How to cite ABS sources

A guide on how to cite a range of ABS sources with examples provided

Universities, educational institutions and other users of ABS statistics may have their own guidelines for citing resources. This is a suggested guide, indicating key elements to include when referencing ABS sources.

This guide has been updated to align with the Australian Government Style Manual

General formatting guidelines

  • Australian Bureau of Statistics (reference period/year of publication) Title of issue [link with URL], accessed DD Month YYYY
  • Italics are used for the formal title of completed published work
  • Titles for part of a publication do not use italics and should be contained within single quotation marks
  • The title has the URL embedded as a hyperlink
  • If your references will be included in printable material, we recommend displaying the full URL
  • Webpage URLs that contain the reference period should be used instead of the latest-release URL
  • The access date must be included, as ABS content is designed to change over time and is continuously updated
  • Publisher name can be omitted from the reference as ABS is both the author and publisher
  • References should be listed alphabetically

ABS website

General web pages

Time series spreadsheets

Data cubes

Census material

Maps, tables and figures

If a map, table, graph or image type is identified in their title then the description of material does not need to be included. 





Social media





Census related posts

Data services



Data Explorer


In-text citation

First citation

Subsequent citations

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