Microdata and TableBuilder: Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset

Microdata from the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset

Introduction

The 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset has been created by linking two rich sources of migrant data together, the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2016 Australian Census of Population and Housing and temporary visa holders data from the Department of Home Affairs. This linked dataset comprises temporary entrants who were present in Australia on 9 August 2016 (Census Night).

Through data integration, the Australian Bureau of Statistics' (ABS) improves and expands the range of official statistics available to Australian society, and expands the evidence base to support good government policy making, program management and service delivery. The creation of new datasets for statistical and research purposes enables the ABS to enhance the value of Census data and leverage more information from the combination of individual datasets than is available from the separate datasets.

The Census is conducted every five years to measure the number of people and dwellings in Australia on Census Night. The Census also provides information on the key characteristics of people and dwellings for small geographic areas and small population groups.

This is the first release of the Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID). ACTEID provides new insights into the characteristics of temporary residents in Australia previously not available, including employment, income and housing. Information about the nature and quality of the dataset and the data linkage is presented in the Explanatory Notes.

This product provides a range of information about the release of microdata from the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID), including details about the methodology and how to use the microdata products; TableBuilder and DataLab. A data item list and information on the conditions of use and the quality of the microdata, as well as the definitions used, are also provided. TableBuilder is an online tool for creating tables and graphs. The DataLab enables approved users to access microdata for in-depth analysis using a range of statistical software packages.

Microdata are the most detailed information available from a Census, or administrative data collection process and are generally the responses to individual questions on questionnaires or forms. They also include derived data from answers to two or more questions and are released with the approval of the Australian Statistician.

Further information about these products, and other information to assist users in understanding and accessing microdata in general, is available from the Microdata Entry Page. Before applying for access to TableBuilder, users should read and familiarise themselves with the information contained in the TableBuilder User Guide (cat. no. 1406.0.55.005).

Applying for access

To apply for access to TableBuilder, register and apply in the Registration Centre.

To apply for access to the DataLab, see About the DataLab for information on which organisations may apply for access to detailed microdata and contact microdata.access@abs.gov.au with your name, organisation and microdata file you are interested in accessing.

Further information on access steps can be found in How to Apply for Microdata.

The ABS Universities Australia Agreement provides participating universities with access to a range of ABS products and services. This includes access to microdata. For further information, university clients should refer to the ABS/Universities Australia Agreement web page.

Support

For support in the use of this product, please contact us or email microdata.access@abs.gov.au.

Data available on request

Customised tables are available on a fee-for-service basis. For further information, contact us or email client.services@abs.gov.au for further information.

Privacy

The ABS Privacy Policy outlines how the ABS handles any personal information that you provide to us.

File structure

Overview

The 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) TableBuilder product is single-level file that counts persons and has data items as collected at the 2016 Census of Population and Housing.

The 2016 ACTEID TableBuilder contains linked data from the 2016 Census of Population and Housing and data on temporary visa holders from the Department of Home Affairs. Census data items include; age, sex, relationship in household, geographic area (place of usual residence, place of enumeration, place of work), country of birth, birthplace of male/female parent, Australian citizenship, proficiency in spoken English, religious affiliation, year of arrival, ancestry, language spoken at home, labour force status, level of education attainment, non-school qualifications, voluntary work etc.

The data items relating to a person's migration event include:

  • VISAP: Visa class of a person's entry into Australia
  • VPAFP : A person's applicant status i.e. main applicant or secondary
  • CPLP: Citizenship country

The data items included in 2016 ACTEID 2016 TableBuilder are grouped under broad headings and subheadings. A complete list of data items can be accessed from the Data downloads section.

Multi-response fields

Data items produced from a survey or Census that allow a respondent to fall into multiple categories are referred to as multiple response data items. For example, the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) contains the Ancestry variable that allows respondents to report up to two ancestries on their Census form. Respondents do not have the option of ranking their answers to the ancestry question, so where a respondent reports two ancestries, those two ancestries have equal standing. The basis for allocating ancestries to the variables ANC1P and ANC2P is administrative only and is based on the order in which they are processed.

The two ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) have also been combined into one variable - Ancestry Multi Response (ANCP).

Not applicable categories

Most data items included in the microdata include a 'Not applicable' category. The classification value of the 'Not applicable' category, where relevant, are shown in the data item lists in the Data downloads section.

Using the Dataset in TableBuilder

TableBuilder user guide

The TableBuilder User Guide (cat. no. 1406.0.55.005) is a comprehensive reference guide for the web interface of TableBuilder. It includes information on building and working with tables, customising data, understanding the results, data visualisation options and confidentiality processes.

Information relating to the linking methodology, scope, estimation method, reliability of estimates and comparability with other data are explained in the Explanatory Notes section.

Using the data

Continuous data items

The 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated dataset (ACTEID) contains several continuous data items. The calculation of sums, medians and means are only possible for continuous data items HRSP (Hours worked), MRED Mortgage repayments (monthly), and RNTD (Rent payments).

For information regarding the calculation of 'Sums', 'Median', 'Mean' and Ranges see the Summation options, Ranges and Quantiles section.

Multi response data items

Data items produced from a survey or Census that allow a respondent to fall into multiple categories are referred to as multiple response data items. For example, the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) contains the Ancestry variable that allows respondents to report up to two ancestries on their Census form. Respondents do not have the option of ranking their answers to the ancestry question, so where a respondent reports two ancestries, those two ancestries have equal standing. The basis for allocating ancestries to the variables ANC1P and ANC2P is administrative only and is based on the order in which they are processed.

The two ancestry variables (ANC1P and ANC2P) have also been combined into one variable - Ancestry Multi Response (ANCP)

Confidentiality features in TableBuilder

In accordance with the Census and Statistics Act 1905, all the data in TableBuilder are subjected to a confidentiality process before release. This confidentiality process is undertaken to avoid releasing information that may allow the identification of particular individuals, families, households, dwellings or businesses.

Processes used in TableBuilder to confidentialise records include the following:

  • perturbation of data
  • table suppression.

Perturbation of data

To minimise the risk of identifying individuals in aggregate statistics, a technique is used to randomly adjust cell values. This technique is called perturbation. Perturbation involves small random adjustments of the statistics and is considered the most satisfactory technique for avoiding the release of identifiable statistics while maximising the range of information that can be released. These adjustments have a negligible impact on the underlying pattern of the statistics.

The introduction of these random adjustments result in tables not adding up. While some datasets apply a technique called additivity to give internally consistent results, additivity has not been implemented on the 2016 ACTEID. As a result, randomly adjusted individual cells will be consistent across tables, but the totals in any table will not be the sum of the individual cell values. The size of the difference between summed cells and the relevant total will generally be very small. The following message will be displayed at the bottom of the table. INFO: Cells in this table have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

Table suppression

Some tables generated within TableBuilder may contain a substantial proportion of very low counts within cells (excluding cells that have counts of zero). When this occurs, all values within the table are suppressed in order to preserve confidentiality.

The following messages will be displayed at the bottom of the table to indicate when table suppression has occurred:

ERROR: The table has been suppressed as it is too sparse.
ERROR: Table cell values have been suppressed.

Data items

TableBuilder data

A complete list of data items included on the ACTEID file is provided in an Excel spreadsheet that can be accessed from the Data downloads section.

The 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID)TableBuilder contains approximately 230 data items. Topics include general demographic and geography characteristics; employment, income and unpaid work; education and qualifications; cultural and language diversity, as well as migration characteristics.

All data items are created at person level. This includes data items relating to the dwelling, family and household of the person linked in the dataset. For ease of use, these data items have been divided into Person, Dwelling, Household, Family and Spouse Related groupings.

The Data Item List spreadsheet contains:

  • Classifications by Topic
  • Person Characteristics
  • Temporary Visa Characteristics
  • Culture and Language Diversity
  • Education and Qualifications
  • Employment and Income
  • Voluntary and Unpaid Work
  • Address and Internal Migration
  • Dwelling Characteristics
  • Family Characteristics
  • Household Characteristics
  • Spouse or Partner Characteristics
  • Geography
  • Socio-Economic Indexes For Areas (SEIFA)

The following geographies are available:

Place of enumeration and place of usual residence

  • Commonwealth Electoral Divisions (CED)
  • Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA)
  • Local Government Areas (LGA) (2016 Boundaries)
  • Postal Areas (POA)
  • Remoteness Areas (RA)
  • Statistical Area 1 (SA1)
  • State Electoral Divisions (SED)
  • State Suburbs (SSC)
  • Significant Urban Areas (SUA)
  • Sections of State/Urban Centre and Localities, (SOS/UCL)

Place of work

  • Local Government Areas (LGA) (2016 Boundaries)
  • Statistical Area 1 (SA1)

Internal migration - Place of Usual Residence One Year Ago and Place of Usual Residence Five Years Ago

  • Main Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS)
  • Local Government Areas (LGA) (2016 Boundaries)

Links have been provided in the worksheets to detailed information about specific data items and relevant classifications.

Users intending to purchase the TableBuilder should ensure that the data they require, and the level of detail they need, are available in this product prior to purchase.

Using the Dataset in DataLab

The DataLab is an interactive data analysis solution available for users to run advanced statistical analyses, for example, multiple regressions and structural equation modelling. The DataLab environment contains up-to-date versions of SPSS, Stata, SAS and R analytical languages. Controls in the DataLab have been put in place to protect the identification of individuals and organisations. These controls include environmental protections, data de-identification and confidentialisation, access safe guards and output clearance. All output from DataLab sessions is cleared by an ABS officer before it is released.

About the DataLab environment

The DataLab allows interactive (real time) access to microdata files. Detailed Microdata are de-identified and confidentialised appropriately within the context of the other security features of the DataLab. The security features allow authorised users access to more complete and detailed data than would be available on a Confidentialised Unit Record File (CURF). Sophisticated analysis can be conducted with Detailed Microdata files. All unit record data remains in the DataLab environment. All outputs are vetted by the ABS before being provided to the researcher. The DataLab can be accessed on-site at ABS offices or as part of the virtual DataLab program. For more details, refer to the About the DataLab page on the ABS website.

For more general information about the DataLab, refer to the Microdata Entry Page.

Reminder: Data produced using the Detailed Microdata files contained in the DataLab will not necessarily match published data or data obtained through the TableBuilder product, both of which are perturbed prior to release to ensure confidentiality is maintained. Due to the procedures used for confidentialising the data produced via the DataLab, perturbation is not required

Access to detailed Microdata

To apply for access to the microdata product in the DataLab, please email microdata.access@abs.gov.au.

To access the microdata via the ABS DataLab, please register or log in, via the Microdata Entry Page. Please familiarise yourself with the Responsible Use of ABS Microdata, User Guide (cat. no. 1406.0.55.003), if you intend to access microdata.

DataLab test file

A Test File has been created to enable researchers and analysts to become more familiar with the data structure and prepare code and programs prior to applying for, or commencing, a DataLab session. This aims to maximise the value of sessions by saving users time and resources once they enter the DataLab environment.

The Test File does not contain real data, and cannot be used for analysis. It mimics the structure of the microdata from the Collection as it has the same data items and allowed values. All data on the file is false, created through a randomisation process. Proportions of values within data items in the Test File will be similar to those in the real data, however, relationships between data items will not be intentionally maintained. It is extremely unlikely that a record in the Test File would match with a genuine record in the real data.

The Test File is available as a free download through the Data downloads section. For further information users should email microdata.access@abs.gov.au or telephone (02) 6252 7714.

Conditions of use

User responsibilities

The Census and Statistics Act 1905 includes a legislative guarantee to respondents that their confidentiality will be protected. This is fundamental to the trust the Australian public has in the ABS, and that trust is in turn fundamental to the excellent quality of ABS information. Without that trust, survey respondents may be less forthcoming or truthful in answering our questionnaires. For more information, see 'Avoiding inadvertent disclosure' and 'Microdata' on our web page How the ABS keeps your information confidential.

The release of microdata must satisfy the ABS legislative obligation to release information in a manner that is not likely to enable the identification of a particular person or organisation. Therefore, in accordance with the Census and Statistics Act, a confidentiality process is applied to microdata to avoid releasing information that may lead to the identification of individuals, families, households, dwellings or businesses.

Prior to being granted access to TableBuilder users must agree to the following ABS Terms and Conditions of TableBuilder Access.

Prior to using the DataLab users must agree to and sign an Undertaking and a Declaration of Compliance. For more information on the DataLab, please refer to the About the DataLab page on the ABS Website.

Conditions of sale

All ABS products and services are provided subject to the ABS Conditions of Sale. Any queries relating to these Conditions of Sale should be emailed to intermediary.management@abs.gov.au.

Price

Microdata access is priced according to the ABS Pricing Policy and Commonwealth Cost Recovery Guidelines. For details refer to ABS Pricing Policy on the ABS website. For microdata prices refer to the Microdata prices web page.

Australian universities

The ABS/Universities Australia Agreement provides participating universities with access to a range of ABS products and services. This includes access to microdata. For further information, university clients should refer to the ABS/Universities Australia Agreement web page.

Citations

Information or data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics must be acknowledged responsibly whenever it is used. Citing, or referencing is important for several reasons, including acknowledging that one has used the ideas, words or data of others. Accurately citing sources used also allows others to find and use the original information. For information on how to cite ABS data refer to Help: How to cite ABS Sources.

Further information

The Microdata Entry Page contains links to microdata related information to assist users in understanding and accessing microdata. For further information users should email microdata.access@abs.gov.au or telephone (02) 6252 7714.

Privacy

The ABS Privacy Policy outlines how the ABS handles any personal information that you provide to us.

Data downloads

Data files

History of changes

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20/12/2019 

The DataLab product has been released. The 'Introduction' and 'About This Release' pages have been updated to reflect this change. The 'Using the DataLab' and 'Conditions of Use' pages have been created to provide information about the Data Lab. The DataLab data item list and DataLab test file have been added to the Data downloads section.

Related information

Explanatory notes

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Introduction

1 The statistics in this publication were compiled from the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID).

2 The statistics in this publication relate to people who were present in Australia on Census Night, 9 August 2016 and held a temporary visa. In this publication, this population is referred to as Temporary Entrants.

3 The 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) Project linked the 2016 Census of Population and Housing dataset with Temporary Visa Holder data from the Department of Home Affairs.

Data sources

Temporary Visa Holder Data

4 The Temporary Visa Holder data is administrative data pertaining to temporary visa holders in Australia, from various Department of Home Affairs (Home Affairs) systems.

2016 Census of Population and Housing

5 For information about the 2016 Census and collection methodology please refer to the information provided on the ABS website (www.abs.gov.au) at Understanding Census Data. Information about the data quality of the Census is available on the ABS website under Census Data Quality.

Scope

6 The scope of the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) is restricted to people who had a temporary visa and were present in Australia on 9 August 2016.

7 The 2016 ACTEID includes the following Visa types and subclasses for persons:

Special Category (New Zealand citizen)
 Special Category (444)
Temporary Work (Skilled)
 Temporary Work (Skilled) (457)
Working Holiday Maker
 Working Holiday (417)
 Work and Holiday (462)
Student
 Student (Temporary) (500)
 Independent ELICOS Sector (570)
 Schools Sector (571)
 Vocational Education and Training Sector (572)
 Higher Education Sector (573)
 Postgraduate Research Sector (574)
 Non-Award Foundation/Other Sector (575)
 AUSAID/Defence Sponsored Sector (576)
Other Temporary visa
 Bridging Visa Class A (010)
 Bridging Visa Class B (020)
 Bridging Visa Class C (030)
 Bridging Visa Class D (040)
 Bridging Visa Class E (050)
 Bridging Visa Class F (060)
 Bridging Visa Class R (070)
 Temporary Work (Short Stay Activity) (400)
 Temporary Work (Long Stay Activity) (401)
 Training and Research (402)
 Temporary Work (International Relations) (403)
 Investor Retirement (405)
 Government Agreement (406)
 Retirement (410)
 Foreign Government Agency Staff (415)
 Special Program (416)
 Entertainment (420)
 Media and Film Staff (423)
 Supported Dependent of Australian or NZ Citizen Temp in Australia (430)
 New Zealand Citizen (Family Relationship) (461)
 Skilled - Graduate (476)
 Temporary Graduate (485)
 Diplomatic (995)

Data integration

8 Statistical data integration involves combining information from different data sources such as administrative, survey and/or Census to provide new datasets for statistical and research purposes. 

9 Data linking is a key part of statistical data integration and involves combining records from different source datasets using variables that are shared between the sources. Data linkage is performed on unit records that represent individual persons. 

Linkage between the Temporary Visa Holder data and the 2016 Census 

10 The 2016 temporary entrant records were linked to the 2016 Census of Population and Housing data using a combination of deterministic and probabilistic linkage methodologies. The linkage method used in this project is considered a silver standard linkage because encoded name and address information was used. Further information about name and address encoding can be found in Information paper: Name encoding method for Census 2016

11 Deterministic data linkage, also known as rule-based linkage, involves assigning record pairs across two datasets that match exactly or closely on common variables. 

12 Probabilistic linking allows links to be assigned in spite of missing or inconsistent information, providing there is enough agreement on other variables to offset any disagreement. In probabilistic data linkage, records from two datasets are compared and brought together using several variables common to each dataset (Fellegi & Sunter, 1969). 

13 A key feature of the methodology is the ability to handle a variety of linking variables and record comparison methods to produce a single numerical measure of how well two particular records match, referred to as the 'linkage weight'. This allows ranking of all possible links and optimal assignment of the link or non-link status (Solon and Bishop, 2009). 

Linkage results

14 At the completion of the linkage process 974,803 (60%) out of 1,635,498 records from the Temporary entrants data were linked to the 2016 Census data.

Estimation method

Calibration

15 The estimates in this publication are obtained by assigning a "weight" to each linked record. The weight is a value which indicates how many Temporary entrants records are represented by the linked record. Weights aim to adjust for the fact that not all Temporary entrants records are able to be successfully linked to a Census record, and the linked Temporary entrants records may not be representative of all records.

16 The weighting process involved a two-step linking propensity calibration process. 

17 The first step of the calibration process adjusted for missed links. The methodology adopted was originally developed to adjust for non-response in sample surveys. Concepts of non-response and non-links differ in that the former is generally a result of an action by a person selected in a sample, and the latter is the failure to link a record likely as a result of the quality of its linking variables. However, both situations may result in under/over representation, and as such the methodology developed to adjust for non-response is suitable to apply to adjust for non-links. Unlike non-response in a sample survey, in this case many of the characteristics of the non-linked records are known, and these characteristics can therefore be used as inputs into an adjustment for unlinked records. 

18 The propensity of a Temporary entrants record to be linked to a Census record was modelled using a logistic regression, which estimates the probability of each record having been linked based on that record's characteristics. The logistic regression was performed separately for student visa holders, temporary skilled workers, Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visa holders, and others. Each record was then assigned an initial weight given by the inverse of the linkage probability estimated by the relevant regression model. For example, if the regression model estimated that a Temporary visa holder record had a 75% chance of being successfully linked to a Census record, the initial weight would be 1 divided by 0.75, or 1.33. This ensures that records in the linked dataset which share characteristics with unlinked records are given higher weights, so that the characteristics associated with unlinked records are adequately represented on the linked file. 

19 The second step of the calibration process uses the weights derived from the first step as an input into the calibration to known totals from the Temporary entrants dataset. This adjusts for residual bias not accounted for by the regression model, and ensures that totals from the linked dataset exactly match totals from the Temporary entrants dataset for characteristics considered to be of particular interest, such as visa group, applicant status (primary or secondary) and state/ territory of residence. 

20 Following the two-step calibration process, weights are applied to the 974,803 linked records so that estimates will align to the 1,635,498 in scope records from the Temporary entrants population. The mean weight is therefore around 1.68, though the weights range between 1.0 and 12.5. 

Estimation

21 Estimates in this publication are obtained by summing the weights of persons with the characteristic of interest. Cells in this publication have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals. 

Reliability of estimates

22 Error in estimates produced using the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) may occur due to false links and the non-random distribution of missed links.

Missed links

23 As many of the characteristics of the unlinked records are known, much of the error introduced by under or over representation of certain groups amongst the linked records is able to be mitigated by the calibration process.

False links

24 Not all record pairs assigned as links in any data linkage process are a true match, that is, the record pairs may not relate to the same individual. These are known as false links.

Measures of error

25 While the calibration process is able to mitigate the potential for bias due to missed links, it does not mitigate against the error introduced by false links. Accordingly, the linkage strategy used for the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Dataset (ACTEID) was designed to ensure a high level of accuracy while also achieving a sufficiently large number of linked records to enable detailed analysis of small populations. Using the model developed by Chipperfield et al (2018), the estimated precision of the linkage (the proportion of links that are true matches) was 99%.

26 In survey data sampling error is estimated using a measure of Relative Standard Error (RSE). As the 2016 Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) is not based on a sample, RSEs cannot be produced for this data. A measure of uncertainty associated with estimates due to the calibration model could theoretically be produced, but would not represent the error introduced by false links, and have therefore not been included in this publication.

Comparability with other data

27 Estimates from the 2016 ACTEID may differ from statistics produced from other ABS collections or from the Temporary Visa Holder data. While the linked records have been calibrated to selected population totals from the Temporary Visa Holder data, other totals may not align. In some cases a data item may be available on both the Temporary Visa Holder data and the Census (such as Country of Birth), but differs between the two sources. The 2016 ACTEID has used the Census data item.

Acknowledgement

28 The ABS acknowledges the continuing support provided by the Department of Home Affairs and the Department of Social Services for the Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) Project. The provision of data as well as ongoing assistance provided by both agencies is essential to enable this important work to be undertaken. The enhancing of migrant related statistics through data linkage by the ABS would not be possible without their cooperation and support. The ABS also acknowledges the importance of the information provided freely by individuals in the course of the 2016 Census. The Census information of individuals received by the ABS is treated in the strictest confidence as is required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905. See the following link to the Census Privacy Policy.

Glossary

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Apart from the concepts and data items originating from the Department of Home Affairs Temporary Visa Holder (TVH) database, (for example, visa type and main/secondary applicant status), all other terms and definitions relate to Census variables and the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). For more detail on Census variables, please see the 2016, Census Dictionary.

Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED)

The Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED) is a national standard classification which includes all sectors of the Australian education system: that is, schools, vocational education and training, and higher education. From 2001 ASCED replaced a number of classifications used in administrative and statistical systems, including the Australian Bureau of Statistics Classifications of Qualifications (ABSCQ).

The current version of ASCED incorporates two classifications - Level of Education and Field of Education.

For more information, see Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).

Bridging visa holders 

Bridging visas are a temporary visa granted to permit the visa holder to stay, leave and return, make arrangements for a substantive visa or finalise immigration matters or decisions when their current substantive visa is ceasing or has ceased, and their substantive visa application or immigration decision is being processed.

Citizenship country

The country of citizenship of the visa applicant or visa holder. Where a visa applicant or visa holder has more than one citizenship country, either the citizenship of the travel document or the citizenship nominated by the visa applicant is used.

Country of birth

Country of birth has been classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0).

Employed

Persons who, during the week prior to the Census on 9 August 2016, worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job, business or farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or were employees who had a job but were not at work.

Employed full time

Employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and those who, although usually working less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Employed part time

Employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week.

Industry

The Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0.55.002) is used to classify Industry of employment.

Labour force

Persons who were in the categories 'employed' or 'unemployed' as defined.

Level of highest non-school qualification

Level of highest non-school qualification identifies the highest qualification a person has attained in any area of study. It is not a measurement of the relative importance of different fields of study but a ranking of qualifications and other educational attainments regardless of the particular area of study or the type of institution in which the study was undertaken.

It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0) Level of Education classification.

Main applicant

The 'main applicant' is generally the person whose skills or proposed activities in Australia are assessed by the Department of Home Affairs as part of their visa application. They will usually have been specifically identified on the application form as the 'main applicant'. Main applicant's are also referred to as the 'Primary applicant'.

Main field of non-school qualification

Main field of non-school qualification is defined as the subject matter of the qualification. It is categorised according to the Field of Education sub-classification within the:
Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).

Non-school qualification

Non-school qualifications are awarded for educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education. They include qualifications at the Postgraduate Degree level, Master Degree level, Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate level, Bachelor Degree level, Advanced Diploma and Diploma level, and Certificates I, II, III and IV levels. Non-school qualifications may be obtained concurrently with school qualifications.

Not in the labour force

Persons who were not in the categories 'employed' or 'unemployed' as defined.

Occupation

Occupation is classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, 2013, Version 1.2 (cat. no. 1220.0).

Other Temporary visa holders

Includes all other temporary visa subclasses not included in the Special Category (New Zealand citizen) (subclass 444), Student, Temporary Work (Skilled) and Working Holiday Makers categories. See the Explanatory notes for more details on the specific visas included.

Secondary applicant

A person whose visa was granted on the basis of being the family member (e.g. spouse, dependent child) of a person who qualified for a visa. They will have been identified on the visa application as an 'other' or secondary applicant with the person who met the visa criteria being specifically identified on the visa application as the 'main applicant' or 'primary applicant'. Secondary applicants are included in the same visa stream as the main applicant. For example, family members granted temporary visas where the main applicant has been granted a Temporary work (Skilled) visa, will all enter Australia under a Temporary work (Skilled) visa.

Special Category (subclass 444) visa holders

Special Category (subclass 444) permits New Zealand citizens to visit, study, stay and work in Australia. Special Category visas are granted on arrival in Australia, and cease when the visa holder departs Australia. 

Student visa holders

These are overseas students who undertake full-time study in a recognised educational institution. They may hold either a Student temporary visa (subclass 500), an Independent ELICOS Sector visa (subclass 570) or a Schools Sector (571) visa.

Students can apply to have partners and dependant children under the age of eighteen accompany them to Australia. These family members are known as secondary visa holders and are counted in student visa numbers.

Note that Training and Research visa (subclass 402) and Temporary Graduate (subclass 485) visa holders are included in the ‘Other Temporary visa holders’ category.

Temporary entrant

A temporary entrant is a person who is not an Australian citizen on arrival and has been granted permission or authority to enter Australia temporarily. 

Visitor visa holders are not included in the ACTEID i.e. non-permanent entrants to Australia whose visa is for tourism, short stay business or visiting relatives.

Temporary resident

A temporary resident is a temporary entrant who has stayed, or intends to stay, in Australia for 12 months or more. 

Temporary visa

The permission or authority granted by Australia for foreign nationals to live in Australia temporarily.

Temporary Work (Skilled) (subclass 457) visa holders

Temporary Work (Skilled) (subclass 457) visa holders permitted to travel to Australia to work in their nominated occupation for their approved sponsor for up to four years. While Temporary Work (Skilled) (subclass 457) visas were operative at August 2016 (the time of the last Census), they have been abolished and replaced by the Temporary Skill Shortage (TSS) visa.

Unemployed

Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed last week (at the time of the Census), and had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the last four weeks and were available and could have started work last week if the job had been available then.

Visa type

For the purposes of this publication, visa type pertains to the visa category i.e. Special Category (New Zealand citizen) visas; Temporary Work (Skilled) Visas; Working Holiday Maker visas; Student visas; and Other Temporary visas.

Please see the individual entries for each visa category in this Glossary for more information or the Explanatory Notes for the list of those visa subclasses included in each category. More visa information is also available from Department of Home Affairs - Visa list.

Visitors to Australia

The question on the Census form, 'Where does the person usually live?' allows for the identification of people who are usually resident in another country. Overseas visitors are those people who indicated at the 2016 Census that they will be usually resident in Australia for less than one year.

Since the 1996 Census, overseas visitors have been separately categorised in standard tabulations, with the exception of Age (AGEP)Sex (SEXP) and Registered Marital Status (MSTP) tabulations. Overseas visitors can be identified for AGEPSEXP and MSTP by cross-classifying them with variables which contain a separate overseas visitor category.

Working Holiday Makers visa

Includes subclasses 417 and 462. Permits young adults from countries with reciprocal bilateral arrangements (with Australia) to undertake short term work or study while holidaying in Australia.

Year of arrival

All overseas born people, in scope for the Census, are asked to report when they first came to Australia to live for one year or more, see Year of Arrival in Australia (YARP).

The arrival date in the Temporary Visa Holder data reflects an individuals latest arrival date pertaining to their latest temporary visa. For this reason, the scope of the Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) is restricted to those temporary migrants who arrived in Australia under a temporary visa and who were present in Australia on Census night, 9 August 2016.

Quality declaration

Institutional environment

The Australian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset (ACTEID) 2016 is released in TableBuilder. TableBuilder files are released in accordance with the conditions specified in the Statistics Determination section of the Census and Statistics Act 1905. This ensures that confidentiality is maintained whilst enabling micro level data to be released.

For information on the institutional environment of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), including the legislative obligations of the ABS, financing and governance arrangements, and mechanisms for scrutiny of ABS operations, please see ABS Institutional Environment.

Relevance

The 2016 ACTEID contains information on persons who responded to the 9 August 2016 Census of Population and Housing and persons who had arrived and were present in Australia on Census night, 9 August 2016 under a temporary visa on the Department of Home Affairs Temporary Visa Holder data.

Timeliness

The Census of Population and Housing is conducted every five years. For further information see 2016 Census Overview and Understanding the Census and Census Data.

Accuracy

The 2016 ACTEID, contains individual person level data. For more information on the level of detail provided in the TableBuilder, please see the Data downloads section.

The TableBuilder product has in-built procedures to confidentialise the data in such a way as to maximise the usefulness of the content while maintaining the confidentiality of respondents. As a result, it may not be possible to exactly reconcile all the statistics produced from the TableBuilder with published statistics. Further information about the steps taken to confidentialise the microdata is available through the following link: TableBuilder Confidentiality.

Further information about the data and the linking methodology see the Explanatory Notes.

Coherence

Estimates from the 2016 ACTEID may differ from statistics produced from other ABS collections or from the Temporary Visa Holder data. While the linked records have been calibrated to selected population totals from the Temporary Visa Holder data, other totals may not align. In some cases a data item may be available on both the Temporary Visa Holder data and the Census (such as Country of Birth), but differs between the two sources. The 2016 ACTEID has used the Census data item.

Interpretability

The information within this product should be referred to when using the microdata. It contains information including Explanatory Notes, File Structure, TableBuilder User Guide and the Data Items.

Accessibility

The 2016 ACTEID can be accessed using TableBuilder.

Microdata products are available to approved users. Users wishing to access the microdata should read the How to apply for Microdata web page, before applying for access through Registration Centre. Users should also familiarise themselves with information available via the Microdata Entry Page.

A full list of available microdata can be viewed via the list of expected and Available Microdata.

Any questions regarding access to microdata can be forwarded by email to microdata.access@abs.gov.au or phone 1300 135 070 (within Australia) or +61 2 9268 4909 (from overseas).

Abbreviations

Show all

ABSAustralian Bureau of Statistics
ABSCQAustralian Bureau of Statistics Classification of Qualifications
ACMIDAustralian Census and Migrants Integrated Dataset
ACTEIDAustralian Census and Temporary Entrants Integrated Dataset
ANZSCOAustralian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations
ANZSICAustralian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification
ASCEDAustralian Standard Classification of Education
ASGSAustralian Statistical Geographical Standard
AUSAIDAustralian Agency for International Development
BPLPCountry of Birth, Persons
DSSDepartment of Social Services
ELICOSEnglish Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students
Home AffairsDepartment of Home Affairs
ICTInformation and Communications Technology
necnot elsewhere classified
nfdnot further defined
PMDPermanent Migrant Data
RSERelative Standard Error
SACCStandard Australian Classification of Countries
SARSpecial Administrative Region/s
SEIFASocio-Economic Index for Areas
TSSTemporary Skill Shortage (Visa)
TVHTemporary Visa Holders (Data)

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 3419.0.55.001.