not a uniform experience in terms of security of tenure, cost and affordability, and in other ways. Accordingly, the Landlord Type standard exists to classify renting households, income units, and persons into the different types of arrangement that exist. When it was created in 1995, the categories were chosen to be compatible with previous nature of occupancy, and Landlord Type data produced from Censuses of Population and Housing (Census), various Special Supplementary Surveys (SSS) and Monthly Population Surveys' (MPS) Supplementary Surveys.

Earlier versions of the standard (1995, 2001) were hierarchical, and were collapsed into a single level or 'flat' classification in the 2014 review. 

The ABS has a more developed Landlord Type standard than those of national statistical offices in comparable countries, and the United Nations:

  • Statistics Canada — although the 'Tenure including presence of mortgage payments and subsidized housing' classification breaks rental housing down into whether or not it is subsidised, there does not appear to be a Statistics Canada classification that further divides subsidised rental into its components: "rent geared to income, social housing, public housing, government-assisted housing, non-profit housing, rent supplements and housing allowances" (Statistics Canada 2016).
  • The United Kingdom, with a more decentralised national statistical system than Australia, does not have a separate Landlord Type standard. Rather, of the four tenure categories for most housing statistics, three are types of renting: privately; from housing associations; and from local authorities.
  • In the United States of America, both the annual American Community Survey (ACS) and the biennial American Housing Survey (AHS) use a two category classification of tenure only: owner-occupied and renter-occupied (United States Census Bureau 2017).
  • The United Nations Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses, Revision 3, sets out the UN's existing standards. The Tenure topic (paragraph 4.556) includes within its categories whether a household rents a housing unit (dwelling) as a main tenant, or as a subtenant; as well as whether the household occupies the housing unit partly free of rent; or wholly free of rent, but does not have a separate Landlord Type topic. 

It is important to note that Landlord Type is dependent on the Tenure Type standard, as it provides a more detailed break-down of the tenure categories 'renter', 'boarder' as well as 'rent-free'. Accordingly, this dependency needs to be carefully considered when reviewing either of these standards.

Introduction to the standard

Nominal definition

Landlord Type is for those households, income units, or persons who rent their dwelling or part thereof, the type of entity with which the contract or agreement to occupy the dwelling is with. 

The Landlord Type for any given counting unit relies on the contractual relationship one or more members of the counting unit has with the most immediate landlord external to the counting unit. It is not uncommon for a chain or hierarchy of tenant–landlord relationships to exist between the occupants of a dwelling and ultimately to an external landlord. It is possible, then, that persons or income units within the same household may have different Landlord Types, and may have a different Landlord Type to that of the household as a whole. 

Landlord Type is also applicable to boarders – persons or income units that pay for meals and lodging. 

Operational defintion

Landlord Type is — for those households, income units, or persons who rent the private dwelling that they occupy or part thereof — the type of entity to which rent is paid, or with whom the tenure contract or arrangement is made. It also refers to — for those households, income units, or persons who occupy their private dwelling or part thereof rent-free — the type of entity that permits the occupancy. At person or income unit levels, Landlord Type is also applicable to boarders — those who pay for meals and lodging.

The Landlord Type of the household can be collected by asking the question directly of the household or of a single reference person. In this method it is inferred that all persons and income units in the household have the same Landlord Type unless person or income unit level tenure is collected.

Alternatively, if person level Tenure and Landlord Type is collected of all persons in the dwelling, then this can be used to infer the income unit Landlord Type. Each income unit's Landlord Type is that of the 'primary tenure person(s)' within it — that is, those persons that have the legal relationship with the landlord. Generally, this person will also be the income unit reference person.

For more information on tenure type refer to the Tenure Type standard.

The Landlord Type of persons in caravans, houseboats and manufactured homes will be determined by the landlord of the dwelling and not the land.

Difference between nominal and operational definition

The difference between the nominal definition (the type of entity with which the contract or agreement to occupy the dwelling is with) and the operational definition (the type of entity to which rent is paid) reflects a perceived gap between the ideal, and what renters can be expected to knowledgeably answer in practice. This is because the majority of relationships between landlord and tenant in Australia are mediated by a real estate agent. One consequence of this intermediation is that private renters (especially) may not necessarily be able to easily report which type of landlord they have. Historically, housing surveys that follow the standard have asked who do you pay rent to, in order to identify the type of entity that renters interact with. The response 'real estate agent' is treated as a proxy representing a range of entities that are assumed to be private sector, as opposed to public or third sector. 

There is value in capturing this information because the relationship with a real estate agent is quite different from that experienced by renters who rent directly from an individual person as landlord. Real estate agent mediation is considered to be the most professionalised 'channel' of renting in the private rental sector. Residential tenancy agreements are the contractual basis of the letting. Codes of professional standards apply in order to have a real estate agent's licence; staff undergo training and accreditation. Renting directly from an individual person, on the other hand, is more likely to be part of renting in the informal private rental sector, which has different characteristics to the formal. 

Differences between Australian practice and comparable overseas countries

The Australian Bureau of Statistics is unusual in having a Landlord Type standard, as statistical agencies in most other comparable countries do not have one. This is due to the following reasons:

  • historically, the development of a tenure type standard with just one type of 'renter'. In fact the differences of interest between renters are those of tenure, involving as they do, different degrees of security and longevity, as well as cost or affordability.  Other countries simply developed tenure classifications with variations of types of renting within them
  • different political values informing the choice of statistics produced — for example, the United States does not appear to have a strong interest in further delineation of renters
  • economy and efficiency — a simplified tenure classification, with just home owners and renters, brings cost savings to the statistical agency.

Collection of variable data

Scope

Statistical units

The Landlord Type variable is applicable to persons, income units, and households that reside in private dwellings whose tenure is renting, boarding or rent-free, where tenure is determined in relation to the dwelling, rather than the underlying land. As stated in the tenure type standard, "The tenure type of persons, income units, and households in caravans, manufactured homes and houseboats is determined according to the tenure of the dwelling and not the land." Thus, a person who owns a caravan and rents a site in a caravan park has the tenure of owner, rather than renter, and therefore Landlord Type is not applicable. Conversely, a person who owns a block of land, but lives in a rented caravan situated on it, is regarded as having the tenure of renter, and therefore Landlord Type is applicable to this person, income unit, or household.

Question modules

Detailed question module

Household level question module

Face to face and telephone interview methods of data collection

The folllowing question module is to be used for face-to-face or computer aided personal interviewing (CAPI) methods. It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household. 

Options can be included on a prompt card.

Incoming population: Tenure Type = households who are renting (Tenure type Q2 =1) or rent-free (Tenure Type Q5 =1). 

Q1. [Who do [you/members of this household] pay rent to for this dwelling?/Who provides this dwelling to [you/members of this household] rent free?]
 
Show prompt card
 
1. Real estate agent1. End of module
2. State or territory housing authority2. End of module
3. Community housing provider3. End of module
 
Person not in the same household
4. Parent/Other relative4. End of module
5. Other unrelated person5. End of module
 
Residential Park
6. Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)6. End of module
 
Employer
7. Government (including Defence Housing Australia)7. End of module
8. Other employer8. End of module
 
Other
9. Other (please specify)9. Go to Q2.
 
Q2. Enter 'other' person/agency rent paid toEnd of module
Allow text entry of 40 characters

The folllowing question module is to be used for computer aided telephone interviewing (CATI) methods. It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household. 

Incoming population: Tenure Type = households who are renting or rent-free.

Q1. [Who do [you/members of this household] pay rent to for this dwelling?/Who provides this dwelling to [you/members of this household] rent free?]
 
1. Real estate agent1. End of module
2. State or territory housing authority2. End of module
3. Community housing provider3. End of module
 
Person not in the same household
4. Parent/Other relative4. End of module
5. Other unrelated person5. End of module
 
Residential Park
6. Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)6. End of module
 
Employer
7. Government (including Defence Housing Australia)7. End of module
8. Other employer8. End of module
 
Other
9. Other (please specify)9. Go to Q2.
 
Q2. Enter 'other' person/agency rent paid toEnd of module
Allow text entry of 40 characters

Self completion methods of data collection

The following question is to be used for online self completion methods. It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household. 

Incoming population: Tenure Type = households who are renting or rent-free.

Q1. [Who do [you/members of this household] pay rent to for this dwelling?/Who provides this dwelling to [you/members of this household] rent free?]
 
Include expandable 'More information' box
 
☐ Real estate agent1. End of module
☐ State or territory housing authority2. End of module
☐ Community housing provider3. End of module
 
Person not in the same household
☐ Parent/Other relative4. End of module
☐ Other unrelated person5. End of module
 
Residential Park
☐ Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)6. End of module
 
Employer
☐ Government (including Defence Housing Australia)7. End of module
☐ Other employer8. End of module
 
Other
☐ Other (please specify)9. Go to Q2.
 
Q2. Enter 'other' person/agency rent paid to.End of module
Allow text entry of 40 characters
'More information' box
Definitions:
Community housing provider is a not-for-profit organisation providing low to moderate income households with subsidised housing.
Include:
• housing co-operatives; housing associations; church-owned housing (if provided on the above basis)
• where a community housing provider is now managing a dwelling that was previously state or territory housing.
 
Residential park is land that is divided into sites that are rented from the park owner/operator and on which a manufactured home, or a moveable dwelling such as a caravan is placed. May also be known as a:
• manufactured home estate
• residential land lease community.
 
Note:
For payments to retirement villages that are not operated by a community housing provider, please select 'Other unrelated person' (not living in the same household).

The following question module is to be used for paper self completion methods. 

Incoming population: Tenure Type = households who are renting or rent-free.

Q1. Who do you (or the members of this household) pay rent to for this dwelling?
 
Real estate agent1. End of module
State or territory housing authority2. End of module
Community housing provider3. End of module
 
Person not in the same household
Parent/Other relative4. End of module
Other unrelated person5. End of module
 
Residential Park
Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)6. End of module
 
Employer
Government (including Defence Housing Australia)7. End of module
Other employer8. End of module
 
Other
Other (please specify)9. Go to Q2.
 
Q2. Enter 'other' person/agency rent paid to. End of module
Allow text entry of 40 characters
Word substitutions specifications for household level modules
Word substitutionSource itemsConditionsSubstitutionQuestions used in
[Who do [you/members of this household] pay rent to for this dwelling?/Who provides this dwelling to [you/members of this household] rent free?]Tenure type of household1. Household level Tenure type Q2=11=Who do [you/members of this household] pay rent to for this dwelling?Q1
  2. Household level Tenure type Q5=12=Who provides this dwelling to [you/members of this household] rent free? 
[you/members of this household]Household type1. Lone person households and households with only one person aged 15 years or over.1= youQ1
  2. All other households2= members of this household 

An optional word substitution to replace the word [dwelling] with the accurate descriptor of the dwelling's structure (e.g., house) can be included without requiring a departure from standards.

Person and Income Unit level question module.

The following question module is to be used for telephone or face to face interviewer methods. It should be asked of one member of the household, the Household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

Options can be included on a prompt card.

Incoming population - Person/Income Level Tenure Type = People/Income Units who do not share the primary tenure of the household and whose person level tenure is renting (Person level tenure Q2=1), rent-free (Person level tenure Q3=1) or boarding (Person level tenure Q1=1) (see tenure type standard for further details on establishing this population).

Q1. [Who do/does [you/(name of person)] pay [rent/board] to?/Who provides your dwelling to [you/(name of person)] rent free?]
 
Show prompt card
 
1. Real estate agent1. End of module
2. State or territory housing authority2. End of module
3. Community housing provider3. End of module
 
Person living in the same household
4. Parent/Other relative4. End of module
5. Other unrelated person5. End of module
 
Person not in the same household
6. Parent/Other relative6. End of module
7. Other unrelated person7. End of module
 
Residential park
8. Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)8. End of module
 
Employer
9. Government (including Defence Housing Australia)9. End of module
10. Other employer10. End of module
 
Other
11. Other (please specify)11. Go to Q2.
 
Q2. Enter 'other' person/agency rent paid toEnd of module
Allow text entry of 40 characters

The following question is to be used for online self completion methods. It should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household. 

Q1. [Who do/does [you/(name of person)] pay [rent/board] to?/Who provides your dwelling to [you/(name of person)] rent free?]
 
Include expandable 'More information' box here
 
☐ Real estate agent1. End of module
☐ State or territory housing authority2. End of module
☐ Community housing provider3. End of module
 
Person living in the same household
☐ Parent/Other relative4. End of module
☐ Other unrelated person5. End of module
 
Person not in the same household
☐ Parent/Other relative6. End of module
☐ Other unrelated person7. End of module
 
Residential park
☐ Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)8. End of module
 
Employer
☐ Government (including Defence Housing Australia)9. End of module
☐ Other employer10. End of module
 
Other
☐ Other (please specify)11. Go to Q2.
 
Q2. Enter 'other' person/agency rent paid toEnd of module
Allow text entry of 40 characters
'More information' box
Definitions:
Community housing provider is a not-for-profit organisation providing low to moderate income households with subsidised housing.
Include:
• housing co-operatives; housing associations; church-owned housing (if provided on the above basis)
• where a community housing provider is now managing a dwelling that was previously state or territory housing.
 
Residential park is land that is divided into sites that are rented from the park owner/operator and on which a manufactured home, or a moveable dwelling such as a caravan is placed. May also be known as a:
• manufactured home estate
• residential land lease community.
 
Note:
For payments to retirement villages that are not operated by a community housing provider, please select 'Other unrelated person' (not living in the same household).
Word substitutions specifications for person level module
Word substitutionSource itemsConditionsSubstitutionQuestions used in
[Who do/does [you/(name of person)] pay [rent/board] to?/Who provides your [dwelling/room] to [you/(name of person)] rent free?]Person level Tenure type1. If Person level tenure Q1 = 1 or Q2=11. Who do/does [you/(name of person)] pay [rent/board] to?Q1
  2. If Person level tenure Q3 = 12. Who provides your [dwelling/room] to [you/(name of person)] rent free? 
[you(name of person)]Primary Tenure Persons1. If referring to Household spokesperson where they are not a primary tenure person1. youQ1
  2. If referring to other Usual Residents where they are not a primary tenure person2. (name of person) 
[rent/board]Person level Tenure type1. If Person level tenure Q1 = 11 boardQ1
  2. If Person level tenure Q2 = 12 rent 

An optional word substitution to replace the word [dwelling] with the accurate descriptor of the dwelling's structure (e.g., house) can be included without requiring a departure from standards.

Derivation procedures

Standard derivation table for Landlord Type (Household level)
Input/Output codesInput codes and data item labels
11. Real estate agent
22. State or territory housing authority
33. Community housing provider
44. Person not in the same household, Parent/Other relative
55. Person not in the same household, Other person
66. Owner/Manager of Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
77. Employer, Government (including Defence Housing Australia)
88. Employer, Other employer
99. Other
Standard derivation table for Landlord Type (Person and Income level)
Input/Output codesInput codes and data item labels
11. Real estate agent
22. State or territory housing authority
33. Community housing provider
44. Person in the same household, Parent/Other relative
55. Person in the same household, Other person
66. Person not in the same household, Parent/Other relative
77. Person not in the same household, Other person
88. Owner/Manager of Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
88. Employer, Government (including Defence Housing Australia)
1010. Employer, Other employer
1111. Other

Supporting variables

The main supporting variable needed for Landlord Type is Tenure Type. The Tenure Type variable is used for sequencing respondents to the Landlord Type question. Household Type is also required to implement the [you/members of this household] and [you(name of person)] word substitutions.

Processing the data

Coding

Input classification

Household unit level classification:

1    Real estate agent
2    State or territory housing authority
3    Community housing provider
4    Person not in the same household - Parent/Other relative
5    Person not in the same household - Other person
6    Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
7    Employer - Government (including Defence Housing Australia)
8    Employer - Other employer
9    Other (Specify)

Person and income unit level classification:

1    Real estate agent
2    State or territory housing authority
3    Community housing provider
4    Person in the same household - Parent/Other relative
5    Person in the same household - Other person
6    Person not in the same household - Parent/Other relative
7    Person not in the same household - Other person
8    Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
9    Employer - Government (including Defence Housing Australia)
10    Employer - Other employer
11    Other (Specify)

Coding indexes

Landlord Type is a single level classification so input classifications equal output classifications. However, categories can be collapsed for output if required.

Presenting the data

Output categories

A guiding principle for author areas in the dissemination of data is to output to the maximum number of categories that the collection can support while maintaining reasonable sampling error. If more than one-third of the cells in a table are subject to sampling errors of 25 per cent or higher, authors areas are advised to combine some of the categories. Accordingly, a number of alternatives are provided at each level, with successively fewer categories. Landlord Type is commonly combined with the renter category of Tenure Type to output a combined Tenure and Landlord Type. The standard output categories for Tenure and Landlord Type are also presented below.

Household level output categories:

The complete list of output categories:

1    Real estate agent
2    State or territory housing authority
3    Community housing provider
4    Person not in the same household - Parent/Other relative
5    Person not in the same household - Other person
6    Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
7    Employer - Government (including Defence Housing Australia)
8    Employer - Other employer
9    Other

Alternative household level output options:

Option 1

1    Real estate agent (input code 1)
2    State or territory housing authority (input code 2)
3    Community housing provider (input code 3)
4    Person not in the same household (input code 4 and 5)
5    Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates) (input code 6)
6    Employer (input codes 7, and 8)    
7    Other (input code 9)

Option 2

1    Private landlord (input codes 1, 4 and 5)
2    State or territory housing authority (input code 2)
3    Community housing provider (input code 3)
4    Other (input codes 6, 7, 8, and 9)

Option 3

1    Private landlord (input codes 1, 4 and 5)
2    State or territory housing authority (input code 2)
3    Other (input codes 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9)

Person/Income unit level output categories:

1    Real estate agent
2    State or territory housing authority
3    Community housing provider
4    Person in the same household - Parent/Other relative
5    Person in the same household - Other person
6    Person not in the same household - Parent/Other relative
7    Person not in the same household - Other person
8    Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
9    Employer - Government (including Defence Housing Australia)
10    Employer - Other employer
11    Other

Alternative person level output options can be used depending on the requirements of the collection as outlined below:

Option 1

1    Real estate agent (input code 1)
2    State or territory housing authority (input code 2)
3    Community housing provider (input code 3)
4    Person in the same household (Input code 4 and 5)
5    Person not in the same household (input code 6 and 7)
6    Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates) (input code 8)
7    Employer (input codes 9, and 10)    
8    Other (input code 11)

Option 2

1    Private landlord (input codes 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7)
2    State or territory housing authority (input code 2)
3    Community housing provider (input code 3)
4    Other (input codes 8, 9, 10 and 11)

Option 3

1    Private landlord (input codes 1, 4, 5, 6 and 7)
2    State or territory housing authority (input code 2)
3    Other (input codes 3, 8, 9, 10 and 11)

Tenure and Landlord Type household level output categories:

It is recommended that author areas use option 1, below, which includes category '4  Renter – Community housing provider', where this can be done with appropriate sampling error. Otherwise option 2 should be used, in which renters with a community housing provider landlord are part of category '5  Renter – Other landlord'. 

Option 1

Tenure and Landlord Type
1    Owner without a mortgage
2    Owner with a mortgage
3    Renter - State or territory housing authority
4    Renter - Community housing provider
5    Renter - Private landlord
6    Renter - Other landlord
7    Other tenure type

Option 2

Tenure and Landlord Type
1    Owner without a mortgage
2    Owner with a mortgage
3    Renter - State or territory housing authority
4    Renter - Private landlord
5    Renter - Other landlord
6    Other tenure type

References

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2019). Family, Household and Income Unit variables, 2014

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division. (2017). Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses Revision 3. United Nations, New York, 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2020

United States Census Bureau. (2017). American Housing Survey (AHS). Retrieved 25 February 2020

Statistics Canada. (2016). Data tables, 2016 Census. Tenure Including Presence of Mortgage Payments and Subsidized Housing (7). Retrieved 25 February 2020

Dwelling Structure

Background

Dwelling Structure is the variable that provides a standard classification of the different types of private dwelling structures, such as houses, flats, townhouses, etc.

This standard has been designed to be comparable with the Functional Classification of Buildings (BLD) used in the ABS Building Approvals, ABS's Measuring Australia's Housing Supply (MAHS), the ABS's Building Activity Survey collections and the Structure of Dwelling (STRD) used in the ABS's Census. 

Introduction to the standard

Nominal definition

Dwelling Structure is the variable which classifies private dwellings according to the structure of the building that contains the dwelling.

A 'building' is defined as a rigid, fixed and permanent structure which has a roof. Its intended purpose is primarily to house people, plant, machinery, vehicles, goods or livestock. An integral feature of a building’s design is the provision for regular access by persons in order to satisfy its intended use.

A 'dwelling' is a suite of rooms contained within a building or structure in which people can live. A 'private dwelling' is defined as a suite of rooms contained within a building which are self-contained and intended for long-term residential use. To be self-contained the suite of rooms must possess cooking and bathing facilities as building fixtures.

The Dwelling Structure classification refers only to private dwellings. Accommodation provided in other premises, e.g. hotels/motels, boarding schools, nursing homes, hostels etc. is excluded, unless the dwelling is self-contained and intended for long term residential use.

Operational definition

Private dwellings are established for self-contained accommodation. This includes: 

  • flats, units or apartments
  • semi-detached houses e.g. townhouses, terrace houses, row houses
  • separate houses
  • improvised homes (e.g. garage, shed, or tent, occupied on a permanent basis). 

Once a private dwelling is identified, the Dwelling Structure is then classified by establishing the type of building that contains the dwelling structure.

'Other dwellings' are also included in the Dwelling Structure standard. Other dwellings include caravans, cabins, houseboats, tents, improvised homes and campers out and houses or flats attached to shop/s or office/s etc. The 'Other Dwellings' category captures the accommodation arrangements for households that may not fit the definition of dwelling as defined in the nominal definition. Other dwellings may be located within a predominately non-residential building or not be intended for long term residential use and in some cases not be self-contained.

The criteria used to classify Dwelling Structure are: 

  • whether the building is attached to and structurally dependent on another building or dwelling
  • the number of storeys comprising the building which contains the dwelling
  • whether the dwelling is permanent or mobile
  • whether the dwelling is intended for long term residential use.

Discussion of issues

For surveys which have limited time allocations and do not output detailed breakdowns of Dwelling Structure, a shortened question module has been included.

Dwelling Structure information will be maintained on the ABS Address Register.

In the previous version, a 'Separate house' was defined as such if it is separated from other dwellings by a space of at least half a metre (50cm). Due to the increasing practice of constructing two dwellings adjacent to one another on a common boundary, with no physical attachment between the two dwellings, this version removes the separation criterion from the definition, bringing the standard more in line with modern day construction practices. The new definition will be based on structural attachment (or lack thereof) between dwellings. For example, if a single dwelling has been constructed on a boundary, and one of its walls is abutting another existing dwelling (not structurally attached), the dwelling will now be classified as a 'Separate house'. If instead the dwellings were separated by a common wall, they will be classified as 'Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse'. This change brings the definition into better alignment with the Building Classes in the National Construction Code. Discussions with key providers of Building Approvals data (mostly local councils) confirmed that dwellings are already being classified by assessing whether they are structurally attached or not, rather than applying the half-metre separation rule.

The construction of taller apartment buildings has become more common over the past few years and they now comprise a larger share of the dwelling stock. This version provides further granularity for apartment buildings through two sub-classes; 'Apartments in a four to eight storey block' and 'Apartments in a nine or more storey block'. These replace the 'Apartments in a four or more storey block' sub-class in the previous version. The reason for breaking up the two sub-classes at 8/9 storeys is because there are additional building rules that apply if their height exceeds 25 metres. Our research on building heights showed that a typical 25 metre apartment building has between 8 and 9 storeys.

Changes from the previous version to this version constitute a break in the time series. The new classifications for apartments can be modified easily to make the new classification comparable.

Collection of variable data

Scope

Statistical units

The classification covers all private dwellings including 'Other dwellings'.

Question modules

Detailed question module

For use in face to face Interview based collections. Interviewer to code Dwelling Structure based upon their observations of the dwelling prior to commencing interview:

Q1 - Code best description of structure containing household
Separate house
1. Separate house1. End of Module
 
Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse
2. one storey2. End of Module
3. two or more storeys3. End of Module
 
Flat or apartment
4. in a 1 or 2 storey block4. End of Module
5. in a 3 storey block5. End of Module
6. in a 4 to 8 storey block6. End of Module
7. in a 9 or more storey block7. End of Module
8. attached to a house8. End of Module
 
Other dwelling
9. Caravan, Cabin, Houseboat9. End of Module
10. Improvised home, Tent, Sleepers out10. End of Module
11. House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.11. End of Module

The 'Other dwelling' category 'Caravan, Cabin, Houseboat' can be collected in greater detail and where possible, caravans should be collected separately from Cabin and Houseboats. This can be done either through collecting them separately initially or by asking an additional question. Most sample surveys will not be able to support output for further breakdowns of 'Caravan, Cabin, Houseboat' and as such, these surveys should use the standard breakdowns shown above.

Short question module

For collections which have limited time allocations and do not output detailed breakdowns of Dwelling Structure, the shortened question module can be used.

For use in face to face Interview based collections. Interviewer to code Dwelling Structure based upon their observations of the dwelling prior to commencing interview:

Q1 - Code best description of structure containing household
1. Separate house1. End of Module
2. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse2. End of Module
3. Flat or apartment3. End of Module
4. Other (Specify)4. End of Module
(Allow text entry 100 characters)

Derivation procedures

Standard derivation table for Dwelling Structure
 Description of structure containing household
Input codesOutput codes and data item labels
111. Separate house
221. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with one storey
322. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with two or more storeys
431. Flat or apartment in a 1 or 2 storey block
532. Flat or apartment in a 3 storey block
633. Flat or apartment in a 4 to 8 storey block
734. Flat or apartment in 9 or more storey block
835. Flat or apartment attached to a house
991. Other dwelling: Caravan, cabin, houseboat
1093. Other dwelling: Improvised home, tent, sleepers out
1194. Other dwelling: House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.
Short derivation table for Dwelling Structure
 Description of structure containing household
Input codesOutput codes and data item labels
11. Separate house
22. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse
33. Flat or apartment
49. Other dwelling

Supporting variables

A supporting variable to Dwelling Structure is Dwelling Location. Dwelling Location applies to private dwellings, and describes the location of dwellings other than 'typical' private dwellings. It is used to identify whether dwellings of a specific structure, such as caravans, are located in communal locations, such as in a caravan park.

Dwelling Location is collected as a separate item by both the Census and the Survey of Income and Housing (SIH). The SIH asks the following question for Dwelling Location.

Code best description of location of selected dwelling.
1. Caravan park
2. Marina
3. Manufactured home estate
4. Accommodation for the retired or aged (self-care)
5. Other (including residential dwelling blocks, farms, etc.)

The ABS Address Register applies the following codes to describe the dwelling location where a dwelling exists within a Private Dwelling Establishment (PDE).

Special Dwelling Type CodeDescription
PDE010Caravan Parks and Camping Grounds
PDE020Marina
PDE030Manufactured Home Estate
PDE040Retirement Village

Processing the data

Coding

Input classification

The standard input classification comprises the following input classification categories:

  1. Separate house
  2. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with one storey
  3. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with two or more storeys
  4. Flat or apartment in a 1 or 2 storey block
  5. Flat or apartment in a 3 storey block
  6. Flat or apartment in a 4 to 8 storey block
  7. Flat or apartment in a 9 or more storey block
  8. Flat or apartment attached to a house
  9. Other dwelling: Caravan, Cabin, Houseboat 
  10. Other dwelling: Improvised home, Tent, Sleepers out
  11. Other dwelling: House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.

Short classification

  1. Separate house
  2. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse 
  3. Flat or apartment
  4. Other dwelling

Presenting the data

Output categories

Output classification

The Dwelling Structure output classification is a 2 level classification with 4 categories at level one and 11 at level two.

The short Dwelling Structure classification has a flat structure with 4 categories.

The standard comprises the following output classification categories:

Input codesClassification levelOutput codes and data item labels
111. Separate house
1211. Separate house
2 and 312. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with:
2221. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with one storey
3222. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with two or more storeys
4, 5, 6, 7 and 813. Flat or apartment
4231. Flat or apartment in a 1 or 2 storey block
5232. Flat or apartment in a 3 storey block
6233. Flat or apartment in a 4 to 8 storey block
7234. Flat or apartment in a 9 or more storey block
8235. Flat or apartment attached to a house
9, 10 and 1119. Other dwelling
9291. Other dwelling: Caravan, cabin, houseboat
10293. Other dwelling: Improvised home, tent, sleepers out
11294. Other dwelling: House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.
Short classification
Input codesOutput codes and data item labels
11. Separate house
22. Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse
33. Flat or apartment
49. Other dwelling

References

Number of Bedrooms

Background

The Number of Bedrooms variable provides a count of the number of bedrooms in each occupied private dwelling, including caravans in caravan parks.

The Number of Bedrooms variable is also used to derive indicators of crowding (i.e. by considering the number of bedrooms in the household in combination with the number of people in the household and the demographic details of these people) and dwelling size.

Introduction to the standard

Nominal definition

Number of Bedrooms is the number of rooms within a dwelling that are defined as bedrooms on the dwelling plans or approval documents (i.e. they relate to the intent at the time of construction, not necessarily current use).

A dwelling is defined (according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics) as:

A suite of rooms within a building which is self-contained and intended for long-term residential use. To be self-contained, the suite of rooms must possess cooking and bathing facilities as part of the building.

A room is deemed to be an enclosed space within a dwelling which is separated from other rooms.

Number of Bedrooms is an attribute of the counting unit Dwelling.

Operational definition

Number of Bedrooms is the number of rooms within a dwelling that are defined as bedrooms on the dwelling plans. This includes bedrooms which have been created or removed as a result of alterations and additions to the dwelling (such as built in verandas, extensions, sunrooms, etc.) which the occupants of a dwelling consider to be bedrooms. Other rooms on the plans such as lounge, family or dining rooms which are used as bedrooms should be excluded.

A studio apartment or bedsitter is considered to have no bedrooms, as there is no separate room in which to sleep and is classified as 0 bedrooms. 

Discussion of issues

Because of methodological constraints, what constitutes a bedroom is left to the perception of the occupants in household-based collections.

This item is to be collected and output as a continuous item.

Collection of variable data

Scope

Statistical units

The Number of Bedrooms variable is applicable to all private dwellings in Australia.

Question modules

Detailed question module

These question modules should be asked of one member of the household, the household spokesperson, who answers on behalf of the household.

Telephone and face to face interview question module
Q1. How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?
Enter number of bedrooms.
Interviewer: If studio apartment/bedsitter, code '0'.
0..99
Online self completion question module
Q1. How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?
 
[Include expandable 'More Information' box with the following text:]
Definition:
• A bedroom is a room within the dwelling that is defined as a bedroom on the dwelling plan.
• A studio apartment or bedsitter is considered to have no bedrooms, as there is no separate room in which to sleep. Enter '0' bedrooms.
Including:
• all rooms designated as bedrooms on the plan (even if they have since been converted to another room such as a study)
• bedrooms that have been created as a result of alterations and additions to the dwelling (such as built in verandas, extensions, sunrooms, etc) which the occupants of a dwelling consider to be bedrooms.
Excluding:
• other rooms on the plans such as lounge, family or dining rooms.
 
☐☐
Paper self completion question module
Q1. How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling? 
If the dwelling is a studio apartment/bedsitter, mark the none box. 
Number of bedrooms☐☐
None

Processing the data

Coding

​​​​​​​Input classification

Continuous (0 to 99).

The input classification for Number of Bedrooms is a flat classification and has the code structure range of 0 to 99 where None (including studio apartments/bedsitters) equals 0.

Presenting the data

Output categories

Output classifications

Number of Bedrooms is collected as a continuous item (0 to 99). However, the categories used in final output should be determined based on the specifications for the collection, required level of detail, data quality, standard errors and confidentiality. Below is an example of a common acceptable output.

0   None (includes studio apartments/bedsitters)
1   1
2   2
3   3
4   4
5   5
6   6 or more

Not stated*

*Optional supplementary category

Glossary

Show all

Bedroom

A bedroom is a room within a dwelling that is defined as a bedroom on the dwelling plans. This includes bedrooms that have been created as a result of alterations and additions to the dwelling (such as built in verandas, extensions, sunrooms, etc.) which the occupants of a dwelling consider to be bedrooms. Other rooms on the plans such as lounge, family or dining rooms which are used as bedrooms should be excluded.

Boarder

A boarder is a person aged 15 years or over or an income unit that is provided with meals and lodging in return for payment. Boarders are considered household members (due to the interaction with others at mealtimes) but may or may not be related to any other household members.

Building

A building is a rigid, fixed and permanent structure which has a roof. Its intended purpose is primarily to house people, plant, machinery, vehicles, goods or livestock. An integral feature of a building’s design is the provision for regular access by persons in order to satisfy its intended use.

Community housing provider

Where rent is paid to a not-for-profit organisation providing low to moderate income households with subsidised housing, which may be one of the following:

  • housing co-operative
  • housing association
  • church owned housing (if provided on the above basis).

Dwelling

A suite of rooms contained within a building or structure in which people can live.

  • Private dwelling:

A self-contained dwelling intended for long-term residential use. To be self-contained the suite of rooms must possess cooking and bathing facilities as building fixtures.

Private dwellings can include houses, flats (including flats with communal laundries), semi-detached terrace houses, townhouses, apartments and self-contained retirement village units. 

To allow for full coverage of all households private dwellings also includes 'Other dwellings' even if they are not intended for long term residential use and in some cases are not self-contained. Other dwellings may include dwellings attached to non-residential buildings and occupied caravans, cabins, houseboats, improvised dwellings and tents.

  • Non-private dwelling:

Dwellings or establishments that provide a communal or transitory type of accommodation or care, such as hotels, hostels and nursing homes, prisons, religious and charitable institutions, boarding schools, defence establishments, hospitals and other communal dwellings.

Flat or apartment

This category covers all dwellings in blocks of flats or apartments. These dwellings do not have their own private grounds and usually share a common entrance foyer or stairwell. This category includes houses converted into flats, and flats attached to houses such as granny flats.

Household

A person living alone or a group of related or unrelated people who usually live in the same private dwelling.

Income unit

An income unit is a group of two or more people who are usually resident in the same household and are related to each other through a couple relationship or parent/dependent child relationship; or a lone person who is not party to either such relationship.

Landlord type

For renters, the type of entity to whom rent is paid or with whom the tenure contract or arrangement is made. If applied to those occupying a dwelling rent-free, it is the type of entity that permits the occupation of the dwelling. 

Landlord type - Employer

  • Government: 

Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangements is made with a government employer (including Defence Housing Australia).

  • Other employer: 

Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangements is made with an employer who is not Defence Housing Australia or another government organisation.

Landlord type - Other (specify) category - household, person and income unit level classification

All other arrangements. Including student housing provided by the institutions they are attending.

Landlord type - Person in the same household

  • Parent/Other relative: 

Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangement is made with a parent or relative who lives within the same household.

  • Other person: 

Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangement is made with an unrelated individual who lives within the same household.

Landlord type - Person not in the same household

  • Parent/Other relative: 

Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangement is made with a parent or relative who does not live within the same household.

  • Other person: 

Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangement is made with an unrelated individual who does not live within the same household. This includes payments to retirement villages if they are not administered by community or co-operative groups.

Life tenure scheme

People, income units or households that have a lease arrangement that provides them with the right to occupy the dwelling for the term of their life, or an indefinite period, but without the full rights of ownership and usually with limited or no equity in the dwelling. This is a common arrangement in retirement villages and can also be referred to as leasehold or loan and licence agreements.

Mortgage

A legal agreement by which the lender (e.g. a bank) takes the title deed to a property as security for the loan, to be returned once the loan has been repaid. 

Non-private dwelling

Dwellings or establishments that provide a communal or transitory type of accommodation or care, such as hotels, hostels and nursing homes, prisons, religious and charitable institutions, boarding schools, defence establishments, hospitals and other communal dwellings.

Other dwellings

  • Cabin:

An occupied private dwelling that is self-contained but not intended for long term residential use (although it could be currently used on a permanent or semi-permanent basis).

Includes: occupied cabins located in tourist/residential parks or set up as temporary housing
Excludes: separate dwellings that are permanent and intended for long term residential use, even if the resident/owner views them as a cabin like dwelling due to their size, structure, materials or current use.

  • Caravan:

An occupied mobile dwelling (intended for use on land) that may or may not be self-contained but not intended for long term residential use (although it could be currently used on a permanent or semi-permanent basis).

  • Houseboat:

An occupied mobile dwelling (intended for use on water). It is not typically intended for long term use (although it could be currently used on a permanent or semi-permanent basis).

  • House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.:

All houses or flats that are attached to a non-residential building. Examples of these dwellings are manses attached to a church, a flat or apartment over a shop, and a caretaker's house or flat attached to a school, factory or storage facility where the primary purpose of the main building is for non-residential use.

  • Improvised home, tent, sleepers out:

All structures not elsewhere classified that are occupied by people on a permanent or semi-permanent basis. This category typically includes garages, sheds, tents, shacks, etc.
 

Owned or partly owned

Owned includes only cases where no money is owed on any type of loan secured against the dwelling. Partly owned includes all households that currently have any type of mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling and households who own the dwelling in partnership with someone outside the household.

Include:

  • households with loans or mortgages (for any purpose) which are secured against the dwelling
  • households with reverse mortgages or bridging loans secured against the dwelling.
     

Owner/Manager of a Residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)

Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangements is made with the owner or manager of a Residential park, which is land that is divided into sites that are rented from the park owner/operator and on which a manufactured home, or a moveable dwelling such as a caravan is placed. May also be known as a:

  • manufactured home estate
  • residential land lease community 
  • lifestyle resort.

Owner with a mortgage

People, income units or households who own the property in which they usually reside and have no outstanding mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling. 

Include:

  • households with dwellings that are jointly owned with someone who is not a member of the household
  • all households that currently have any type of mortgage or loan secured against the dwelling that was partially or wholly used to purchase the land or dwelling, or to build the dwelling
  • those cases where the loan is in the form of bridging finance, until such time as a loan or mortgage can be obtained or outright purchase is made.
     

Owner without a mortgage

    People, income units or households who own the property in which they usually reside and have any outstanding mortgages or loans secured against the dwelling. 

    Participant of a shared equity scheme

    People, income units, or households that have been assisted to buy their home by entering into a formal scheme, typically with a government or not-for-profit organisation. This equity partner assists by sharing ownership, usually up to 30% of the property. 

    Primary tenure person

    A primary tenure person is someone within the household who holds the tenure of the dwelling. These people (primary tenure people) have the legal relationship with the landlord (in the case of renters) or loan provider (in the case of owners with a mortgage), and bear the obligation to make any contracted payments.

    Private dwelling

    A self-contained dwelling intended for long-term residential use. To be self-contained the suite of rooms must possess cooking and bathing facilities as building fixtures. Private dwellings can include houses, flats (including flats with communal laundries), semi-detached terrace houses, townhouses, apartments and self-contained retirement village units. To allow for full coverage of all households, private dwellings also includes 'Other dwellings'. Other dwellings can include dwellings attached to non-residential buildings and occupied caravans, cabins, houseboats, improvised dwellings and tents. Please note that 'other dwellings' are included even though the dwelling may not be intended for long term residential use or be self-contained.

    Private landlord

    Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangement is made with a real estate agent, another person not in the same household, or for person level landlord type, another person in the same household.

    Renter

    A renter is a person or income unit or household who pays rent to reside in the dwelling, even if this rent is subsidised or partly refunded.

    Rent-free

    Tenure type is rent-free if no money is exchanged for lodgement but the person or income unit or household is not an owner of the dwelling.

    Room

    A room is defined as an enclosed space within a dwelling which is separated from other rooms.

    Secured loan

    A secured loan is a loan in which the lender is granted the legal right (with a mortgage) to sell the property in the event of failure to repay the loan. 

    Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc:

    Dwellings with their own private grounds and no dwellings above or below. A key feature of these dwellings is that they are attached and structurally dependent on one or more other dwellings. Examples include semi-detached, row or terrace houses, townhouses, and villa units. Multi-storey townhouses are separately identified from those which are single storey.

    Separate house

    A separate house is structurally independent from other dwellings. This category also includes houses which have an attached flat (e.g. a granny flat). The attached flat will be included in the 'Flat or apartment' category.

    State or territory housing authority

    Where rent is paid to or the tenure contract or arrangement is made with a state or territory housing authority or trust.

    Storey

    A storey is a level on which people live or cars are garaged. The number of storeys includes the ground floor and those floors that are directly on top of each other (split levels are not separate storeys). Basement garages with a portion above ground level and capable of holding four or more cars are counted as a storey. Buildings with lifts are almost always four or more storeys.

    Tenure type

    The nature of a person's, income unit's or household's legal right to occupy the dwelling in which they usually reside.

    Previous catalogue number

    This release previously used catalogue number 1200.0.55.011.