Consumer Price Index, Australia

Latest release

The Consumer Price Index (CPI) measures household inflation and includes statistics about price change for categories of household expenditure

Reference period
September Quarter 2022
Released
26/10/2022
  • Next Release 25/01/2023
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, December Quarter 2022
  • Next Release 26/04/2023
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, March Quarter 2023
  • Next Release 26/07/2023
    Consumer Price Index, Australia, June Quarter 2023
  • View all releases

Key statistics

  • The Consumer Price Index (CPI) rose 1.8% this quarter.

  • Over the twelve months to the September 2022 quarter, the CPI rose 7.3%.

  • The most significant price rises were New dwelling purchases by owner-occupiers (+3.7%), Gas and other household fuels (+10.9%) and Furniture (+6.6%).

What's new this quarter

Following the information paper Introducing a monthly CPI indicator, today marks the first release of the monthly CPI indicator publication. The next release of the monthly CPI indicator (for October 2022 month) will be 30 November.

The quarterly CPI is Australia’s key measure of inflation. This is different to the monthly CPI indicator which is available in the monthly CPI indicator publication. It should be noted that in contrast to the quarterly CPI which is only revised in exceptional circumstances, the monthly CPI indicator may be routinely subject to revision.

Measuring Rents in the CPI

New data source

  • As outlined in the ABS’ information paper Introducing a monthly CPI indicator for Australia, from July 2022 the ABS has incorporated a new data source to measure the Rents series in the monthly CPI indicator and the quarterly CPI.
  • The Rents series prior to July 2022 was measured on a quarterly basis using a survey of approximately 4,000 rental properties collected directly from real estate agents.
  • The new dataset obtained by the ABS is updated monthly and includes approximately 480,000 rental properties that are used to produce the CPI Rents series across all capital cities.

Further information on how CPI measures the Rents series can be found in the Article archive.

Main features

Weighted average of eight capital cities
 Jun Qtr 2022 to Sep Qtr 2022Sep Qtr 2021 to Sep Qtr 2022
% change% change
All groups CPI1.87.3
Food and non-alcoholic beverages3.29.0
Alcohol and tobacco1.24.0
Clothing and footwear-0.25.3
Housing3.210.5
Furnishings, household equipment and services2.87.7
Health0.32.7
Transport-0.49.2
Communication1.42.0
Recreation and culture1.35.0
Education0.04.6
Insurance and financial services1.34.2
CPI analytical series
 All groups CPI, seasonally adjusted1.87.3
 Trimmed mean1.86.1
 Weighted median1.45.0

Overview

Annual CPI inflation the highest since 1990

The annual CPI movement of 7.3 per cent is the highest since 1990. The past four quarters have seen strong quarterly rises off the back of higher prices for new dwelling construction, automotive fuel and food. Trimmed mean annual inflation, which excludes large price rises and falls, increased to 6.1 per cent, the highest since the ABS first published the series in 2003.

Goods continue to drive inflation

Goods accounted for a little over three quarters of the 7.3% rise in the CPI over the past year, reflecting high freight costs, supply constraints and prolonged elevated demand. 

High construction costs continue to drive increased prices for new dwellings

High levels of building construction activity and ongoing shortages of labour and materials continue to drive higher prices for new dwellings. Although the rate of price growth eased somewhat this quarter compared to the highs seen in recent quarters, in annual terms, the series recorded the largest rise since it commenced in 1999.  

Fewer payments of government construction grants compared to the previous quarter also contributed to the rise this quarter. These grants have the effect of reducing out-of-pocket expenses for new dwelling purchases. 

Rent prices picking up in Sydney and Melbourne

The rate of rental price growth in Sydney and Melbourne has increased this quarter following a period of subdued growth since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. This is the third consecutive quarter of rises for these two capital cities, consistent with falling vacancy rates. 

Compared to Sydney and Melbourne, the remaining capital cities have recorded higher increases in rent prices reflecting historically low vacancy rates.

Grocery prices rise further

Strong price rises were seen across all food and non-food grocery products in the September quarter. These increases reflected a range of price pressures including supply chain disruptions, weather-related events, such as flooding, and increased transport and input costs. In the 12 months to the September quarter fruit and vegetables prices rose 16.2% and dairy products increased 12.1%.

Automotive fuel prices fall for the first time in two years

Automotive fuel prices fell -4.3% in the September quarter as global oil prices have softened. The annual movement in the September quarter remains elevated at 18.0%, however is down from the peak in the March 2022 quarter of 35.1%.

The restoration of the fuel excise to 46 cents per litre, up from 22 cents per litre, on 30 September will contribute to fuel prices in the December quarter.

Non-discretionary inflation reaches a new high

Non-discretionary annual inflation increased to 8.4% in the September quarter, up from 7.6% in the June quarter. This continues to be well above Discretionary annual inflation of 5.5%.

Non-discretionary inflation includes goods and services that households are less likely to reduce their consumption of, such as food, automotive fuel, housing, utilities and health costs, which have all risen in prices over the past 12 months.

Main contributors to change

CPI groups


 

Food and non-alcoholic beverages group (+3.2%)

  • Meals out and take away foods rose 2.9% due to rising input costs and labour shortages, and an end to the Dine & Discover NSW program. The rollout of the Victorian Dining and Entertainment Program partly offset the rise. Vouchers have the effect of reducing out of pocket costs for consumers. Excluding the impact of these voucher scheme, meals out and takeaway foods rose 3.1%.
  • Fruit and vegetables rose 4.5% due to the effects of heavy rainfall and flooding in key growing areas earlier in the year. Higher transport and fertiliser costs also contributed to the rise. 
  • Dairy and related products rose 6.8% due to higher milk prices.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 3.3% this quarter. Meals out and takeaway foods (+2.9%) and Fruit and vegetables (+5.2%) were the main contributors.

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 9.0%. Fruit and vegetables (+16.2%) and Meals out and take away foods (+6.1%) were the main contributors.

 

Alcohol and tobacco group (+1.2%)

  • Alcohol rose 1.4% due to the increase in the bi–annual excise tax for alcohol on 1 August.
  • Tobacco rose 0.9%. The increase in the tobacco excise applied on 1 September contributed to the rise.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.6%. Tobacco (+2.2%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 4.0%. Tobacco (+5.4%) was the main contributor.

Clothing and footwear group (-0.2%)

  • The fall in Footwear (-2.5%) was the main contributor.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group recorded no movement.

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 5.3%. Garments for women (+7.8%) was the main contributor.

 

Housing group (+3.2%)

  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers rose 3.7% as builders passed through increased costs for labour, materials and freight. However, the rate of price growth eased this quarter reflecting a slowing in new demand and some improvements in supply constraints. Fewer grant payments this quarter from the Federal Government's HomeBuilder program and similar state-based housing construction grants also contributed to the rise.

The following graph shows the new dwellings series including and excluding government housing construction grants.

Index, June 2020 = 100.0

  • Utilities rose 4.8%, driven by Gas and other household fuels (+10.9%) and Electricity (+3.2%). This is the strongest rise for Gas and other household fuels since 2012. Gas and electricity price rises reflect annual reviews with retailers across all capital cities passing through higher wholesale prices.
  • The rise in Electricity was partially offset by the introduction of electricity rebates including the $400 household electricity credit introduced by the Western Australian Government, the $175 Cost of Living rebate by the Queensland Government and the $50 rebate for concession households by the ACT Government this quarter.

The following graph shows the September 2022 quarterly movements for electricity, utilities and housing with and without the effects of the State and Territory electricity rebates.

  • Rents rose 1.3%, the largest rise since 2011. All capital cities contributed to the rise, with Sydney and Melbourne recording their strongest quarterly price rise in ten years. Rents across the remaining capital cities continue to record strong rises, reflecting historically low vacancy rates.
  • Property rates rose 3.6%, the largest rise since 2016. Councils typically review their rates once per year which usually occurs each September quarter.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 2.9%. New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+3.7%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months the group rose 10.5%. New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+20.7%) was the main contributor.

Furnishings, household equipment and services group (+2.8%)

  • Furniture rose 6.6% due to ongoing supply chain issues, including higher freight and raw material costs.
  • Non-durable household products rose 2.2% driven by rises in a range of products including toilet paper, tissues and hair care products.
  • Domestic and household services rose 1.9% due to the minimum and award wage increase and higher operational costs for businesses.

In seasonally adjusted terms the group rose 2.1%. Furniture (+3.7%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months the group rose 7.7%. Other non-durable household products (+16.2%) and Furniture (+11.4%) were the main contributors.

Health group (+0.3%)

  • Medical and hospital services rose 0.6% due to price rises for GP consultations and other health professionals.
  • Pharmaceutical products fell 1.9% due to an increase in the proportion of consumers who qualify for subsidies under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The lowering of the PBS threshold also saw more people receive discounted prices.

In seasonally adjusted terms the group rose 1.1%. Medical and hospital services (+1.3%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months the group rose 2.7%. Medical & Hospital services (+2.9%) was the main contributor.

Transport group (-0.4%)

  • Automotive fuel fell 4.3% due to global oil supply reaching levels not seen since the start of the pandemic. Fuel prices fell in July (-3.4%), August (-11.6%) and September (-1.8%).
  • Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles rose 2.0% due to higher material and labour costs.
  • Urban transport rose 6.6%, following the temporary periods of free public transport in Sydney and Hobart last quarter.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group fell 0.6%. Automotive fuel (-4.3%) was the main contributor.

Over the past 12 months, the group rose 9.2%. Automotive fuel (+18.0%) was the main contributor.


 

Communication group (+1.4%)

  • Telecommunication equipment and services rose 1.3% due to price rises for mobile handsets, and higher rates for mobile and internet plans

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.2%. Telecommunication equipment and services (+1.2%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 2.0%. Telecommunication equipment and services (+1.7%) was the main contributor.

Recreation and culture group (+1.3%)

  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation rose 3.6% due to strong demand, particularly during school holiday periods in the September quarter, which occurred in July and September, combined with higher fuel prices increasing airfare prices. Accommodation vouchers offered as part of the Stay NSW scheme partially offset the rise. Voucher schemes have the effect of reducing out of pocket costs for consumers.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.1%. Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+2.9%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months the group rose 5.0%. Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+10.8%) was the main contributor.

Education group (0.0%)

  • The Education Group recorded no change this quarter.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 0.5%. Secondary education (+0.7%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months, the group rose 4.6%. Tertiary education (+6.2%) was the main contributor.

Insurance and financial services group (+1.3%)

  • Other financial services (+1.3%) was the main contributor to the rise.
  • Insurance (+2.3%) rose across motor vehicle, house and contents insurance.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the group rose 1.3%. Other financial services (+1.3%) was the main contributor.

Over the past twelve months the group rose 4.2%. Other financial services (+4.8%) was the main contributor.

International trade exposure - tradable and non-tradables

The tradables and non–tradables series measure the contribution of goods and services that are highly exposed to international trade influences (tradables), and those that are mostly influenced by domestic factors (non–tradables), to overall household inflation. Examples of tradables include automotive fuel, most food items, and clothing and footwear. Examples of non–tradables include housing and education.

  • Tradables rose +1.5% due to Gas and other household fuels (+10.9%), Furniture (+6.6%) and Fruit (+6.6%).
  • Non-tradables rose +2.0% due to New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+3.7%), Takeaway and fast foods (+3.3%) and Restaurant meals (+2.4%).

In seasonally adjusted terms, the Tradables component of the All groups CPI rose 1.3% and the Non–tradables component rose 2.0%.

Discretionary and non-discretionary inflation

Non-discretionary inflation includes goods and services that households are less likely to reduce their consumption of, such as food, automotive fuel, housing and health costs. Discretionary goods and services may be considered 'optional' purchases.

  • Non-discretionary goods and services rose 2.0% for the quarter, and 8.4% in the 12 months to the September quarter. The rise this quarter was driven by New dwelling purchased by owner-occupiers (+3.7%), Utilities (+4.8%) and Fruit and vegetables (+4.5%).
  • Discretionary goods and services rose 1.7% for the quarter and 5.5% in the 12 months to the September quarter. The rise this quarter was driven by Meals out and takeaway foods (+2.9%) and Furniture and furnishings (+6.3%).

Underlying inflation series

The Trimmed mean and the Weighted median provide measures of underlying inflation. These measures reduce the impact of irregular or temporary price changes in the CPI. For more information see Underlying Inflation Measures: Explaining the Trimmed Mean and Weighted Median.

In the September 2022 quarter:

  • The trimmed mean rose 1.8%, following a rise of 1.6% in the June 2022 quarter.
  • Over the past twelve months, the trimmed mean rose 6.1%, following a rise of 4.9% over the twelve months to the June 2022 quarter.
  • The weighted median rose 1.4%, following a rise of 1.4% in the June 2022 quarter.
  • Over the past twelve months, the weighted median rose 5.0%, following a rise of 4.3% over the twelve months to the June 2022 quarter.

Seasonally adjusted analytical series

Seasonal adjustment is the process by which regular, calendar-related effects are removed from the original series.

  • All groups CPI seasonally adjusted rose 1.8% for the quarter.
Jun Qtr 2022 to Sep Qtr 2022 percentage change
 Original (%)Seasonally Adjusted (%)
All groups CPI1.81.8
Food and non-alcoholic beverages3.23.3
Alcohol and tobacco1.21.6
Clothing and footwear-0.20.0
Housing3.22.9
Furnishings, household equipment and services2.82.1
Health0.31.1
Transport-0.4-0.6
Communication1.41.2
Recreation and culture1.31.1
Education0.00.5
Insurance and financial services1.31.3
International trade exposure series  
 Tradables1.51.3
 Non-tradables2.02.0

A detailed explanation of the seasonal adjustment of the All Groups CPI and calculation of the Trimmed mean and Weighted median measures is available in Information Paper: Seasonal Adjustment of Consumer Price Indexes, 2011 (cat. no. 6401.0.55.003). Revisions to the seasonally adjusted estimates can be the result of the application of concurrent seasonal adjustment, described on the methodology page.

Capital cities comparison

All groups CPI

All groups CPI, All groups index numbers and percentage changes
 Index number(a)Percentage change (%)
 Sep Qtr 2022Jun Qtr 2022 to Sep Qtr 2022Sep Qtr 2021 to Sep Qtr 2022
Sydney128.62.37.0
Melbourne129.02.17.4
Brisbane130.21.87.9
Adelaide128.62.68.4
Perth124.8-0.56.0
Hobart130.52.38.6
Darwin125.51.97.0
Canberra128.01.96.9
Weighted average of eight capital cities128.41.87.3

a. Index reference period: 2011-12 = 100.0.

In all capital cities:

  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+3.7%) rose, albeit more weakly than last quarter (+5.6%). Shortages of building supplies and labour, high freight costs and ongoing strong construction activity continued to contribute to price rises for new dwellings. The largest rises were recorded in Adelaide (+6.8%) and Hobart (+6.7%).
  • Gas and other household fuels (+10.9%) rose due to higher wholesale gas prices. The largest rises were recorded in Adelaide (+17.5%), Sydney (+15.0%) and Melbourne (+11.0%).
  • Furniture (+6.6%) rose due to increased freight and labour costs, supply chain issues and rising material (especially timber and aluminium) costs. The largest rises were recorded in Canberra (+9.8%), Adelaide (+9.5%), Melbourne (+8.7%) and Sydney (+7.3%)
  • Takeaway and fast foods (+3.3%) rose due to price increases for menu items (higher input and raw material costs), higher wages and a reduction in government-funded dining voucher schemes. The largest rises were in Sydney (+4.0%), Perth (+3.5%) and Melbourne (+3.4%).
  • Automotive fuel (-4.3%) fell due to reductions in crude oil prices and refining margins amidst global supply reaching levels not seen since the start of the pandemic. The largest falls were recorded in Adelaide (-6.4%), Perth (-5.8%) and Sydney (-5.2%), with an offsetting rise in Canberra (+0.7%).

Capital city highlights:

At the All groups level, the CPI rose in all eight capital cities, ranging from 1.6% in Sydney and Canberra to 2.1% in Adelaide, Brisbane and Darwin.

 

Sydney (+2.3%)

  • Electricity (+25.3%)
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+3.3%).
  • Takeaway and fast foods (+4.0%).
  • Automotive fuel (-5.2%).

Sydney recorded an annual rise of 7.0%.
 

Melbourne (+2.1%)

  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+4.2%).
  • Gas and other household fuels (+11.0%).
  • Electricity (+8.9%).
  • Furniture (+8.7%).

Melbourne recorded an annual rise of 7.4%.

Brisbane (+1.8%)

  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+3.4%).
  • Electricity (+10.1%) was partially offset by the $175 Cost of Living Rebate introduced by the Queensland government from September.
  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+6.0%).
  • Rents (+1.8%).
  • Automotive fuel (-5.1%)

Brisbane recorded an annual rise of 7.9%. 

Adelaide (+2.6%)

Adelaide recorded the largest rise of all capital cities.

  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+6.8%).
  • Electricity (+12.8%).
  • Gas and other household fuels (+17.5%).
  • Automotive fuel (-6.4%).

Adelaide recorded an annual rise of 8.4%.

Perth (-0.5%)

Perth was the only capital city to record a fall this quarter.

  • Electricity (-84.3%) due to the $400 Household Electricity Credit introduced by the Western Australian government from July.
  • Automotive fuel (-5.8%).
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+2.7%).
  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+4.8%). 

Perth recorded an annual rise of 6.0%.

Hobart (+2.3%)

  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+6.7%).
  • Electricity (+12.0%).
  • Takeaway and fast foods (+3.2%).
  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+2.4%)

Hobart recorded an annual rise of 8.6%.

Darwin (+1.9%)

  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+17.6%).
  • Beer (+2.2%).
  • Takeaway and fast foods (+2.6%).
  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+1.2%).

Darwin recorded an annual rise of 7.0%.

 

Canberra (+1.9%)

  • New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers (+2.4%).
  • Domestic holiday travel and accommodation (+7.5%).
  • Furniture (+9.8%).
  • Gas and other household fuels (+6.6%).

Canberra recorded an annual rise of 6.9%.

 

Quarterly percentage change by capital city
GroupSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
All groups2.32.11.82.6-0.52.31.91.91.8
Food & non-alcoholic beverages3.33.52.73.13.43.13.42.73.2
Alcohol & tobacco1.11.11.41.21.61.51.41.51.2
Clothing & footwear0.3-0.9-0.30.00.4-0.2-1.0-1.6-0.2
Housing5.24.13.46.2-7.44.71.61.93.2
Furnishings, household equipment and services3.13.22.13.62.33.02.63.82.8
Health-0.10.20.50.10.80.30.30.90.3
Transport-0.4-0.1-0.7-1.5-1.10.80.52.0-0.4
Communication1.41.41.31.31.41.31.41.61.4
Recreation & culture0.90.82.01.41.91.63.92.61.3
Education0.1-0.20.00.40.00.00.50.10.0
Insurance & financial services0.61.92.52.41.01.11.7-0.91.3

Selected tables - capital cities

All groups CPI, index numbers(a)

All groups CPI, Index numbers(a)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2022 September128.6129.0130.2128.6124.8130.5125.5128.0128.4
2022 June125.7126.4127.9125.3125.4127.6123.2125.6126.1
2022 March123.7124.2125.3122.7123.3125.4120.7123.6123.9
2021 December121.6121.4122.6120.4119.4122.9118.2120.9121.3
2021 September120.2120.1120.7118.6117.7120.2117.3119.7119.7
2021 June119.4119.1119.2117.8116.8119.8115.6118.2118.8
2021 March118.5118.8118.2117.2114.6118.5114.4117.3117.9
2020 December118.0118.4117.5116.5113.0117.6111.5116.3117.2
2020 September116.8116.7116.2115.7114.1116.7110.8115.4116.2
2020 June114.7115.7113.6114.6112.1115.6109.0112.8114.4
2020 March117.4117.8116.2115.8113.5117.2111.8115.5116.6
2019 December117.1116.9116.3115.4113.1116.7111.5115.0116.2
2019 September116.5115.9115.5114.5112.6114.7111.3114.3115.4
2019 June115.9115.3114.8113.7112.0114.1111.0113.5114.8
2019 March115.1114.7114.1113.1111.2113.4110.1113.2114.1
2018 December115.2114.6114.0113.0111.3113.6111.0113.1114.1
2018 September114.7114.0113.4112.4110.8112.2110.8112.3113.5
2021-22122.8123.0124.1121.8121.5124.0119.9122.5122.8
2020-21118.2118.3117.8116.8114.6118.2113.1116.8117.5
2019-20116.4116.6115.4115.1112.8116.1110.9114.4115.7
2018-19115.2114.7114.1113.1111.3113.3110.7113.0114.1

a. Unless otherwise specified, reference period of each index: 2011-12 = 100.0.

All groups CPI, percentage changes

Percentage change (from previous financial year)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2021-223.94.05.44.26.05.06.04.84.4
2020-211.51.42.11.51.61.82.02.11.6
2019-201.01.71.21.81.32.40.21.21.3
2018-191.71.71.61.51.32.50.92.11.6
Percentage change (from corresponding quarter of previous year)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2022 September7.07.47.98.46.08.67.06.97.3
2022 June5.36.17.36.47.46.56.66.36.1
2022 March4.44.56.04.77.65.85.55.45.1
2021 December3.12.54.33.35.74.56.04.03.5
2021 September2.92.93.92.53.23.05.93.73.0
2021 June4.12.94.92.84.23.66.14.83.8
2021 March0.90.81.71.21.01.12.31.61.1
2020 December0.81.31.01.0-0.10.80.01.10.9
2020 September0.30.70.61.01.31.7-0.41.00.7
2020 June-1.00.3-1.00.80.11.3-1.8-0.6-0.3
2020 March2.02.71.82.42.13.41.52.02.2
2019 December1.62.02.02.11.62.70.51.71.8
2019 September1.61.71.91.91.62.20.51.81.7
2019 June1.71.31.71.41.62.30.81.71.6
2019 March1.31.21.51.31.12.10.41.81.3
2018 December1.72.01.51.61.33.01.22.51.8
2018 September2.02.21.81.81.22.71.32.51.9
Percentage change (from previous quarter)
PeriodSydneyMelbourneBrisbaneAdelaidePerthHobartDarwinCanberraWeighted average of eight capital cities
2022 September2.32.11.82.6-0.52.31.91.91.8
2022 June1.61.82.12.11.71.82.11.61.8
2022 March1.72.32.21.93.32.02.12.22.1
2021 December1.21.11.61.51.42.20.81.01.3
2021 September0.70.81.30.70.80.31.51.30.8
2021 June0.80.30.80.51.91.11.00.80.8
2021 March0.40.30.60.61.40.82.60.90.6
2020 December1.01.51.10.7-1.00.80.60.80.9
2020 September1.80.92.31.01.81.01.72.31.6
2020 June-2.3-1.8-2.2-1.0-1.2-1.4-2.5-2.3-1.9
2020 March0.30.8-0.10.30.40.40.30.40.3
2019 December0.50.90.70.80.41.70.20.60.7
2019 September0.50.50.60.70.50.50.30.70.5
2019 June0.70.50.60.50.70.60.80.30.6
2019 March-0.10.10.10.1-0.1-0.2-0.80.10.0
2018 December0.40.50.50.50.51.20.20.70.5
2018 September0.60.20.40.30.50.60.60.60.4

Longer term series: all groups CPI, weighted average of eight capital cities, index numbers

 
 31 March no.30 June no.30 September no.31 December no.
2022123.9126.1128.4 
2021117.9118.8119.7121.3
2020116.6114.4116.2117.2
2019114.1114.8115.4116.2
2018112.6113.0113.5114.1
2017110.5110.7111.4112.1
2016108.2108.6109.4110.0
2015106.8107.5108.0108.4
2014105.4105.9106.4106.6
2013102.4102.8104.0104.8
201299.9100.4101.8102.0
201198.399.299.899.8
201095.295.896.596.9
200992.592.993.894.3
200890.391.692.792.4
200786.687.788.389.1
200684.585.986.786.6
200582.182.683.483.8
200480.280.680.981.5
200378.678.679.179.5
200276.176.677.177.6
200173.974.574.775.4
200069.770.272.973.1
199967.868.168.769.1
199867.067.467.567.8
199767.166.966.666.8
199666.266.766.967.0
199563.864.765.566.0
199461.561.962.362.8
199360.660.861.161.2
199259.959.759.860.1
199158.959.059.359.9
199056.257.157.559.0
198951.753.054.255.2
198848.449.350.251.2
198745.346.046.847.6
198641.442.143.244.4
198537.938.839.740.5

a. nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)

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Data files

Additional information

The Tasmanian Government announced a one-off $119 Winter Bill Buster discount to eligible electricity concession account holders from 1 August 2022. The impact of this electricity rebate will be shown in the December 2022 quarter. 

Post-release changes

3 November 2022 - Please note the Additional Information above.

31 October 2022 - Table 14 in Data Downloads was updated following a correction to forward seasonal adjustment factors for December 2022 quarter. These corrections only applied to series that are not seasonally adjusted.

Article archive

Measuring Rents in the CPI

New data source:

  • As outlined in the ABS’ information paper Introducing a monthly CPI indicator for Australia, from July 2022 the ABS has incorporated a new data source to measure the Rents series in the monthly CPI indicator and the quarterly CPI.
  • The Rents series prior to July 2022 was measured on a quarterly basis using a survey of approximately 4,000 rental properties collected directly from real estate agents.
  • The new dataset obtained by the ABS is updated monthly and includes approximately 480,000 rental properties that are used to produce the CPI Rents series across all capital cities.

What the CPI Rents series measures:

  • The CPI measures the prices being paid by households for the goods and services that they consume during a particular measurement period (e.g. month or quarter).  In the case of rents, this means that the CPI measures the current ‘price’ being paid by all types of households that rent including new and existing renters who are renting privately or from the government.  
  • Measures of rental inflation that are based on newly advertised rental properties only measure changes in the asking or advertised price of rental properties for new tenancies. At any given time, newly advertised tenancies represent a relatively small proportion of properties being rented in Australia. The Rents series used for the CPI measures actual rents paid rather than advertised prices.
  • Advertised rents tend to reflect the dynamic end of the rental market where the price change for new tenancies can be more volatile than that being experienced by renters with existing tenancy agreements.
  • Price changes observed in advertised rents series are expected to eventually flow through to the CPI Rents series. However, the small share of rental properties leased to new tenants each quarter means that it takes some time for changes in advertised rents to impact price change observed in the CPI Rents series.
  • A useful analogy is to think about a bathtub of water. The water in the tub represents all rents being paid by households, while the water entering the tub from the tap represents new rental agreements. The CPI series is measuring the overall temperature of the bathtub whereas an advertised rents series measures the temperature of the water flowing into the tub. It will take some time for the flow of water to change the overall temperature of the water in the bathtub.

Using price indexes

Price indexes in contracts

Price indexes published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) provide summary measures of the movements in various categories of prices over time. They are published primarily for use in Government economic analysis. Price indexes are also often used in contracts by businesses and government to adjust payments and/or charges to take account of changes in categories of prices (Indexation Clauses).

Use of Price Indexes in Contracts sets out a range of issues that should be taken into account by parties considering including an Indexation Clause in a contract using an ABS published price index.

Frequently asked questions

The Frequently Asked Questions page has answers to a number of common questions to do with price indexes and the Consumer Price Index in particular.

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 6401.0.

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