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Consumer Price Index, Australia

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures household inflation and includes statistics about price change for categories of household expenditure

Reference period
December 2020
Released
27/01/2021
Future releases
  • Next Release 28/04/2021
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, March 2021
  • Next Release 28/07/2021
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, June 2021
  • Next Release 27/10/2021
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, September 2021
  • View all releases

Key statistics

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 0.9% this quarter.
  • Over the twelve months to the December 2020 quarter the CPI rose 0.9%.
  • The most significant price rise was tobacco (+10.9%).
  • The most significant price fall was electricity (-7.5%).

What's new this quarter

This issue includes the introduction of updated weighting patterns. For more details see The 2020 annual re-weight of the CPI.

Two spotlight articles are included in this release:

  • CPI exclusion-based measures - this spotlight examines the CPI in the December 2020 quarter excluding selected influential movements.
  • Underlying inflation measures - this spotlight looks at underlying inflation in the December 2020 quarter using alternative measurement approaches.

An article was published on 14 January 2021 explaining the impact of COVID-19 on the December quarter CPI:

Main features

Download
Weighted average of eight capital cities
 Sep Qtr 2020 to Dec Qtr 2020Dec Qtr 2019 to Dec Qtr 2020
% change% change
All groups CPI0.90.9
Food and non-alcoholic beverages0.22.3
Alcohol and tobacco4.29.3
Clothing and footwear-1.0-1.3
Housing-0.6-0.9
Furnishings, household equipment and services3.43.6
Health1.32.6
Transport0.9-4.6
Communication-0.4-2.7
Recreation and culture1.60.0
Education1.22.1
Insurance and financial services0.11.2
CPI analytical series
 All groups CPI, seasonally adjusted0.80.9
 Trimmed mean0.41.2
 Weighted median0.51.4

Main contributors to change

CPI groups

Download


 

Food and non-alcoholic beverages group (+0.2%)

  • Rises of 1.1% in meals out and takeaway foods, 3.4% in fruit and 3.0% in beef and veal were the main contributors. The end of Melbourne's lockdown period saw consumers again able to dine at restaurants, and easing drought conditions increased herd re-building for cattle, reducing the supply of beef.   
  • A fall of 6.0% in vegetables offset the rise, due to easing drought conditions.
  • Annually the group rose 2.3% due to the lessening impact of drought, strong meat export demand, and ongoing higher domestic demand in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.1%, driven by meals out and takeaway foods (+1.1%).

Alcohol and tobacco group (+4.2%)

  • A 10.9% rise in tobacco was the main contributor, due to the annual excise tax increase of 12.5% and the bi-annual excise tax increase based on Average Weekly Ordinary Time Earnings (AWOTE) indexation, both applied on 1 September 2020.
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 9.3%. The main contributor was tobacco (+19.9%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 2.4%. The main contributor was tobacco (+5.3%).

Clothing and footwear group (-1.0%)

  • A fall of 5.4% in garments for women was the main contributor, due to increased participation of retailers in promotional events such as Black Friday.
  • Over the past twelve months, the group fell 1.3%. The main contributor was garments for women (-3.3%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell 0.7%. The main contributor to the fall was garments for women (-3.8%).

Housing group (-0.6%)

  • Electricity fell 7.5%, the strongest quarterly fall in the history of the series, dating back to 1980. The fall was due to a $600 household electricity credit introduced on 1 November by the Western Australian (WA) government, resulting in a significant fall in electricity prices in Perth (-66.7%).
  • A rise of 0.7% in the series new dwelling purchase by owner occupiers partially offset the fall. House builders passed through increases in project home prices and reductions in the value of promotional offers in response to higher demand. The rise was partially offset by the impact of HomeBuilder and state-based grants in WA and Tasmania. Without these grants, new dwelling purchase by owner occupiers would have risen 1.3% (see the following graph).
  • Rents (+0.1%) recorded a small rise following two quarters of falls. Rental market conditions are improving across most capital cities, consistent with falling vacancy rates and rising advertised rates. However, rent freezes for existing tenants remain in place in some states and territories.
  • Over the past twelve months the group fell 0.9%, which is the most significant fall since 1998. The fall was driven by utilities (-6.6%) and rents (-1.3%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell 0.6%. The main contributor was electricity (-7.7%).

The following graph shows the impact of HomeBuilder and the WA and Tasmanian state-based housing construction grants on the CPI series ‘new dwellings purchase by owner occupiers’ in the December 2020 quarter. The graph shows the impact before and after the application of these grants in the CPI.

Download

Furnishings, household equipment and services group (+3.4%)

  • A rise of 37.7% in child care was the main contributor as out-of-pocket expenses for child care fees returned to pre-COVID levels. For more information on child care see Update to measuring the CPI in the December 2020 quarter.
  • Excluding the impact of child care, this group would have fallen 0.7%.
  • Falls of 1.9% in other non-durable household products, 1.8% in personal care products and 1.1% in furniture partially offset the rise. There has been a return to regular discounting cycles on products such as toilet paper, cleaning products and bedroom furniture as demand returns from elevated levels.
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 3.6%. The main contributor was furniture (+5.2%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms the group rose 3.9%. The main contributor was child care (+38.3%).

Health group (+1.3%)

  • A rise of 2.5% in medical and hospital services was the main contributor due to increases in private health insurance premiums on 1 October 2020, following a six-month price freeze.
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 2.6%. The main contributor was medical and hospital services (+3.6%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms the group rose 2.7%. The main contributor was medical and hospital services (+3.9%).

Transport group (+0.9%)

  • Rises of 1.8% in motor vehicles and 4.5% in urban transport fares were the main contributors. Increasing demand for cars combined with supply disruptions resulted in price rises and reduced prevalence of typical end of year run-out sales. The rise in urban transport fares was due to the cessation of discounts offered on Sydney off-peak fares. 
  • Over the past twelve months the group fell 4.6%. The main contributor was automotive fuel (-16.7%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.0% this quarter. The main contributor was motor vehicles (+2.2%).

The following graph shows the pattern of the average daily prices for unleaded petrol for the eight capital cities over the past fifteen months.

Download


 

Communication group (-0.4%)

  • A fall of 0.4% in telecommunication equipment and services was the main contributor.
  • Over the past twelve months the group fell -2.7%.
  • The communication group is not seasonally adjusted.

Recreation and culture group (+1.6%)

  • A rise of 6.3% in domestic holiday travel and accommodation was the main contributor, following the re-opening of state and territory borders and commencement of the peak summer holiday period. International holiday travel and accommodation was again imputed for this quarter. For more information see Measuring the Consumer Price Index during a time of COVID-19.
  • Annually, there was no change (0.0%) in this group. 
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.3%. The main contributor was domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+3.8%). 

Education group (+1.2%)

  • A rise of 5.4% in preschool and primary education was the main contributor as out-of-pocket expenses increased following the cessation of free before and after school care from the ‘Early Childhood Education and Care Relief Package'. 
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 2.1%. The main contributor was secondary education (+3.3%).
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.7% this quarter. The main contributor was preschool and primary education (+6.0%).

Insurance and financial services group (+0.1%)

  • A rise of 0.7% in insurance was the main contributor. 
  • Over the past twelve months the group rose 1.2%.
  • In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.1%.

International trade exposure - tradable and non-tradables

Tradables (-0.4% quarter, -0.6% annual):

  • Tradable goods component fell 0.4% due to vegetables (-6.0%).

Non-tradables (+1.5% quarter, +1.5% annual):

  • Non-tradable goods component rose 0.9% due to tobacco (+10.9%).
  • Non-tradable services component rose 1.9% due to child care (+37.7%).

In seasonally adjusted terms, the tradables component of the All groups CPI fell 0.2% and the non-tradables component rose 1.2%.

Seasonally adjusted analytical series

In the December 2020 quarter:

  • All groups CPI seasonally adjusted rose 0.8% for the quarter and 0.9% for the year.
  • Trimmed mean rose 0.4%, following a revised rise of 0.3% in the September 2020 quarter.
  • Over the twelve months to the December 2020 quarter, the trimmed mean rose 1.2%, following a rise of 1.2% over the twelve months to the September 2020 quarter.
  • Weighted median rose 0.5% following a revised rise of 0.2% in the September 2020 quarter.
  • Over the twelve months, the weighted median rose 1.4%, following a revised rise of 1.2% over the twelve months to the September 2020 quarter.
Sep Qtr to Dec Qtr 2020 percentage change
 Original (%)Seasonally Adjusted (%)
All groups CPI0.90.8
Food and non-alcoholic beverages0.20.1
Alcohol and tobacco4.22.4
Clothing and footwear-1.0-0.7
Housing-0.6-0.6
Furnishings, household equipment and services3.43.9
Health1.32.7
Transport0.91.0
Communication(a)-0.4-0.4
Recreation and culture1.60.3
Education1.21.7
Insurance and financial services0.10.1
International trade exposure series  
 Tradables-0.4-0.2
 Non-tradables1.51.2

a. Not seasonally adjusted


A detailed explanation of the seasonal adjustment of the All Groups CPI and calculation of the trimmed mean and weighted median measures is available in Information Paper: Seasonal Adjustment of Consumer Price Indexes, 2011 (cat. no. 6401.0.55.003). Revisions to the seasonally adjusted estimates can be the result of the application of concurrent seasonal adjustment, described on the methodology page.

Capital cities comparison

All groups CPI

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All Groups CPI, All groups index numbers and percentage changes
 Index number(a)Percentage change
Dec Qtr 2020Sep Qtr 2020 to Dec Qtr 2020Dec Qtr 2019 to Dec Qtr 2020
Sydney118.01.00.8
Melbourne118.41.51.3
Brisbane117.51.11.0
Adelaide116.50.71.0
Perth113.0-1.0-0.1
Hobart117.60.80.8
Darwin111.50.60.0
Canberra116.30.81.1
Weighted average of eight capital cities117.20.90.9

a. Index reference period: 2011-12 = 100.0.


The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 0.9% in the December quarter in original terms and 0.8% in seasonally adjusted terms.

  • At the All groups level, seven capital cities saw rises ranging from 0.6% in Darwin to 1.5% in Melbourne for the quarter. Perth was the only exception, recording a fall of 1.0% due to the $600 household electricity credit introduced by the state government from 1 November.
  • Tobacco rose in all capital cities, due to the annual excise tax increase of 12.5% and the bi-annual excise tax increase based on Average Weekly Ordinary Time Earnings (AWOTE) indexation, both applied on 1 September 2020.
  • Furnishings, household equipment and services rose in all capital cities due to child care, following the cessation of free child care on 13 July. Out-of-pocket expenses have now returned to pre-COVID levels in all capital cities. Melbourne recorded a higher rise in the December 2020 quarter due to the increase in the out-of-pocket expenses for child care as attendance levels returned following stage 4 lockdown in the September quarter.
  • Health rose in all capital cities due to increases in private health insurance premiums on the 1 October 2020, following a six-month price freeze.
  • Annually, the CPI rose 0.9%. At the All groups level, six capital cities saw annual rises ranging from 0.8% in Sydney and Hobart, to 1.3% in Melbourne. Darwin was flat and Perth recorded a fall of 0.1%.

Capital city highlights:

Sydney (+1.0%)

  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+8.2%)
  • Urban transport (+10.5%) due to the cessation of discounts offered on off-peak fares introduced by the NSW government.
  • Vegetables (-6.5%)

Melbourne (+1.5%)

  • Childcare out-of-pocket expenses returned to pre-COVID levels as stage 4 lockdown restrictions ended and the use of child care services resumed.
  • Motor vehicles (+3.4%) as car dealerships re-opened and passed on price rises that occurred in other capital cities in the September quarter.
  • Restaurant meals (+2.1%) as the end of stage 4 lockdown saw a return to on-premises dining.

Brisbane (+1.1%)

  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+9.7%)
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupier (+2.0%)
  • Garments for women (-5.7%)

Adelaide (+0.7%)

  • Motor vehicles (+3.0%)
  • Automotive fuel (-4.6%), which was the most significant price fall of all capital cities this quarter.
  • Vegetables (-6.1%)

Perth (-1.0%)

  • Electricity (-66.7%) due to the $600 household electricity credit introduced by the Western Australian government from 1 November.
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupier (+2.2%) due to strong demand for house construction driven by the combined value of $45,000 of housing grants available from the Federal and Western Australian governments.
  • Beer (+3.0%) and non-alcoholic beverages (+6.3%) due to the introduction of the Containers for Change container deposit scheme.
 
 Quarterly movement including the WA household electricity credit (%)Quarterly movement excluding the WA household electricity credit (%)
All Groups CPI0.91.1
All Groups CPI – Perth-1.00.9
Electricity-7.50.3
Electricity – Perth-66.70.0

Hobart (+0.8%)

  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupier (+1.1%)
  • Fruit (+5.6%)
  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (-2.2%)

Darwin (+0.6%)

  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+6.3%)
  • Sports participation (+12.6%) due to the removal of the bi-annual $100 sports voucher which is applied in March and September quarters.
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupier (-2.3%) due to the $25,000 HomeBuilder grant.

Canberra (+0.8%)

  • Domestic holiday travel accommodation (+12.0%)
  • Gas and other household fuels (+2.8%)
  • Vegetables (-5.8%)
Quarterly percentage change by capital city
IndexSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
All groups1.01.51.10.7-1.00.80.60.80.9
Food & non-alcoholic beverages0.00.40.4-0.20.70.00.4-0.30.2
Alcohol & tobacco4.43.64.15.04.85.43.63.44.2
Clothing & footwear-1.5-0.7-1.0-1.3-0.3-0.8-2.8-0.4-1.0
Housing0.20.10.8-0.1-7.70.3-0.50.2-0.6
Furnishings, household equipment and services2.28.12.10.70.70.31.52.33.4
Health1.41.31.92.6-0.11.40.80.51.3
Transport1.51.6-0.1-1.00.2-0.3-1.10.00.9
Communication-0.4-0.3-0.4-0.3-0.4-0.4-0.3-0.3-0.4
Recreation & culture2.31.41.60.91.4-0.82.02.61.6
Education1.61.60.40.20.10.00.20.41.2
Insurance & financial services0.4-0.30.50.60.01.5-0.50.90.1

Spotlight: CPI exclusion-based measures

Each quarter, the ABS produces a range of CPI exclusion-based measures, which remove selected components from the CPI basket. Typically, the removed components have volatile price changes and/or a pronounced seasonal pattern. These exclusion-based measures can help distinguish short term price fluctuations that impact the quarterly CPI movement, providing additional insights into the general direction of medium-term inflation.

An example of a CPI exclusion-based measure is ‘CPI excluding alcohol and tobacco’, where annual increases in the federal excise tax have had a significant effect on tobacco prices each year.

COVID-19 has brought about new challenges in measuring the CPI. For the December 2020 quarter, additional CPI exclusion-based measures have been produced to those previously available in Table 8 of this release. The additional exclusion-based measures, presented in Table 1 of this article, demonstrate some of the temporary impacts of COVID-19 on the December quarter CPI.

Table 1: CPI exclusion-based measures, December 2020 quarter
 Quarterly movementAnnual movement
%%
Headline CPI0.90.9
CPI excluding child care0.50.8
CPI excluding automotive fuel0.91.5
CPI excluding electricity1.21.1
CPI excluding imputed series(a)0.81.0

a. Excluding two series imputed off headline CPI in the September 2020 quarter: domestic holiday travel and accommodation and international holiday travel and accommodation.


Table 1 shows both the quarterly and annual movements for selected exclusion-based measures and can be used to compare to the headline CPI. For example, when excluding child care from the CPI, the quarterly movement is 0.5 per cent compared to 0.9 per cent for the published CPI. This highlights the impact that the unwinding of free child care has had on the December 2020 quarter CPI movement.

How to calculate exclusion-based series

Points contributions, available in Table 12 of the CPI release, can be used to calculate exclusion-based measures. The sum of the points contributions of all lower level components equals the overall CPI index value. The points contribution of selected components can then be excluded and the CPI re-calculated.

Measuring the quarterly price change that would occur when excluding a CPI component is calculated by subtracting the points contribution of the CPI component from the CPI index number in each quarter and then calculating the percentage change between the resulting indexes. ‘CPI excluding electricity’ series has been used as an example in Table 2.

Table 2: Calculating exclusion-based measure example
 Dec-20Sep-20
All Groups index117.2116.2
Electricity Points Contribution3.03.3
All Groups minus Electricity114.2112.9
Quarterly movement (114.2-112.9)/114.2*100 (%)1.2 

Table 2 shows that prices of all items other than electricity increased by 1.2 per cent on average between the September 2020 and December 2020 quarters.

Spotlight: Underlying inflation measures

The Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median provide important insights into underlying inflation and the health of the Australian economy. These measures are derived from the Consumer Price Index (CPI) by removing atypical movements from the quarterly CPI, and recalculating a quarterly movement. Full details of the methods can be found in Explaining the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in some extremely large price changes, such as the provision and subsequent discontinuation of free childcare for Australian families. The underlying inflation measures reduce the influence of these large price movements, and thereby provide a measure of medium-term inflation.
As discussed in Update to measuring the CPI in the December 2020 quarter, prices for International holiday travel and accommodation were imputed during the December quarter to have a quarterly change equal to that of the headline CPI, rather than being measured. Following the 2020 annual re-weight this series contributes a weight of 0.1% to the CPI. Additionally, Domestic holiday travel and accommodation returned to normal price collection after being imputed in the September quarter, contributing a weight of 2 per cent to the CPI. 

Imputing price movements for these series presented the challenge of how they should contribute to the underlying inflation measures. The two options considered by the ABS were:

  1. Use all 87 CPI series, including the two imputed series, in the calculation of the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median.
  2. Exclude the two imputed series and calculate the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median using the remaining 85 series.

In order to maintain consistency in the methods used, the ABS selected option 1 for the official measures presented on the Main Features page of the December CPI release, as per the June and September quarters. In this article, table 1 presents the quarterly and annual movements for both options 1 and 2.

Table 1. December 2020 quarter Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median, including and excluding imputed series
 Including imputed series (Option 1)Excluding imputed series (Option 2)
 Quarter (%)Annual (%)Quarter (%)Annual (%)
CPI0.90.90.81.0
Trimmed Mean0.41.20.41.4
Weighted Median0.51.40.41.4

Overall, excluding these two series from the Trimmed mean and Weighted median calculations (option 2) makes little difference to the quarterly and annual movements in the December quarter.

Chart 1 shows that when included in the calculations, both imputed series contribute to the Trimmed Mean, with Domestic holiday travel and accommodation also falling as the Weighted Median. Chart 2 shows the calculation of the two measures when the two imputed series are excluded.

    Chart 1. December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)

    Graph showing option one December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series

    Chart 1. December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)

    Chart 1. December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)
    Graph showing the calculation of the Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1). Influential series such as Child care and Electricity are trimmed from the trimmed mean.

    Data for: December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)

    Data for: December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median including imputed series (option 1)
    Ranked seasonally adjusted CPI seriesSeasonally adjusted percentage change
    1-7.69
    2-3.86
    3-3.84
    4-2.18
    5-1.87
    6-1.86
    7-1.61
    8-1.37
    9-1.26
    10-1.06
    11-0.99
    12-0.80
    13-0.65
    14-0.64
    15-0.60
    16-0.53
    17-0.51
    18-0.47
    19-0.41
    20-0.40
    21-0.36
    22-0.35
    23-0.32
    24-0.31
    25-0.30
    26-0.28
    27-0.13
    28-0.13
    29-0.03
    30-0.02
    31-0.01
    320.04
    330.06
    340.09
    350.12
    360.13
    370.14
    380.16
    390.19
    400.20
    410.22
    420.29
    430.30
    440.31
    450.34
    460.35
    470.36
    480.39
    490.41
    500.43
    510.48
    520.50
    530.51
    540.53
    550.53
    560.57
    570.58
    580.61
    590.61
    600.62
    610.63
    620.65
    630.68
    640.71
    650.78
    660.88
    670.89
    680.89
    690.92
    701.04
    711.07
    721.22
    731.25
    741.37
    751.52
    761.65
    772.13
    782.16
    792.77
    802.81
    813.88
    823.94
    834.26
    845.28
    855.40
    866.09
    8738.13

      Chart 2. September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)

      Graph showing option two December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series

      Chart 2. September quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)

      Chart 2. December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)
      Graph showing calculation of the Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2). Influential series such as Child care and Electricity are trimmed from the trimmed mean.

      Data for: December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)

      Data for: December quarter Trimmed mean and Weighted median excluding imputed series (option 2)
      Ranked seasonally adjusted CPI seriesSeasonally adjusted percentage change
      1-7.69
      2-3.86
      3-3.84
      4-2.18
      5-1.87
      6-1.86
      7-1.61
      8-1.37
      9-1.26
      10-1.06
      11-0.99
      12-0.80
      13-0.65
      14-0.64
      15-0.60
      16-0.53
      17-0.51
      18-0.47
      19-0.41
      20-0.40
      21-0.36
      22-0.35
      23-0.32
      24-0.31
      25-0.30
      26-0.28
      27-0.13
      28-0.13
      29-0.03
      30-0.02
      31-0.01
      320.04
      330.06
      340.09
      350.12
      360.13
      370.14
      380.16
      390.19
      400.20
      410.22
      420.29
      430.30
      440.31
      450.34
      460.35
      470.36
      480.39
      490.41
      500.43
      510.50
      520.51
      530.53
      540.53
      550.57
      560.58
      570.61
      580.61
      590.62
      600.63
      610.65
      620.68
      630.71
      640.88
      650.89
      660.89
      670.92
      681.04
      691.07
      701.22
      711.25
      721.37
      731.52
      741.65
      752.13
      762.16
      772.77
      782.81
      793.88
      803.94
      814.26
      825.28
      835.40
      846.09
      8538.13

      Article archive

      CPI feature articles

      Non-Discretionary and Discretionary Inflation, November 2020

      Web scraping in the Australian CPI, March quarter 2020 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      Quality Change in the Australian CPI, December 2019 (cat. no. 6470.0.55.002)

      Underlying Inflation Measures: Explaining the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median, April 2019 (Chief Economist Series)

      70 Years of Inflation in Australia, October 2018 (Chief Economist Series)

      70 years of the Australian Consumer Price Index, September quarter 2018 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      The Australian CPI: A Contemporary Measure of Household Inflation, September quarter 2017 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      The average size and proportion of price changes in the CPI, September quarter 2017 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      What role does housing play in the Consumer Price Index and Selected Living Cost Indexes?, March quarter 2017 (cat. no. 6467.0)

      Potential Impact of Tropical Cyclone Debbie on the CPI, March quarter 2017 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      Consumer spending patterns and price change: How does electricity compare?, March quarter 2017 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      Measuring Price Change of Attached Dwellings in the CPI, December quarter 2016 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      Review of the Consumer Price Index International Trade Exposure Series, September quarter 2016 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      Australian Dietary Guidelines Price Indexes, December quarter 2015 (cat. no. 6401.0)

      Selected tables - capital cities

      1 All groups CPI, index numbers(a)

      All Groups CPI, Index Numbers(a)
      PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
      2020 December118.0118.4117.5116.5113.0117.6111.5116.3117.2
      2020 September116.8116.7116.2115.7114.1116.7110.8115.4116.2
      2020 June114.7115.7113.6114.6112.1115.6109.0112.8114.4
      2020 March117.4117.8116.2115.8113.5117.2111.8115.5116.6
      2019 December117.1116.9116.3115.4113.1116.7111.5115.0116.2
      2019 September116.5115.9115.5114.5112.6114.7111.3114.3115.4
      2019 June115.9115.3114.8113.7112.0114.1111.0113.5114.8
      2019 March115.1114.7114.1113.1111.2113.4110.1113.2114.1
      2018 December115.2114.6114.0113.0111.3113.6111.0113.1114.1
      2018 September114.7114.0113.4112.4110.8112.2110.8112.3113.5
      2018 June114.0113.8112.9112.1110.2111.5110.1111.6113.0
      2018 March113.6113.3112.4111.6110.0111.1109.7111.2112.6
      2017 December113.3112.3112.3111.2109.9110.3109.7110.3112.1
      2017 September112.5111.5111.4110.4109.5109.2109.4109.6111.4
      2017 June111.7111.0111.0109.2109.0108.9108.8108.6110.7
      2017 March111.3110.9110.5109.1109.0108.9108.5108.6110.5
      2016 December110.9109.9110.2108.7109.0108.0108.6107.9110.0
      2019-20116.4116.6115.4115.1112.8116.1110.9114.4115.7
      2018-19115.2114.7114.1113.1111.3113.3110.7113.0114.1
      2017-18113.4112.7112.3111.3109.9110.5109.7110.7112.3

      a. Unless otherwise specified, reference period of each index: 2011-12 = 100.0.

      2 All groups CPI, percentage changes

      Percentage Change (from Previous Financial Year)
      PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
      2019-201.01.71.21.81.32.40.21.21.3
      2018-191.71.71.61.51.32.50.92.11.6
      2017-182.02.31.72.30.92.11.02.41.9
      Percentage Change (from Corresponding Quarter of Previous Year)
      PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
      2020 December0.81.31.01.0-0.10.80.01.10.9
      2020 September0.30.70.61.01.31.7-0.41.00.7
      2020 June-1.00.3-1.00.80.11.3-1.8-0.6-0.3
      2020 March2.02.71.82.42.13.41.52.02.2
      2019 December1.62.02.02.11.62.70.51.71.8
      2019 September1.61.71.91.91.62.20.51.81.7
      2019 June1.71.31.71.41.62.30.81.71.6
      2019 March1.31.21.51.31.12.10.41.81.3
      2018 December1.72.01.51.61.33.01.22.51.8
      2018 September2.02.21.81.81.22.71.32.51.9
      2018 June2.12.51.72.71.12.41.22.82.1
      2018 March2.12.21.72.30.92.01.12.41.9
      2017 December2.22.21.92.30.82.11.02.21.9
      2017 September1.92.21.51.80.82.00.62.11.8
      2017 June2.22.21.81.60.72.30.52.11.9
      2017 March2.42.51.82.01.02.30.52.32.1
      2016 December1.81.51.61.30.41.3-0.41.81.5
      Percentage Change (From Previous quarter)
      PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
      2020 December1.01.51.10.7-1.00.80.60.80.9
      2020 September1.80.92.31.01.81.01.72.31.6
      2020 June-2.3-1.8-2.2-1.0-1.2-1.4-2.5-2.3-1.9
      2020 March0.30.8-0.10.30.40.40.30.40.3
      2019 December0.50.90.70.80.41.70.20.60.7
      2019 September0.50.50.60.70.50.50.30.70.5
      2019 June0.70.50.60.50.70.60.80.30.6
      2019 March-0.10.10.10.1-0.1-0.2-0.80.10.0
      2018 December0.40.50.50.50.51.20.20.70.5
      2018 September0.60.20.40.30.50.60.60.60.4
      2018 June0.40.40.40.40.20.40.40.40.4
      2018 March0.30.90.10.40.10.70.00.80.4
      2017 December0.70.70.80.70.41.00.30.60.6
      2017 September0.70.50.41.10.50.30.60.90.6
      2017 June0.40.10.50.10.00.00.30.00.2
      2017 March0.40.90.30.40.00.8-0.10.60.5
      2016 December0.50.70.50.30.40.8-0.10.60.5

      3 Longer term series: all groups CPI, weighted average of eight capital cities, index numbers

       
       31 March no.30 June no.30 September no.31 December no.
      2020116.6114.4116.2117.2
      2019114.1114.8115.4116.2
      2018112.6113.0113.5114.1
      2017110.5110.7111.4112.1
      2016108.2108.6109.4110.0
      2015106.8107.5108.0108.4
      2014105.4105.9106.4106.6
      2013102.4102.8104.0104.8
      201299.9100.4101.8102.0
      201198.399.299.899.8
      201095.295.896.596.9
      200992.592.993.894.3
      200890.391.692.792.4
      200786.687.788.389.1
      200684.585.986.786.6
      200582.182.683.483.8
      200480.280.680.981.5
      200378.678.679.179.5
      200276.176.677.177.6
      200173.974.574.775.4
      200069.770.272.973.1
      199967.868.168.769.1
      199867.067.467.567.8
      199767.166.966.666.8
      199666.266.766.967.0
      199563.864.765.566.0
      199461.561.962.362.8
      199360.660.861.161.2
      199259.959.759.860.1
      199158.959.059.359.9
      199056.257.157.559.0
      198951.753.054.255.2
      198848.449.350.251.2
      198745.346.046.847.6
      198641.442.143.244.4
      198537.938.839.740.5

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      Use of price indexes in contracts

      Price indexes published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) provide summary measures of the movements in various categories of prices over time. They are published primarily for use in Government economic analysis. Price indexes are also often used in contracts by businesses and government to adjust payments and/or charges to take account of changes in categories of prices (Indexation Clauses).

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