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Consumer Price Index, Australia

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of household inflation and includes statistics about price change for categories of household expenditure

Reference period
September 2020
Released
28/10/2020
Future releases
  • Next Release 27/01/2021
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, December 2020
  • Next Release 28/04/2021
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, March 2021
  • Next Release 28/07/2021
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, June 2021
  • View all releases

Key statistics

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 1.6% this quarter.
  • Over the twelve months to the September 2020 quarter the CPI rose 0.7%.
  • Child care was the most significant rise (contributing 0.9 percentage points to the headline CPI quarterly movement), following the end of free child care on 13 July.

Main features

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 Jun Qtr 2020 to Sep Qtr 2020Sep Qtr 2019 to Sep Qtr 2020
Weighted average of eight capital cities% change% change
All groups CPI1.60.7
Food and non-alcoholic beverages-0.43.4
Alcohol and tobacco1.68.1
Clothing and footwear0.4-0.5
Housing0.0-0.2
Furnishings, household equipment and services12.0-0.1
Health-0.11.0
Transport3.4-4.0
Communication-0.8-3.3
Recreation and culture1.1-0.7
Education2.11.0
Insurance and financial services0.11.6
CPI analytical series  
 All groups CPI, seasonally adjusted1.50.7
 Trimmed mean0.41.2
 Weighted median0.31.3

What's new this quarter

Two spotlight articles are included in this release:

  • Spotlight: CPI exclusion-based measures - this spotlight examines the CPI in the September 2020 quarter excluding selected influential movements. 
  • Spotlight: Underlying inflation measures - this spotlight looks at underlying inflation in the September 2020 quarter using alternative measurement approaches. 

An article was published on 11 October 2020 explaining the impact of COVID-19 on the September quarter CPI:

Main contributors to change

CPI groups

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Food and non-alcoholic beverages group (-0.4%)

  • Falls of 3.5% in other food products, 1.8% in cakes and biscuits, 0.7% in takeaway and fast foods, and 4.3% in other cereal products were the main contributors. A return to regular discounting cycles after the peak COVID-19 stockpiling period drove the movement across a wide range of products.

  • Rises of 2.6% in beef and veal and 1.3% in other meats partially offset the movement. Producers responded to increased rainfall by restocking herds, causing a fall in supply, and strong global demand continued due to African swine fever.

  • Over the past 12 months the group rose 3.4%, due to the combined impacts of drought, African swine fever and stockpiling as well as sustained increased demand in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell (-0.2%). The main contributors are other food products (-3.6%) and takeaway and fast foods (-0.7%).

Alcohol and tobacco group (+1.6%)

  • A rise of 3.2% in tobacco was the main contributor, due to the 12.5% annual excise indexation and bi-annual AWOTE increase on 1 September.  
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 8.1%. The main contributor was tobacco (+17.1%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.6% this quarter. The main contributor was tobacco (+3.6%).

Clothing and footwear group (+0.4%)

  • A rise of 1.5% in garments for women was the main contributor. 
  • Over the past twelve months, the group fell 0.5%. The main contributors were garments for women (-0.3%) and garments for men (-1.3%). 
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell 0.1% this quarter. The main contributor was footwear for women (-0.9%). 

Housing group (0.0%)

  • A rise of  0.5% in new dwelling purchases by owner occupiers was driven by increases to base prices and reductions in the value of promotional offers. The rise was partially offset by the HomeBuilder and two state grants, which reduced out of pocket expenses for new dwelling purchases.
  • Property rates and charges recorded the softest rise in the history of the series (+1.3%), due to rebates, discounts and rate freezes provided by local councils in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • A fall of 2.7% in water and sewerage was driven by annual price reviews conducted across a number of capital cities.
  • Rents fell in most capital cities due to continued weak rental market conditions and high vacancy rates arising from COVID-19. Rents recorded the first annual fall in the history of the series.
  • Over the past twelve months the group fell 0.2%.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell 0.2% this quarter. The main contributors were water and sewerage (-4.5%) and electricity (-1.2%).

Furnishings, Household equipment and services group (+12.0%)

  • Child care was the main contributor to the rise due to child care fees for Australian households returning to their pre-COVID-19 rate. This follows the end of the 'Early Childhood Education and Care Relief Package', which temporarily made child care free in the June 2020 quarter. Child care is still 26% below the March 2020 quarter level due to eight free days at the start of July. For more information on child care see Measuring the Consumer Price Index: September quarter update.
  • Excluding the impact of child care, this group would have risen 1.3%. Rises of 6.4% in furniture and 5.3% in major household appliances were due to strong demand for products such as home office furniture and fridges and freezers, combined with supply constraints. 
  • Falls of 4.1% in other non-durable household products and 3.0% in personal care products partially offset the rise, due to a return to discounting on products such as toilet paper and body washes.
  • Over the past twelve months the group fell 0.1%. The main contributor was child care (-24.4%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms the group rose 11.1%. The main contributor was child care.

Health group (-0.1%)

  • A fall of 2.1% in pharmaceutical products was the main contributor due to increases in the proportion of consumers who qualify for subsidies under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS). 
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 1.0%. The main contributors were pharmaceutical products (+1.1%) and medical and hospital services (+0.9%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms the group rose 1.1%. The main contributor was medical and hospital services (+1.6%).

Transport group (+3.4%)

  • Rises of 9.4% in automotive fuel and 2.5% in motor vehicles were the main contributors. Fuel prices rose due to partial recovery in world oil consumption and reduction in global oil production. Automotive fuel rose in July (+3.5%), fell in August (-1.0%) and rose in September (+0.6%). 
  • A 3.5% fall in urban transport fares partially offset the rise, due to discounts for off-peak transport in Sydney. 
  • Over the past twelve months the group fell 4.0%. The main contributor was automotive fuel (-13.4%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 3.1% this quarter. The main contributor was automotive fuel (+9.4%).

The following graph shows the pattern of the average daily prices for unleaded petrol for the eight capital cities over the past fifteen months. 

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Communication group (-0.8%)

  • A fall of 0.8% in telecommunication equipment and services was the main contributor.
  • Over the past twelve months the group fell -3.3%. 
  • The communication group is not seasonally adjusted.

Recreation and culture group (+1.1%)

  • International holiday travel and accommodation and domestic holiday travel and accommodation were both imputed off the headline All groups CPI. For more information see Measuring the Consumer Price Index during a time of COVID-19.
  • A rise of 1.6% in audio, visual and computing equipment was due to strong demand for products such as sound bars and home theatre systems.
  • Over the past twelve months the group fell 0.7%. The main contributors were international holiday travel and accommodation (-6.3%) and audio visual and computing equipment (-0.4%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.2%.

Education group (+2.1%)

  • A rise of 11.1% in preschool and primary education was the main contributor due to the ending of free before and after school care as part of the 'Early Childhood Education and Care Relief Package'.
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 1.0%. The main contributor was secondary education (+3.3%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 2.8% this quarter. The main contributor was preschool and primary education (+12.3%).

Insurance and financial services group (+0.1%)

  • A rise of 0.5% in insurance was the main contributor. 
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 1.6%.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the insurance and financial services group was flat (0.0%) this quarter.

International trade exposure - tradable and non-tradables

Tradables (+1.4% quarter, 0.0% annual):

  • Tradable goods component rose 1.4% due to automotive fuel (+9.4%).

Non-tradables (+1.6% quarter, +1.0% annual):

  • Non-tradable goods component rose 0.3% due to tobacco products (+3.2%).
  • Non-tradable services component rose 2.4% due to child care.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the tradables component of the All groups CPI rose 1.3% and the non-tradables component rose 1.6%.

Seasonally adjusted analytical series

In the September 2020 quarter:

  • All groups CPI seasonally adjusted rose 1.5% for the quarter and 0.7% for the year.
  • Trimmed mean rose 0.4%, following a fall of 0.1% in the June 2020 quarter.
  • Over the twelve months to the September 2020 quarter, the trimmed mean rose 1.2%, following a rise of 1.2% over the twelve months to the June 2020 quarter.
  • Weighted median rose 0.3% following a rise of 0.1% in the June 2020 quarter.
  • Over the twelve months, the weighted median rose 1.3%, following a rise of 1.3% over the twelve months to the June 2020 quarter.
 OriginalSeasonally Adjusted
 Jun Qtr 2020 to Sep Qtr 2020Jun Qtr 2020 to Sep Qtr 2020
 %%
All groups CPI1.61.5
Food and non-alcoholic beverages-0.4-0.2
Alcohol and tobacco1.61.6
Clothing and footwear0.4-0.1
Housing0.0-0.2
Furnishings, household equipment and services12.011.1
Health-0.11.1
Transport3.43.1
Communication(a)-0.8na
Recreation and culture1.11.2
Education2.12.8
Insurance and financial services0.10.0
International trade exposure series  
 Tradables1.41.3
 Non-tradables1.61.6
a. not seasonally adjusted
 


A detailed explanation of the seasonal adjustment of the All Groups CPI and calculation of the trimmed mean and weighted median measures is available in Information Paper: Seasonal Adjustment of Consumer Price Indexes, 2011 (cat. no. 6401.0.55.003). Revisions to the seasonally adjusted estimates can be the result of the application of concurrent seasonal adjustment, described on the methodology page.

Capital cities comparison

All groups CPI

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The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 1.6% in the September quarter in original terms and 1.5% in seasonally adjusted terms. Annually, the CPI rose 0.7%.

  • At the All groups level, all capital cities saw increases ranging from 0.9% in Melbourne to 2.3% in Brisbane and Canberra.
  • Furnishings, household equipment and services rose in all capital cities due to child care, following the end of free child care on 13 July. Differences in the capital city movements at the All groups level can largely be explained by differences in the weight of child care in each city. 
Weight and percentage change of Child care to the CPI for each capital city
CityChild care weight to All groups CPI (%) (a)March to September quarter movement (%)
Sydney1.52-13.6
Melbourne0.95-67.6
Brisbane1.31-14.3
Adelaide0.70-12.1
Perth0.82-12.1
Hobart0.70-12.2
Darwin1.24-12.1
Canberra1.68-12.1
Weighted average of 8 capital cities1.17-26.3
a. Source: ABS 2019 (cat. no. 6470.0.55.002)
 
  • Transport rose in all capital cities due to price rises in automotive fuel as global demand saw a partial return, and global production fell. Automotive fuel increases ranged from (+0.1%) in Darwin to (+11.1%) in Melbourne. Hobart was the only city to record a fall (-1.5%).
  • Education rose in most capital cities due to preschool and primary education following the discontinuation of free childcare, affecting before and after school care. Preschool and primary education increases ranged from (+0.2%) in Hobart to (+19.2%) in Sydney.
  • Annually, at the All groups level, seven capital cities saw rises ranging from (+0.3%) in Sydney to (+1.7%) in Hobart. The only offsetting city was Darwin (-0.4%).
All Groups CPI, All groups index numbers and percentage changes
 Index number(a)Percentage change
 Sep Qtr 2020Jun Qtr 2020 to Sep Qtr 2020Sep Qtr 2019 to Sep Qtr 2020
Sydney116.81.80.3
Melbourne116.70.90.7
Brisbane116.22.30.6
Adelaide115.71.01.0
Perth114.11.81.3
Hobart116.71.01.7
Darwin110.81.7-0.4
Canberra115.42.31.0
Weighted average of eight capital cities116.21.60.7
a. Index reference period: 2011-12 = 100.0.
 

Capital city highlights:

Sydney (+1.8%)

  • Automotive fuel (+8.4%)
  • Preschool and primary education (+19.2%)
  • Urban transport fares (-9.6%) due to discounts for off-peak public transport travel.
  • Utilities (-3.6%) due to falls in electricity (-2.4%), gas and other household fuels (-7.6%) and water and sewerage (-5.3%).

Melbourne (+0.9%)

  • Automotive fuel (+11.1%)
  • The increase in child care was smaller than other capital cities reflecting low attendance during Stage 4 restrictions in Melbourne.
  • Tobacco (+3.3%)
  • Restaurant meals (-2.2%) and take away and fast food (-1.6%) due to competition during Stage 4 restrictions.

Brisbane (+2.3%)

  • Automotive fuel (+10.8%)
  • Preschool and primary education (+11.8%) due to the cessation of free before and after school care, and the resumption of government preschool fees in term 3.  
  • Motor vehicles (+5.6%)

Adelaide (+1.0%)

  • Automotive fuel (+8.2%)
  • Tobacco (+3.0%)
  • Water and sewerage (-16.7%) following a price determination announced by the Essential Services Commission of South Australia.

Perth (+1.8%)

  • Automotive fuel (+9.7%)
  • New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers (+3.6%) due to increases in base prices for project homes with builders passing through input cost rises.
  • Property rates and charges (-1.5%) saw the first fall since the commencement of the series, due to COVID-19 rebates and concessions for rate payers provided by local councils. 

Hobart (+1.0%)

  • Tobacco (+2.3%)
  • Furniture (+6.7%)
  • Automotive fuel (-1.5%). Hobart was the only city to record a fall, driven by a drop in fuel margins. 

Darwin (+1.7%)

  • Tobacco (+3.3%)
  • Furniture (+6.4%)
  • Motor vehicles (+4.0%)

Canberra (+2.3%)

  • Automotive fuel (+6.4%)
  • New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers (+1.3%)
  • Furniture (+6.3%)
Quarterly percentage change by capital city
IndexSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
All groups1.80.92.31.01.81.01.72.31.6
Food & non-alcoholic beverages-0.2-0.8-0.4-0.3-0.4-0.2-0.1-0.1-0.4
Alcohol & tobacco1.22.11.51.91.61.61.51.31.6
Clothing & footwear0.80.40.1-0.41.10.23.00.60.4
Housing-0.60.30.7-1.81.6-0.2-0.30.20.0
Furnishings, household equipment and services18.15.114.88.79.38.214.621.812.0
Health-0.1-0.4-0.10.1-0.30.3-0.30.6-0.1
Transport2.13.25.84.33.80.61.33.03.4
Communication-0.8-0.8-0.8-0.8-0.8-0.6-0.8-0.8-0.8
Recreation & culture1.20.81.21.11.31.10.82.01.1
Education4.10.63.11.70.20.01.62.62.1
Insurance & financial services0.3-0.40.1-0.60.50.30.7-0.50.1

Spotlight: CPI exclusion-based measures

The ABS produces a range of CPI exclusion-based measures, which remove selected components from the CPI basket. Typically, the removed components have volatile price changes and/or a pronounced seasonal pattern. These exclusion-based measures can help distinguish short term price fluctuations that impact the quarterly CPI movement, providing additional insights into the general direction of medium-term inflation. 

An example of a CPI exclusion-based measure is ‘CPI excluding alcohol and tobacco’, where annual increases in the federal excise tax has a significant effect on tobacco prices each year. 

COVID-19 has brought about new challenges in measuring the CPI. For the September 2020 quarter, additional CPI exclusion-based measures have been produced to those previously available in Table 8 of this release. The additional exclusion-based measures, presented in table 1 of this article, help remove some of the temporary impacts of COVID-19 on the September quarter CPI.

Table 1: CPI exclusion-based measures, September 2020 quarter
 Quarterly movement (%)Annual movement (%)
Headline CPI1.60.7
CPI excluding child care0.70.9
CPI excluding automotive fuel1.41.2
CPI excluding child care, automotive fuel and preschool and primary education0.41.6
CPI excluding imputed series(1)1.50.9
CPI excluding Melbourne1.80.6
1. Excluding five series imputed off headline CPI in the June 2020 quarter: urban transport fares, domestic holiday travel and accommodation, international holiday travel and accommodation, sports participation; and other recreational, sporting and cultural services.
 

Table 1 shows both the quarterly and annual movements for selected exclusion-based measures and can be used to compare to the headline CPI. For example, when excluding child care from the CPI, the quarterly movement is 0.7 per cent compared to 1.6 per cent for the CPI. This highlights the impact that the removal of free child care has had on the September 2020 quarter CPI movement.

How to calculate exclusion-based series

Points contributions, available in table 12 of the CPI release, can be used to calculate exclusion-based measures. The sum of the points contributions of all lower level components equals the overall CPI index value. The points contribution of selected components can then be excluded and the CPI re-calculated.

Measuring the quarterly price change that would occur when excluding a CPI component is calculated by subtracting the points contribution of the CPI component from the CPI index number in each quarter and then calculating the percentage change between the resulting index. ‘CPI excluding automotive fuel’ series has been used as an example in table 2.

Table 2: Calculating exclusion-based measure example
 Sep-20Jun-20
All Groups index116.2114.4
Automotive fuel Points Contribution3.573.26
All Groups minus Automotive fuel112.6111.1
Quarterly movement (112.6-111.1)/111.1*100 (%)1.4% 


Table 2 shows that prices of all items other than automotive fuel increased by 1.4 per cent on average between the June 2020 quarter and September 2020 quarter. 

The September 2020 quarter saw COVID-19 have a significant impact on a range of CPI components. This article has demonstrated how excluding these components from the headline CPI provides new insights into the level of inflation in the Australian economy.

Spotlight: Underlying inflation measures

The Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median provide important insights into underlying inflation and the health of the Australian economy. These measures are derived from the Consumer Price Index (CPI) by removing atypical movements from the quarterly CPI, and recalculating a quarterly movement. Full details of the methods can be found in Explaining the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in some extremely large price changes, such as the significant fall in automotive fuel prices which partially recovered this quarter, and the provision and subsequent discontinuation of free childcare for Australian families. The underlying inflation measures reduce the influence of these large price movements, and thereby provide a measure of medium-term inflation.

As discussed in Measuring the Consumer Price Index: September quarter update, prices for two series were imputed during the September quarter to have a quarterly change equal to that of the headline CPI, rather than being measured. The two series were: Domestic holiday travel and accommodation and International holiday travel and accommodation. These two series contribute a weight of 6 per cent to the CPI. Additionally, three series returned to normal price collection after being imputed in the June quarter. These three series were Urban transport; Sports participation; and Other recreational, sporting and cultural services, and contribute a weight of 3 per cent to the CPI.  

Imputing price movements for these series presented the challenge of how they should contribute to the underlying inflation measures. The two options considered by the ABS were: 

  1. Use all 87 CPI series, including the five imputed series, in the calculation of the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median.
  2. Exclude the five imputed series and calculate the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median using the remaining 82 CPI series.

In order to maintain consistency in the methods used, the ABS selected option 1 for the official measures presented on the Main Features page of the September quarter CPI release, as per the June quarter. In this article, Table 1 presents the quarterly and annual movements for both options 1 and 2. 

Table 1. September 2020 quarter Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median, including and excluding imputed series
 Including imputed series (Option 1) Quarter (%)Including imputed series (Option 1) Annual (%)Excluding imputed series (Option 2) Quarter (%)Excluding imputed series (Option 2) Annual (%)
CPI1.60.71.60.7
Trimmed Mean0.41.20.31.4
Weighted Median0.31.30.21.4


Overall, excluding these five series from the Trimmed mean and Weighted median calculations (option 2) makes a small difference to the quarterly and annual movements in the September quarter. 

Chart 1 shows that when included in the calculations, four of the five imputed series contribute to the Trimmed Mean, with only one imputed series trimmed from the movement. Chart 2 shows the calculation of the two measures when the five imputed series are excluded.

Chart 1. September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)

Graph showing option one September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series

Chart 1. September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)

Graph showing calculation of the trimmed mean and weighted median including imputed series (option 1). Four of the five imputed series are trimmed from the trimmed mean, with influential series such as Child care and Automotive fuel also removed.

Data for: September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)

Chart 1. September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)
Ranked seasonally adjusted CPI seriesSeasonally adjusted percentage change
1-4.40
2-4.37
3-4.07
4-3.58
5-3.17
6-2.99
7-2.94
8-2.68
9-2.16
10-1.92
11-1.85
12-1.69
13-1.12
14-1.08
15-1.05
16-1.02
17-0.97
18-0.91
19-0.77
20-0.75
21-0.66
22-0.47
23-0.46
24-0.41
25-0.41
26-0.38
27-0.31
28-0.31
29-0.31
30-0.28
31-0.27
32-0.23
33-0.23
34-0.20
35-0.15
36-0.14
37-0.09
38-0.06
390.04
400.11
410.14
420.16
430.19
440.20
450.21
460.25
470.26
480.29
490.33
500.40
510.41
520.47
530.51
540.51
550.53
560.64
570.72
580.74
590.75
600.76
610.82
620.89
630.91
640.91
650.95
661.14
671.29
681.43
691.53
701.53
711.58
721.60
731.63
741.71
751.83
762.00
772.20
782.57
792.86
803.08
813.24
823.61
833.66
844.91
859.43
8612.18
871360.17

Chart 2. September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)

Graph showing option two September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series

Chart 2. September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)

Graph showing calculation of the trimmed mean and weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2). Influential series such as Child care and Automotive fuel are trimmed from the trimmed mean.

Data for: September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)

Data for: September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)
Ranked seasonally adjusted CPI seriesSeasonally adjusted percentage change
1-4.40
2-4.37
3-4.07
4-3.58
5-3.17
6-2.99
7-2.68
8-2.16
9-1.92
10-1.85
11-1.69
12-1.12
13-1.08
14-1.05
15-1.02
16-0.97
17-0.91
18-0.77
19-0.75
20-0.66
21-0.47
22-0.46
23-0.41
24-0.41
25-0.38
26-0.31
27-0.31
28-0.31
29-0.28
30-0.27
31-0.23
32-0.23
33-0.20
34-0.15
35-0.14
36-0.09
37-0.06
380.04
390.11
400.14
410.16
420.19
430.20
440.21
450.25
460.26
470.29
480.33
490.40
500.41
510.47
520.51
530.51
540.53
550.64
560.72
570.74
580.75
590.76
600.82
610.91
620.91
630.95
641.14
651.29
661.43
671.60
681.63
691.71
701.83
712.00
722.20
732.57
742.86
753.08
763.24
773.61
783.66
794.91
809.43
8112.18
821360.17

Article archive

CPI feature articles

Selected tables - capital cities

1 All groups CPI, index numbers(a)

PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2016-17111.1110.2110.4108.9108.9108.2108.7108.1110.2
2017-18113.4112.7112.3111.3109.9110.5109.7110.7112.3
2018-19115.2114.7114.1113.1111.3113.3110.7113.0114.1
2019-20116.4116.6115.4115.1112.8116.1110.9114.4115.7
2016 September110.4109.1109.7108.4108.6107.1108.7107.3109.4
2016 December110.9109.9110.2108.7109.0108.0108.6107.9110.0
2017 March111.3110.9110.5109.1109.0108.9108.5108.6110.5
2017 June111.7111.0111.0109.2109.0108.9108.8108.6110.7
2017 September112.5111.5111.4110.4109.5109.2109.4109.6111.4
2017 December113.3112.3112.3111.2109.9110.3109.7110.3112.1
2018 March113.6113.3112.4111.6110.0111.1109.7111.2112.6
2018 June114.0113.8112.9112.1110.2111.5110.1111.6113.0
2018 September114.7114.0113.4112.4110.8112.2110.8112.3113.5
2018 December115.2114.6114.0113.0111.3113.6111.0113.1114.1
2019 March115.1114.7114.1113.1111.2113.4110.1113.2114.1
2019 June115.9115.3114.8113.7112.0114.1111.0113.5114.8
2019 September116.5115.9115.5114.5112.6114.7111.3114.3115.4
2019 December117.1116.9116.3115.4113.1116.7111.5115.0116.2
2020 March117.4117.8116.2115.8113.5117.2111.8115.5116.6
2020 June114.7115.7113.6114.6112.1115.6109.0112.8114.4
2020 September116.8116.7116.2115.7114.1116.7110.8115.4116.2
a. Unless otherwise specified, reference period of each index: 2011-12 = 100.0.

2 All groups CPI, percentage changes

Percentage Change (from Previous Financial Year)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2016-172.01.91.71.50.61.80.11.91.7
2017-182.02.31.72.30.92.11.02.41.9
2018-191.71.71.61.51.32.50.92.11.6
2019-201.01.71.21.81.32.40.21.21.3
Percentage Change (from Corresponding Quarter of Previous Year)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2016 September1.71.41.51.20.51.30.01.41.3
2016 December1.81.51.61.30.41.3-0.41.81.5
2017 March2.42.51.82.01.02.30.52.32.1
2017 June2.22.21.81.60.72.30.52.11.9
2017 September1.92.21.51.80.82.00.62.11.8
2017 December2.22.21.92.30.82.11.02.21.9
2018 March2.12.21.72.30.92.01.12.41.9
2018 June2.12.51.72.71.12.41.22.82.1
2018 September2.02.21.81.81.22.71.32.51.9
2018 December1.72.01.51.61.33.01.22.51.8
2019 March1.31.21.51.31.12.10.41.81.3
2019 June1.71.31.71.41.62.30.81.71.6
2019 September1.61.71.91.91.62.20.51.81.7
2019 December1.62.02.02.11.62.70.51.71.8
2020 March2.02.71.82.42.13.41.52.02.2
2020 June-1.00.3-1.00.80.11.3-1.8-0.6-0.3
2020 September0.30.70.61.01.31.7-0.41.00.7
Percentage Change (From Previous quarter)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2016 September1.00.50.60.80.40.70.40.80.7
2016 December0.50.70.50.30.40.8-0.10.60.5
2017 March0.40.90.30.40.00.8-0.10.60.5
2017 June0.40.10.50.10.00.00.30.00.2
2017 September0.70.50.41.10.50.30.60.90.6
2017 December0.70.70.80.70.41.00.30.60.6
2018 March0.30.90.10.40.10.70.00.80.4
2018 June0.40.40.40.40.20.40.40.40.4
2018 September0.60.20.40.30.50.60.60.60.4
2018 December0.40.50.50.50.51.20.20.70.5
2019 March-0.10.10.10.1-0.1-0.2-0.80.10.0
2019 June0.70.50.60.50.70.60.80.30.6
2019 September0.50.50.60.70.50.50.30.70.5
2019 December0.50.90.70.80.41.70.20.60.7
2020 March0.30.8-0.10.30.40.40.30.40.3
2020 June-2.3-1.8-2.2-1.0-1.2-1.4-2.5-2.3-1.9
2020 September1.80.92.31.01.81.01.72.31.6

3 Longer term series: all groups CPI, weighted average of eight capital cities, index numbers

 31 March no.30 June no.30 September no.31 December no.
198537.938.839.740.5
198641.442.143.244.4
198745.346.046.847.6
198848.449.350.251.2
198951.753.054.255.2
199056.257.157.559.0
199158.959.059.359.9
199259.959.759.860.1
199360.660.861.161.2
199461.561.962.362.8
199563.864.765.566.0
199666.266.766.967.0
199767.166.966.666.8
199867.067.467.567.8
199967.868.168.769.1
200069.770.272.973.1
200173.974.574.775.4
200276.176.677.177.6
200378.678.679.179.5
200480.280.680.981.5
200582.182.683.483.8
200684.585.986.786.6
200786.687.788.389.1
200890.391.692.792.4
200992.592.993.894.3
201095.295.896.596.9
201198.399.299.899.8
201299.9100.4101.8102.0
2013102.4102.8104.0104.8
2014105.4105.9106.4106.6
2015106.8107.5108.0108.4
2016108.2108.6109.4110.0
2017110.5110.7111.4112.1
2018112.6113.0113.5114.1
2019114.1114.8115.4116.2
2020116.6114.4116.2 
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)

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Use of price indexes in contracts

Price indexes published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) provide summary measures of the movements in various categories of prices over time. They are published primarily for use in Government economic analysis. Price indexes are also often used in contracts by businesses and government to adjust payments and/or charges to take account of changes in categories of prices (Indexation Clauses).

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This release previously used catalogue number 6401.0.