Consumer Price Index, Australia

Latest release

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures household inflation and includes statistics about price change for categories of household expenditure.

Reference period
September Quarter 2023
Released
25/10/2023
  • Next Release 31/01/2024
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, December Quarter 2023
  • Next Release 24/04/2024
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, March Quarter 2024
  • Next Release 31/07/2024
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, June Quarter 2024
  • View all releases

Key statistics

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 1.2% this quarter.

  • The most significant price rises were Automotive fuel (+7.2%), Rents (+2.2%), New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers (+1.3%) and Electricity (+4.2%).

  • Over the twelve months to the September 2023 quarter, the CPI rose 5.4%.

What's new this quarter

Partial update to the CPI weights

The CPI weights are typically updated each year in the December quarter. This is to ensure the weights used in the CPI basket reflect contemporary household spending patterns. With the continued increase in Australians holidaying overseas, a partial update of the CPI weights has been implemented in the September 2023 quarter. The partial update increases the weight for International holiday travel, with the weight for the other components in the basket adjusted to offset the increase in travel weights. The updated weights are available in Data downloads.

The comprehensive update to the CPI weights usually done in December quarter each year will instead be implemented in March 2024 quarter. The weights for the quarterly CPI will continue to be updated in March quarters in future years.

Main features

Weighted average of eight capital cities
 Jun Qtr 2023 to Sep Qtr 2023Sep Qtr 2022 to Sep Qtr 2023
% change% change
All groups CPI1.25.4
Food and non-alcoholic beverages0.64.8
Alcohol and tobacco1.44.9
Clothing and footwear0.40.9
Housing2.27.0
Furnishings, household equipment and services-0.82.5
Health0.8 5.4
Transport3.25.6
Communication2.11.3
Recreation and culture0.25.6
Education-0.44.8
Insurance and financial services1.48.6
CPI analytical series
 All groups CPI, seasonally adjusted1.05.3
 Trimmed mean1.25.2
 Weighted median1.35.2

Overview

Annual CPI inflation eases again in the September quarter

Annual CPI inflation was 5.4 per cent in the September 2023 quarter, lower than the 6.0 per cent annual rise in the June 2023 quarter. This marks the third consecutive quarter of lower annual inflation and down from the peak of 7.8 per cent in the December 2022 quarter. Trimmed mean annual inflation of 5.2 per cent was also lower in the September quarter, compared to June 2023 quarter inflation of 5.9 per cent and the peak in December 2022 quarter of 6.8 per cent.

Goods and Services annual inflation both lower

Prices for most goods continued to be higher than they were 12 months ago, albeit with smaller increases for a range of goods including food, furniture, and housing. 

Annual services inflation eased for the first time since December 2021. The main reasons for the lower annual inflation are price falls for holiday travel and accommodation and a decrease in the costs for child-care due to changes in the Child Care Subsidy.  

Annual services inflation remains elevated

Annual inflation remains elevated, for a range of services such as vets, restaurant meals and hairdressers. Annual inflation continues to rise for some service categories including rents, dental services and insurance, while inflation for holiday travel has more than halved in the past two quarters.

Rental price increases highest since 2009

Rental prices rose 7.6 per cent annually, the largest annual rise since 2009. This reflects low vacancy rates amid a tight rental market in capital cities across the country. 

Rental prices for the quarter rose 2.2 per cent following a 2.5 per cent increase in the June quarter. The increase in rents this quarter was moderated by increases in Commonwealth Rent Assistance.

Changes to Commonwealth Rent Assistance

From 20 September 2023, the maximum rate available for Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA) increased by 15 per cent in addition to the biannual CPI indexation that applies in March and September each year. Given the timing of these changes, the September quarter results show a partial impact of the CRA changes. The remaining impact will be reflected in the December 2023 quarter.

Rents rose 2.2 per cent in the September 2023 quarter with the increase moderated by changes to Commonwealth Rental Assistance. Excluding the changes to rent assistance, rents would have increased by 2.5 per cent.

Impact of changes to the Child Care Subsidy

Commencing from 10 July, changes to the Child Care Subsidy raised the amount of subsidy received for families. These changes led to a quarterly fall of 13.2 per cent in child-care as the average increase in the amount of subsidy families received was larger than fee increases for the quarter, resulting in lower out-of-pocket costs. Excluding the change to the CCS, child care fees rose 6.7 per cent for the quarter.

Child care is measured through changes in the out-of-pocket costs for families. The chart shows the changes to various child-care support schemes over the years and the impact these changes had on the child-care series in the CPI.

CCB = Child Care Benefit

CCR = Child Care Rebate

CCS = Child Care Subsidy

Index, March 2012 = 102.3

Annual inflation for utilities remains elevated

Utilities prices rose 12.6 per cent in the 12 months to the September 2023 quarter due to price reviews by retailers for electricity, water and sewerage, and gas and other households fuels. 

Increases in electricity and gas prices reflect higher wholesale prices being passed on to customers, while higher operating costs contributed to the increases in water and sewerage prices. 

Electricity prices were partially offset by the introduction of Energy Bill Relief rebates from July 2023. The rebates reduced electricity bills for all households in Brisbane and Perth and for concession households in the remaining capital cities. 

Impact of the Energy Bill Relief Fund

The introduction of the Energy Bill Relief Fund rebates from July 2023 reduced electricity bills for all households in Brisbane and Perth, and for concession households in the remaining states and territories. These rebates partially offset electricity price rises in the September 2023 quarter. 

Electricity prices rose 4.2 per cent in the September 2023 quarter reflecting higher wholesale prices being passed on to customers from annual price reviews in July. Excluding the rebates, electricity prices would have increased 18.6 per cent.

In addition to concession households, households newly eligible for the Energy Bill relief fund will receive rebates in Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Hobart, Darwin and Canberra. It is anticipated that rebates for these households will be reflected in electricity prices from the December 2023 quarter. 

The following graph shows the introduction of various electricity rebates and the impact these changes had on the electricity series in the CPI.

Index, June 2022 = 100

The Energy Bill Relief Fund rebates had different impacts on each capital city. The following graph shows the September 2023 quarter movements for electricity with and without the effects of the rebates.

Automotive fuel prices increase for both unleaded petrol and diesel

Automotive fuel prices rose 7.2 per cent in the September quarter, which is the highest quarterly rise since March 2022. Average prices for unleaded petrol increased to $1.97 per litre, which is 13.5 cents per litre higher than the June quarter. Average diesel prices increased to $2.06 per litre, which is 19 cents per litre higher than the June quarter.

New dwellings annual price growth continues to slow

The rate of annual growth in new dwelling prices continued to slow down in the September 2023 quarter, having peaked in September 2022 at 20.7 per cent. The moderation in price growth over the past 12 months reflects subdued new demand and costs for building materials easing. 

Annual food inflation eases for the third quarter in a row

Annual food inflation eased to 4.8 per cent in the September quarter, down from 7.5 per cent in June quarter and the peak of 9.2 per cent in December 2022. Price rises have been lower across all food categories, while fruit and vegetable prices fell 6.4 per cent compared to 12 months ago. 

Main contributors to change

CPI groups

Food and non-alcoholic beverages group (+0.6%)

  • Meals out and take away foods rose 2.1%, due to elevated operating costs and minimum and award wage increases.
  • Dairy and related products rose 2.1%, due to elevated farmgate milk prices and other operating costs.
  • The rise was partly offset by Fruit and vegetables (-3.7%), due to an unusually warm winter that improved yields for salad vegetables such as tomatoes, capsicums and lettuce and increased supply of berries.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.9% this quarter. Meals out and take away foods (+2.1%) was the main contributor. 

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 4.8%. Meals out and take away foods (+6.9%) was the main contributor.

Alcohol and tobacco group (+1.4%)

  • Alcohol rose 1.3% due to the bi-annual increase in the excise tax for alcohol on 1 August.
  • Tobacco rose 1.7%, due to the introduction of a 5% annual excise indexation on 1 September and the usual bi-annual AWOTE indexation.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.5%. The main contributor was Tobacco (+2.2%).

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 4.9%. The main contributors were Beer (+6.8%), Tobacco (+4.9%) and Spirits (+8.4%).

Clothing and footwear group (+0.4%)

  • Accessories and clothing services rose 3.4%, due to price rises in jewellery, reflecting increasing gold commodity prices and prices returning from sales.
  • Garments fell 1.0%, due to promotional activity as retailers looked to clear excess winter stock.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.8%. The main contributor was Accessories and clothing services (+3.4%).

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 0.9%. Accessories (+3.2%), Garments for men (+2.7%) and Garments for infants and children (+3.6%) were the main contributors.

Housing group (+2.2%)

Utilities

  • Utilities rose 3.6%, driven by Electricity (+4.2%), and Water and Sewerage (+4.7%).
  • Electricity rose due to higher wholesale prices being passed on to customers from annual price reviews in July. The rise in Electricity was partially offset by the introduction of the Energy Bill Relief Fund rebates from July 2023.
  • Excluding the rebates, Electricity prices would have risen 18.6% this quarter.    
  • Water and Sewerage recorded the strongest rise since the September 2013 quarter as retailers passed on higher operating costs. Sydney recorded the strongest rise amongst the capital cities (+7.4%) as additional costs from the Sydney Desalination Plant were passed on to households.
  • Gas and other household fuels rose 1.4% due to higher wholesale prices being passed onto customers.

Rents

  • Rents rose 2.2% this quarter with all capital cities contributing to the rise. Rental prices rose 7.6% annually, the largest annual rise since 2009.
  • The increase in rents this quarter was moderated by changes to Commonwealth Rental Assistance (CRA).
  • Excluding the changes to rent assistance, Rents would have increased by 2.5% in the September 2023 quarter.
  • Rents continue to rise across all capital cities reflecting strong demand and low vacancy rates. Rental price growth for flats continues to outpace price growth for houses.

New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers

  • New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers rose 1.3% as builders continue to pass on labour and material costs.
  • The rate of price growth for New dwellings has continued to ease from rises seen in 2022, due to subdued new demand and material costs for building materials easing.

Property rates

  • Property rates rose 4.4%, the largest rise since 2015. Councils typically review their rates once per year which usually occurs each September quarter.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the Housing group rose 1.7%. The main contributor was Rents (+2.2%).

Over the past twelve months the group rose 7.0%. This is the smallest annual rise since the March 2022 quarter. The main contributor to the annual rise was Utilities (+12.6%), followed by New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+5.2%).

Furnishings, household equipment and services group (-0.8%)

  • Child care (-13.2%) fell following changes to the Child Care Subsidy, which commenced from 10 July 2023. More information about the policy changes to child care can be found here.

In seasonally adjusted terms the group fell 1.5%. The main contributor was child care (-13.7%)

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 2.5%. Non-durable household products (+4.9%), Furniture and furnishings (+3.1%) and Domestic Household Services (+2.2%) were the main contributors.

Health group (+0.8%)

  • Medical and hospital services rose 1.0% as some private health insurance providers increased premiums after being frozen. Typically, private health insurance providers increase premiums in April. Indexation of Medical Benefits Schedule fees from July 2023 also contributed to the rise.
  • Dental services rose 2.5% driven by rising wages and input costs.
  • Pharmaceutical products fell 1.2% due to an increase in the proportion of consumers who qualify for subsidies under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

In seasonally adjusted terms the group rose 1.4%. The main contributor was Medical and hospital services (+1.5%).

Over the past twelve months the group rose 5.4%. Medical and hospital services (+6.3%) was the main contributor.

Transport group (+3.2%)

  • Automotive fuel rose 7.2%, due to rising petrol and diesel prices. Automotive fuel prices fell 0.3% in July, rose 9.1% in August and rose 3.3% in September.
  • Other services in respect to motor vehicles rose 3.2% due to an increase in various administrative fees and charges from the beginning of the new financial year. This is the largest quarterly rise since September 2014.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 3.1%. The main contributor was Automotive fuel (+7.2%).

Over the past 12 months, the group rose 5.6%. Automotive fuel (+7.9%), Motor vehicles (+4.0%) and Maintenance and repair of motor vehicle (+3.4%) were the main contributors.

Communication group (+2.1%)

  • Telecommunication equipment and services was the main contributor as telecommunication providers increased mobile and internet plans. The rise of 1.9% was the largest quarterly rise since 2000.
  • Postal services rose 8.2% due to higher fuel costs and postage rates for parcel delivery.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.3%. The main contributor was telecommunication equipment and services (+1.1%).

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 1.3%. Telecommunication equipment and services (+0.8%) was the main contributor.

Recreation and culture group (+0.2%)

  • Other recreational, sporting and cultural services rose 3.4% due to increased admission fees for local attractions.
  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation fell 2.5%. Prices fell in the month of August, with no school holidays occurring, which saw lower demand for airfares and accommodation.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell 0.7%. International holiday travel and accommodation (-3.4%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months the group rose 5.6%. Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+7.3%) and International holiday travel and accommodation (+5.4%) were the main contributors.

Education group (-0.4%)

  • Preschool and primary education fell 2.6%. Families with children in long day care as part of a preschool program saw out-of-pocket costs fall following changes to the Child Care Subsidy, which commenced on 10 July 2023.
  • Tertiary education rose 0.5% due to fee increases on TAFE courses due to continued pressure from the increasing costs of wages, utilities and materials.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.2% this quarter. The main contributor was Secondary education (+0.7%).

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 4.8%. Tertiary education (+10.2%) was the main contributor.

Insurance and financial services group (+1.4%)

  • Insurance (+2.8%) was the main contributor with rises across house, house contents and motor vehicle insurance. 

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.1%. The main contributor was Insurance (+2.3%).

Over the past twelve months the group rose 8.6%, the strongest annual rise since 2008. Other financial services (+7.2%) was the main contributor to the rise. 

International trade exposure - tradables and non-tradables

The Tradables and Non–tradables series measure the contribution of goods and services that are highly exposed to international trade influences (tradables), and those that are mostly influenced by domestic factors (non–tradables), to overall household inflation. Examples of tradables include automotive fuel, most food items, and clothing and footwear. Examples of non–tradables include housing and education.

  • Tradables rose 0.7% due to Automotive fuel (+7.2%), Accessories (+3.5%) and Furniture (+1.9%).
  • Non-tradables rose 1.3% due to New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+1.3%), Electricity (+4.2%) and Takeaway and fast foods (+2.2%). 

In seasonally adjusted terms, the Tradables component of the All groups CPI rose 0.4% and the Non–tradables component rose 1.3%.

Discretionary and non-discretionary inflation

Non-discretionary inflation includes goods and services that households are less likely to reduce their consumption of, such as food, automotive fuel, housing and health costs. Discretionary goods and services may be considered 'optional' purchases.

  • Non-discretionary goods and services rose 1.4% through the quarter, and 5.5% through the year. The rise this quarter was driven by Automotive fuel (+7.2%), Utilities (+3.6%) and Rent (+2.2%).
  • Discretionary goods and services rose 0.8% through the quarter and 5.0% through the year. The rise this quarter was driven by Meals out and takeaway foods (+2.1%), Alcoholic beverages (+1.3%) and Tobacco (+1.7%).

Underlying inflation series

The Trimmed mean and the Weighted median provide measures of underlying inflation. These measures reduce the impact of irregular or temporary price changes in the CPI. For more information see Underlying Inflation Measures: Explaining the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median.

In the September 2023 quarter:

  • The trimmed mean rose 1.2%, following a rise of 1.0% in the June 2023 quarter.
  • Over the past twelve months, the trimmed mean rose 5.2%, following a rise of 5.9% over the twelve months to the June 2023 quarter.
  • The weighted median rose 1.3%, following a rise of 1.0% in the June 2023 quarter.
  • Over the past twelve months, the weighted median rose 5.2%, following a rise of 5.4% over the twelve months to the June 2023 quarter.

Seasonally adjusted analytical series

Seasonal adjustment is the process by which regular, calendar related effects are removed from the original series.

  • All groups CPI seasonally adjusted rose 1.0% for the quarter.
Jun Qtr 2023 to Sep Qtr 2023 percentage change
 Original (%)Seasonally Adjusted (%)
All groups CPI1.21.0
Food and non-alcoholic beverages0.60.9
Alcohol and tobacco1.41.5
Clothing and footwear0.40.8
Housing2.21.7
Furnishings, household equipment and services-0.8-1.5
Health0.81.4
Transport3.23.1
Communication2.11.3
Recreation and culture0.2-0.7
Education-0.40.2
Insurance and financial services1.41.1
International trade exposure series  
 Tradables0.70.4
 Non-tradables1.31.3

A detailed explanation of the seasonal adjustment of the All Groups CPI and calculation of the Trimmed mean and Weighted median measures is available in Information Paper: Seasonal Adjustment of Consumer Price Indexes, 2011 (cat. no. 6401.0.55.003). Revisions to the seasonally adjusted estimates can be the result of the application of concurrent seasonal adjustment, described on the methodology page.

Capital cities comparison

All groups CPI

All groups CPI, index numbers and percentage changes
 Index number(a)Percentage change (%)
 Sep Qtr 2023Jun Qtr 2023 to Sep Qtr 2023Sep Qtr 2022 to Sep Qtr 2023
Sydney135.81.35.6
Melbourne135.31.34.9
Brisbane137.00.75.2
Adelaide136.21.75.9
Perth132.00.45.8
Hobart135.80.94.1
Darwin130.90.94.3
Canberra133.70.84.5
Weighted average of eight capital cities135.31.25.4

a. Index reference period: 2011-12 = 100.0.

Capital city highlights:

At the All groups level, the CPI rose in all capital cities, ranging from 0.4% in Perth to 1.7% in Adelaide.

 

Sydney (+1.3%)

  • Electricity (+11.8%).
  • Automotive fuel (+8.9%).
  • Rents (+2.5%).
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers  (+1.7%).
  • Child care (-10.6%).

Sydney recorded an annual rise of 5.6%.

Melbourne (+1.3%)

  • Electricity (+17.2%).
  • Automotive fuel (+6.4%).
  • Rents (+1.9%).
  • Other recreation, sport & culture services (+9.4%).
  • Child care (-17.5%).

Melbourne recorded an annual rise of 4.9%.

Brisbane (+0.7%)

  • Automotive fuel (+6.0%).
  • Rents (+2.3%).
  • Property rates and charges (+5.1%).
  • Tobacco (+2.0%).
  • Electricity (-10.2%).
  • Child care (-13.6%).

Brisbane recorded an annual rise of 5.2%. 

Adelaide (+1.7%)

  • Electricity (+15.3%).
  • Automotive fuel (+6.2%).
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers  (+1.6%).
  • Property rates and charges (+7.1%).
  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (-5.4%).
  • Child care (-18.0%).

Adelaide recorded an annual rise of 5.9%, the largest rise of all capital cities.

Perth (+0.4%)

Perth recorded the smallest rise of all capital cities. 

  • Automotive fuel (+7.6%).
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers  (+3.0%).
  • Rents (+2.7%).
  • Insurance (+6.3%).
  • Electricity (-44.6%).
  • Child care (-12.4%).

Perth recorded an annual rise of 5.8%. 

Hobart (+0.9%)

  • Automotive fuel (+6.5%).
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers  (+3.2%).
  • Property rates and charges (+6.0%).
  • Insurance (+6.1%).
  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (-6.3%). 
  • Child care (-14.0%).

Hobart recorded an annual rise of 4.1%.

Darwin (+0.9%)

  • Automotive fuel (+5.6%).
  • Medical & hospital services (+3.1%).
  • Tobacco (+2.3%).
  • Restaurant meals (+2.5%).
  • Child care (-12.4%).

Darwin recorded an annual rise of 4.3%.

Canberra (+0.8%)

  • Automotive fuel (+5.9%).
  • Gas and other household fuels (+12.2%).
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers  (+0.8%).
  • Furniture (+5.2%).
  • Child care (-11.9%).

Canberra recorded an annual rise of 4.5%.

Quarterly percentage change by capital city
GroupSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
All groups1.31.30.71.70.40.90.90.81.2
Food & non-alcoholic beverages0.80.70.10.60.60.40.60.10.6
Alcohol & tobacco1.51.21.91.91.30.61.41.41.4
Clothing & footwear0.10.41.20.70.40.61.40.00.4
Housing3.32.40.64.3-2.42.11.41.52.2
Furnishings, household equipment and services-0.4-0.8-1.7-0.4-0.9-1.6-1.4-1.2-0.8
Health0.60.90.70.70.90.41.80.70.8
Transport3.13.23.23.03.73.52.62.83.2
Communication2.22.22.12.12.12.22.12.32.1
Recreation & culture0.20.30.2-0.40.1-0.7-0.3-0.20.2
Education-0.5-0.3-0.40.0-0.10.0-0.2-0.4-0.4
Insurance & financial services0.01.91.81.13.22.41.61.01.4

Selected tables - capital cities

All groups CPI, index numbers(a)

All groups CPI, Index numbers(a)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2023 September135.8135.3137.0136.2132.0135.8130.9133.7135.3
2023 June134.0133.5136.0133.9131.5134.6129.7132.7133.7
2023 March132.7132.7134.6132.4130.4134.0128.2131.3132.6
2022 December130.9131.1132.1130.8129.3132.4126.6129.5130.8
2022 September128.6129.0130.2128.6124.8130.5125.5128.0128.4
2022 June125.7126.4127.9125.3125.4127.6123.2125.6126.1
2022 March123.7124.2125.3122.7123.3125.4120.7123.6123.9
2021 December121.6121.4122.6120.4119.4122.9118.2120.9121.3
2021 September120.2120.1120.7118.6117.7120.2117.3119.7119.7
2021 June119.4119.1119.2117.8116.8119.8115.6118.2118.8
2021 March118.5118.8118.2117.2114.6118.5114.4117.3117.9
2020 December118.0118.4117.5116.5113.0117.6111.5116.3117.2
2020 September116.8116.7116.2115.7114.1116.7110.8115.4116.2
2020 June114.7115.7113.6114.6112.1115.6109.0112.8114.4
2020 March117.4117.8116.2115.8113.5117.2111.8115.5116.6
2019 December117.1116.9116.3115.4113.1116.7111.5115.0116.2
2019 September116.5115.9115.5114.5112.6114.7111.3114.3115.4
2019 June115.9115.3114.8113.7112.0114.1111.0113.5114.8
2019 March115.1114.7114.1113.1111.2113.4110.1113.2114.1
2022-23131.6131.6133.2131.4129.0132.9127.5130.4131.4
2021-22122.8123.0124.1121.8121.5124.0119.9122.5122.8
2020-21118.2118.3117.8116.8114.6118.2113.1116.8117.5

a. Unless otherwise specified, reference period of each index: 2011-12 = 100.0.

All groups CPI, percentage changes

Percentage change (from previous financial year)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2022-237.16.97.37.96.27.16.46.57.0
2021-223.94.05.44.26.05.06.04.84.4
2020-211.51.42.11.51.61.82.02.11.6
Percentage change (from corresponding quarter of previous year)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2023 September5.64.95.25.95.84.14.34.55.4
2023 June6.65.66.36.94.95.55.35.76.0
2023 March7.36.87.47.95.86.96.26.27.0
2022 December7.68.07.78.68.37.77.17.17.8
2022 September7.07.47.98.46.08.67.06.97.3
2022 June5.36.17.36.47.46.56.66.36.1
2022 March4.44.56.04.77.65.85.55.45.1
2021 December3.12.54.33.35.74.56.04.03.5
2021 September2.92.93.92.53.23.05.93.73.0
2021 June4.12.94.92.84.23.66.14.83.8
2021 March0.90.81.71.21.01.12.31.61.1
2020 December0.81.31.01.0-0.10.80.01.10.9
2020 September0.30.70.61.01.31.7-0.41.00.7
2020 June-1.00.3-1.00.80.11.3-1.8-0.6-0.3
2020 March2.02.71.82.42.13.41.52.02.2
2019 December1.62.02.02.11.62.70.51.71.8
2019 September1.61.71.91.91.62.20.51.81.7
Percentage change (from previous quarter)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2023 September1.31.30.71.70.40.90.90.81.2
2023 June1.00.61.01.10.80.41.21.10.8
2023 March1.41.21.91.20.91.21.31.41.4
2022 December1.81.61.51.73.61.50.91.21.9
2022 September2.32.11.82.6-0.52.31.91.91.8
2022 June1.61.82.12.11.71.82.11.61.8
2022 March1.72.32.21.93.32.02.12.22.1
2021 December1.21.11.61.51.42.20.81.01.3
2021 September0.70.81.30.70.80.31.51.30.8
2021 June0.80.30.80.51.91.11.00.80.8
2021 March0.40.30.60.61.40.82.60.90.6
2020 December1.01.51.10.7-1.00.80.60.80.9
2020 September1.80.92.31.01.81.01.72.31.6
2020 June-2.3-1.8-2.2-1.0-1.2-1.4-2.5-2.3-1.9
2020 March0.30.8-0.10.30.40.40.30.40.3
2019 December0.50.90.70.80.41.70.20.60.7
2019 September0.50.50.60.70.50.50.30.70.5

Longer term series: All groups CPI, weighted average of eight capital cities, index numbers

 
 31 March no.30 June no.30 September no.31 December no.
2023132.6133.7135.3 
2022123.9126.1128.4130.8
2021117.9118.8119.7121.3
2020116.6114.4116.2117.2
2019114.1114.8115.4116.2
2018112.6113.0113.5114.1
2017110.5110.7111.4112.1
2016108.2108.6109.4110.0
2015106.8107.5108.0108.4
2014105.4105.9106.4106.6
2013102.4102.8104.0104.8
201299.9100.4101.8102.0
201198.399.299.899.8
201095.295.896.596.9
200992.592.993.894.3
200890.391.692.792.4
200786.687.788.389.1
200684.585.986.786.6
200582.182.683.483.8
200480.280.680.981.5
200378.678.679.179.5
200276.176.677.177.6
200173.974.574.775.4
200069.770.272.973.1
199967.868.168.769.1
199867.067.467.567.8
199767.166.966.666.8
199666.266.766.967.0
199563.864.765.566.0
199461.561.962.362.8
199360.660.861.161.2
199259.959.759.860.1
199158.959.059.359.9
199056.257.157.559.0
198951.753.054.255.2
198848.449.350.251.2
198745.346.046.847.6
198641.442.143.244.4

a. nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)

Data downloads

Time Series Spreadsheets

Data files

Consumer Price Index - 2023 Weighting Pattern

Article archive

Measuring Rents in the CPI

New data source:

  • As outlined in the ABS’ information paper Introducing a monthly CPI indicator for Australia, from July 2022 the ABS has incorporated a new data source to measure the Rents series in the monthly CPI indicator and the quarterly CPI.
  • The Rents series prior to July 2022 was measured on a quarterly basis using a survey of approximately 4,000 rental properties collected directly from real estate agents.
  • The new dataset obtained by the ABS is updated monthly and includes approximately 480,000 rental properties that are used to produce the CPI Rents series across all capital cities.

What the CPI Rents series measures:

  • The CPI measures the prices being paid by households for the goods and services that they consume during a particular measurement period (e.g. month or quarter).  In the case of rents, this means that the CPI measures the current ‘price’ being paid by all types of households that rent including new and existing renters who are renting privately or from the government.  
  • Measures of rental inflation that are based on newly advertised rental properties only measure changes in the asking or advertised price of rental properties for new tenancies. At any given time, newly advertised tenancies represent a relatively small proportion of properties being rented in Australia. The Rents series used for the CPI measures actual rents paid rather than advertised prices.
  • Advertised rents tend to reflect the dynamic end of the rental market where the price change for new tenancies can be more volatile than that being experienced by renters with existing tenancy agreements.
  • Price changes observed in advertised rents series are expected to eventually flow through to the CPI Rents series. However, the small share of rental properties leased to new tenants each quarter means that it takes some time for changes in advertised rents to impact price change observed in the CPI Rents series.
  • A useful analogy is to think about a bathtub of water. The water in the tub represents all rents being paid by households, while the water entering the tub from the tap represents new rental agreements. The CPI series is measuring the overall temperature of the bathtub whereas an advertised rents series measures the temperature of the water flowing into the tub. It will take some time for the flow of water to change the overall temperature of the water in the bathtub.

Using price indexes

Price indexes in contracts

Price indexes published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) provide summary measures of the movements in various categories of prices over time. They are published primarily for use in Government economic analysis. Price indexes are also often used in contracts by businesses and government to adjust payments and/or charges to take account of changes in categories of prices (Indexation Clauses).

Use of Price Indexes in Contracts sets out a range of issues that should be taken into account by parties considering including an Indexation Clause in a contract using an ABS published price index.

Frequently asked questions

The Frequently Asked Questions page has answers to a number of common questions to do with price indexes and the Consumer Price Index in particular.

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 6401.0.

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