Latest release

Housing

Census of Population and Housing: Census dictionary
Reference period
2021
Mnemonic Variable Release 
BEDDNumber of bedrooms in private dwelling June 2022
BEDRDNumber of bedrooms in private dwelling (ranges) June 2022
DLODDwelling locationJune 2022
DWTDDwelling typeJune 2022
HOSDHousing suitabilityJune 2022
LLDDLandlord type June 2022
MAIDMortgage affordability indicatorJune 2022New
MREDMortgage repayments (monthly) dollar valuesJune 2022
MRERDMortgage repayments (monthly) ranges June 2022
NPDDType of non-private dwellingJune 2022
RAIDRent affordability indicatorJune 2022New
RLNPResidential status in a non-private dwellingJune 2022
RNTDRent (weekly) dollar valuesJune 2022
RNTRDRent (weekly) rangesJune 2022
STRDDwelling structureJune 2022
TENDTenure typeJune 2022
TENLLDTenure and landlord type June 2022

Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (BEDD)

Definition

This variable records the count of bedrooms in each occupied private dwelling. A private dwelling is defined in Dwelling structure (STRD) and can include caravans in caravan parks, occupied tents, and houseboats.

This variable is available as a single Count of all bedrooms (BEDD) and in ranges (BEDRD).

In standard Census products (Quickstats, Community Profiles), number of bedrooms data are generally published in the range categories for BEDRD.

Scope

Occupied private dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
00None (includes studio apartments or bedsitters)
01-291 to 29 bedrooms singly
3030 or more bedrooms
&&Not stated
@@Not applicable

Number of categories:  33

Not applicable (@@) category comprises:

  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?

How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?

How many bedrooms are there at 1 Smith Street?

If the dwelling is a bedsitter or studio, enter '0'.

More information

Number of bedrooms

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?

How many bedrooms are there at 1 Smith Street?

If the dwelling is a bedsitter or studio, enter '0'.

More information

Include any room that is defined as a bedroom, even if it is used for a different purpose, for example, as a study, office, computer room or sewing room.

Include any bedrooms created as a result of alterations and additions to the house (such as built-in verandas, extensions or cabins).

How this variable is created

This variable is created based on responses given for the Number of bedrooms question on the Census form. The responses are captured automatically from written numeric responses, or from the 'None' mark box on the paper form.

Number of bedrooms in private dwelling codes numeric responses from 0 to 29 bedrooms as reported and responses of 30 or more bedrooms are coded into the grouped category '30 or more bedrooms'.

History and changes

A question on the number of rooms/bedrooms has been included in every Australian Census since 1911. However, the question relating to number of bedrooms in a private dwelling was first asked in the 1976 Census.

The 1986 Census form asked householders to indicate the numbers of various room types within the dwelling. Only the number of bedrooms was retained in the computer record. The 1991 and 1996 censuses collected data on the number of bedrooms only.

Since the 2001 Census, respondents have been asked to write in the number of bedrooms in their dwelling rather than mark a response category. An additional 'None' mark box was added to the paper form in 2006.

In 2021, the category has been reworded from ‘None (includes bedsitters)’ to ‘None (includes studio apartments or bedsitters)’.

Data use considerations

Number of bedrooms data is commonly used to provide an indication of:

  • Dwelling size
  • Overcrowding by calculating occupancy ratios (i.e. the number of people per room/bedroom).

When calculating occupancy ratios, it is preferable to use the number of people usually resident in the home, rather than the number of people present in the household on Census Night. This data can be used with Dwelling structure (STRD) and Dwelling location (DLOD) to provide more context to the number of bedrooms. 

The data may include a small proportion of dwellings with unusually high number of bedrooms, as all numeric responses are accepted as reported.

The non-response rate for Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (BEDD) was 5.4% in 2021. This is a decrease from 7.4% in 2016. 

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (ranges) (BEDRD)
  • Residential status in a non-private dwelling (RLNP)
  • Housing suitability (HOSD)
  • Dwelling structure (STRD)
  • Dwelling location (DLOD)
  • Dwelling type (DWTD)

Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (ranges) (BEDRD)

Definition

This variable records the number of bedrooms in each occupied private dwelling in ranges. A private dwelling is defined in Dwelling structure (STRD) and can include caravans in caravan parks, occupied tents, and houseboats.

In standard Census products (Quickstats, Community Profiles) number of bedrooms data is generally published in ranges.

Number of bedrooms is also available as a single count of all bedrooms (BEDD).

Scope

Occupied private dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
0None (includes studio apartments or bedsitters)
1One bedroom
2Two bedrooms
3Three bedrooms
4Four bedrooms
5Five bedrooms
6Six bedrooms or more
&Not stated
@Not applicable

Number of categories:  9

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?

How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?

How many bedrooms are there at 1 Smith Street?

If the dwelling is a bedsitter or studio, enter '0'.

More information

Number of bedrooms

More Information

Additional information relating to the question on: How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?

How many bedrooms are there at 1 Smith Street?

If the dwelling is a bedsitter or studio, enter '0'.

More information

Include any room that is defined as a bedroom, even if it is used for a different purpose, for example, as a study, office, computer room or sewing room.

Include any bedrooms created as a result of alterations and additions to the house (such as built-in verandas, extensions or cabins).

How this variable is created

This variable is created based on responses given for the Number of bedrooms question on the Census form. The responses are captured automatically from written numeric responses, or from the 'None' mark box on the paper form.

The Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (ranges) (BEDRD) variable groups responses to this question. Responses from 0 to 5 are reported singly while responses for 6 or more bedrooms are coded into the grouped category of '6 or more bedrooms'.

History and changes

A question on the number of rooms/bedrooms has been included in every Australian Census since 1911. However, the question relating to number of bedrooms in a private dwelling was first asked in the 1976 Census.

The 1986 Census form asked householders to indicate the numbers of various room types within the dwelling. Only the number of bedrooms was retained in the computer record. The 1991 and 1996 Censuses collected data on the number of bedrooms only.

Since the 2001 Census, respondents have been asked to write in the number of bedrooms in their dwelling rather than mark a response category. An additional 'None' mark box was added to the paper form in 2006.

In 2021, the category has been reworded from ‘None (includes bedsitters)’ to ‘None (includes studio apartments or bedsitters)’.

Data use considerations

Number of bedrooms data is commonly used to provide an indication of:

  • Dwelling size
  • Overcrowding by calculating occupancy ratios (i.e. the number of people per room/bedroom).

When calculating occupancy ratios, it is preferable to use the number of people usually resident in the home, rather than the number of people present in the household on Census Night. This data can be used with Dwelling structure (STRD) and Dwelling location (DLOD) to provide more context to the number of bedrooms. 

The data may include a small proportion of dwellings with unusually high number of bedrooms, as all numeric responses are accepted as reported.

This variable is derived from the Number of bedrooms in a private dwelling (BEDD) variable. The non-response rate for Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (BEDD) was 5.4% in 2021. This is a decrease from 7.4% in 2016. 

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (BEDD)
  • Residential status in a non-private dwelling (RLNP)
  • Housing suitability (HOSD)
  • Dwelling structure (STRD)
  • Dwelling locations (DLOD)
  • Dwelling type (DWTD)

Dwelling location (DLOD)

Definition

This variable describes the location of dwellings. It classifies them into large communal locations, such as caravan parks and marinas. The majority of Private dwellings are in the ‘other’ category because they are not located within these types of communal locations.

The Dwelling structure for Private dwellings at these locations can be identified by using the variable Dwelling structure (STRD).

The term ‘residential park’ refers to caravan parks with predominantly long-term residents.

Scope

Private dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
1Caravan/residential park or camping ground
2Marina
3Manufactured home estate
4Retirement village (self-contained)
5Other
@Not applicable

Number of categories:  6

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

This variable is not collected from a question on the Census form.

How this variable is created

Information on Dwelling location is mainly sourced from the Address Register.

Dwelling location data was recorded by ABS Address Canvassing Officers in the lead up to the 2016 Census as a once-off part of establishing the Address Register as a mail-out frame for designated areas. Dwelling location was also verified or collected by ABS Field Officers during the 2016 and 2021 Census collection periods.

If the Dwelling location can not be determined it is set to 'Other'. Most Private dwellings fall into the 'Other' category for this data item.

History and changes

Collection methods 

This variable was introduced for the 1996 Census to cater for changes in the scope of Private dwellings.

For the 2006 and 2011 censuses, information regarding this variable was collected by ABS Field officers rather than being included on the Census form.

Dwelling location has been sourced from the ABS Address Register since 2016. It is verified during field and office processes.

Categories

From 2006, the description for category 1 changed from 'Caravan park' to 'Caravan/residential park or camping ground', and the description for category 4 changed from 'Accommodation for the retired or aged (self-care)' to 'Retirement village (self-contained)'.

Data use considerations

As this variable is mainly determined by the ABS Address Register, the risk of misclassifying is low.

While the misclassification of Dwelling location (DLOD) is rare, on occasion identification and amendments were made to correct a small number of dwellings. In rare cases, an establishment may fall into more than one category of dwelling location, such as a retirement village that contains manufactured homes, or a residential park that is made up of a mixture of caravans and manufactured homes. However, a dwelling can only be allocated to a single category and in these cases a determination was made during Census processing of the most appropriate category for the dwellings in question. 

Dwelling location (DLOD) does not have a non-response rate as it is sourced from the Address Register, or during Census enumeration or Processing.

Related variables and glossary terms

Dwelling type (DWTD)

Definition

This variable classifies dwellings into the following types:

  • Private dwellings (occupied and unoccupied)
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping areas

A dwelling is a structure which is intended to have people live in it, that is it was established for short-stay or long-stay accommodation.

The definitions for the dwellings that make up the following categories, are described below.

Scope

All dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
1Occupied private dwellings
2Unoccupied private dwellings
3Non-private dwellings
4Migratory
5Off-shore
6Shipping

Number of categories: 6

Category definitions

Occupied private dwellings:

An ‘Occupied’ private dwelling is a private dwelling occupied by one or more people on Census Night. Most often this is a separate house, townhouse, apartment or flat. It can also be an occupied caravan, cabin, tent or boat. The structure of a dwelling can be identified by using the variable Dwelling structure (STRD).

People staying in an Occupied private dwelling on Census Night are provided an online or paper Household form to complete. Household forms collect information about the people staying in the dwelling, their household family structure, and their housing (e.g. number of people and rooms).

The variable Dwelling location (DLOD) can be used to identify occupied private dwellings within the following establishments:

  • marinas
  • manufactured home estates
  • self-contained retirement villages
  • caravan/residential parks
  • camping grounds
Unoccupied private dwellings:

An ‘Unoccupied’ private dwelling is most often a separate house, townhouse, apartment or flat, with no one staying there on Census Night.

In addition to the above, these Unoccupied private dwellings are also included:

  • holiday homes (for owner’s use only or those rented out commercially)
  • huts and cabins (unless accommodation for seasonal workers’ quarters)
  • newly completed dwellings
  • habitable dwellings which are due for demolition or repair
  • dwellings to let

Unoccupied private dwellings in caravan or residential parks (such as holiday homes, huts and cabins), and marinas and manufactured home estates are not counted in the Census. The exception to this is the residences of owners, managers or caretakers of the establishment, and unoccupied residences in self-contained retirement villages.

Non-private dwellings (NPDs):

NPDs provide a communal or transitory type of accommodation. These are more likely to be short-stay accommodation and are only counted if occupied on Census Night. NPDs include the following:

  • hotels and motels
  • guest houses
  • prisons
  • religious and charitable institutions
  • boarding schools
  • defence establishments
  • hospitals
  • other communal dwellings

People in NPDs on Census Night are provided an individual Personal form to complete. Personal forms collect information about the person and their residential status within the establishment, but no information on the dwelling or household family structure. 

Only people are counted at NPDs, not rooms, cells, units or beds. If there are long-term owners, managers or caretakers who work and live there, extra Private dwellings (PDs) are added.

Migratory:

People enumerated on an overnight journey by plane, train or bus cannot be allocated a dwelling type. This category exists for data processing and data querying purposes only.

Off-shore:

This includes dwellings which exist on off-shore oil rigs and drilling platforms.

Shipping:

This includes people on ‘vessels’ travelling between ports in Australian waters i.e. ships, cargo vessels, passenger liners, ocean-going passenger or car ferries and dredges. Excluded are foreign-owned cargo vessels and those bound for overseas.

Question(s) from the Census form

This variable is not collected from a question on the Census form.

How this variable is created

This variable is either inherited from the existing ABS Address Register (see ABS Address Register, User’s Guide) or created by Census field staff on a case by case basis. Census field staff check with some areas and establishments prior to, and after Census Night to confirm dwelling information. New dwellings may be discovered through this process and added to the the count of Census dwellings, along with any updates to dwelling types for existing addresses.

The occupancy for the majority of dwellings in Australia is determined by the returned Census form:

  • a form with one or more people present on Census Night is set to 'occupied'
  • a form with all usual residents away on Census Night is set to 'unoccupied'.

Dwellings from which no form is received have their occupancy determined by using a number of sources of information, including:

  • ‘not at home’ forms submitted by residents through ABS online services
  • residents who contacted the ABS with information
  • intelligence from Census field staff making follow up visits to dwellings after Census Night
  • other requests and point of contacts with dwellings.

Where these methods cannot determine dwelling occupancy, outcomes from a newly introduced Census Occupancy Model are used.

History and changes

This topic has been included in every Census release.

Since 2006:

  • This data has been collected by ABS field officers rather than as part of the Census form.
  • The Off-shore category was implemented for off-shore rigs and drilling platforms such as those off northern Australia. It also included people enumerated aboard ships in Australian waters, but since then, these people have been included as enumerated in the Shipping category.
  • Unoccupied dwellings in self-contained retirement villages have been coded to Unoccupied private dwelling.

Data use considerations

The ABS does its best to have accurate Dwelling type information. However it can sometimes be difficult to determine Dwelling type for dwellings with mixed occupancy or where we were not able to make contact with the residents to confirm the type of dwelling.

Dwelling Type (DWTD) does not have a non-response rate as it is sourced from the ABS Address Register or created during Census enumeration. 
 

Examples of mixed occupancy

 Private dwellingNon-private dwelling
Self-contained apartmentsLong-term private apartment accommodationShort-term hotel-style accommodation
Aged care and retirement villagesPrivate self-contained dwellingsCommunal accommodation with supported nursing care

 

Examples of misclassified dwelling types

Some non-private dwellings such as group homes for the disabled or convents and monasteries may not be easily identifiable as Non-private dwellings and may be treated as Private dwellings.

There may be misclassification between Unoccupied private dwellings and out-of-scope Private dwellings; non-residential premises and construction sites may have dwellings that are not habitable but are identified as Unoccupied private dwellings.

Related variables and glossary terms

Housing suitability (HOSD)

Definition

This variable is a measure of housing utilisation based on a comparison of the number of bedrooms in a dwelling with a series of household demographics, such as:

  • the number of usual residents
  • their relationship to each other
  • age
  • sex.

The criteria are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard. It can be used to identify if a dwelling is either under or over utilised.

Scope

Occupied private dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
01Four or more extra bedrooms needed
02Three extra bedrooms needed
03Two extra bedrooms needed
04One extra bedroom needed
05No bedrooms needed or spare
06One bedroom spare
07Two bedrooms spare
08Three bedrooms spare
09Four or more bedrooms spare
10Unable to determine
&&Not stated
@@Not applicable

Number of categories: 12

Not applicable (@@) category comprises:

  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s
  • Visitor only and Non-classifiable households

Question(s) from the Census form

Is the person: Male, Female, Non-binary sex

Is the person: Male or Female

Is Person 1:

If these options do not describe the person, they can Select something other than male or female.

Male

Female

What is the person’s date of birth and age?

What is the person’s date of birth and age?

What is Person 1's date of birth?

If date of birth is not known, please select 'Don't know date of birth' and provide Person 1's age.

More information

Day Month Year

OR

Don't know date of birth

Age

Example

Housing suitability example - 18 March 1993, 28 years response given

What is Person 1's date of birth?

If date of birth is not known, please select 'Don't know date of birth' and provide Person 1's age.

More information

Day Month Year

18 March 1993

OR

Don't know date of birth

Age

28 years

Example

Housing suitability example - Don't know date of birth response selected

What is Person 1's date of birth?

If date of birth is not known, please select 'Don't know date of birth' and provide Person 1's age.

More information

Day Month Year

OR

Don't know date of birth (selected response)

Age

years

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: What is Person 1's date of birth?

What is Person 1's date of birth?

If date of birth is not known, please select 'Don't know date of birth' and provide Person 1's age.

More information

It is important to note:
•Date of birth is the date that the person was born.
•Age is required only if the person's date of birth is not known. Please report age at Census night – Tuesday 10 August 2021.

If the person is less than one year old and their date of birth is not known, enter '0' in the age box.

What is the person’s relationship to Person 1/Person 2?

What is the person’s relationship to Person 1/Person 2?

What is Person 2's relationship to Person 1?

Examples of other relationships: Son-in-law, Grand-daughter, Uncle, Boarder.

More information

Husband or wife of Person 1

De facto partner of Person 1

Child of Person 1

Stepchild of Person 1

Brother or sister of Person 1

Unrelated flatmate or co-tenant of Person 1

Other relationship to Person 1 (please specify)

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: What is Person 2's relationship to Person 1?

What is Person 2's relationship to Person 1?

Examples of other relationships: Son-in-law, Grand-daughter, Uncle, Boarder.

More information

If more than one response applies, select only the option that shows the relationship that most closely applies.

How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?

How many bedrooms are there in this dwelling?

How many bedrooms are there at 1 Smith Street?

If the dwelling is a bedsitter or studio, enter '0'.

More information

Number of bedrooms

More information

Additional instructions relating to the question on: How many bedrooms are there at 1 Smith Street?

How many bedrooms are there at 1 Smith Street?

If the dwelling is a bedsitter or studio, enter '0'.

More information

Include any room that is defined as a bedroom, even if it is used for a different purpose, for example, as a study, office, computer room or sewing room.

Include any bedrooms created as a result of alterations and additions to the house (such as built-in verandas, extensions or cabins).

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from responses to housing and household demographic questions from the Census form. The criteria used to derive the variable are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard for housing appropriateness and are sensitive to both household size and composition. The measure assesses the bedroom requirements of a household by specifying that: 

  • there should be no more than two people per bedroom
  • children less than five years of age of different sexes may reasonably share a bedroom
  • children less than 18 years of age and of the same sex may reasonably share a bedroom
  • single household members 18 years and over and parents or couples should have a separate bedroom
  • a lone person household may reasonably occupy a bedsitter or studio.

The Housing suitability variable compares the number of bedrooms required with the actual number of bedrooms in the dwelling. It can be used to analyse the under or over utilisation of dwellings and the dwelling's suitability for the resident household.

History and changes

The data has been available through customised data requests prior to the 2016 Census. In 2016, this variable was first reported.

No changes have been made for 2021.

Data use considerations

There is no single standard measure for Housing suitability. However, the Canadian National Occupancy Standard is widely used in Australia and internationally.

This variable does not have a non-response rate as it is created during Census processing by using responses from more than one question on the Census form. 

Related variables and glossary terms

Landlord type (LLDD)

Definition

This variable records the landlord type of rented dwellings. It applies to all occupied private dwellings that are being rented, including being occupied rent free. A private dwelling is defined in Dwelling structure (STRD) and can include caravans in caravan parks, occupied tents, and houseboats.

Rented dwellings are classified in Tenure type (TEND).

Scope

Occupied private dwellings being rented (including being occupied rent free)

CodeCategory
10Real estate agent
20State or territory housing authority
21Community housing provider
31Person not in the same household - parent/other relative
32Person not in the same household - other person
40Owner/Manager of a residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
51Employer – Government (includes Defence Housing Australia)
52Employer – other employer
&&Not stated
@@Not applicable

Number of categories:  10

Not applicable (@@) category comprises:

  • Occupied private dwellings with Tenure type (TEND) of owned outright, owned with a mortgage, purchased under a shared equity scheme, occupied under a life tenure scheme, other and not stated
  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

Is this dwelling:

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Landlord type example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Landlord type example - rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Landlord type example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Who is this dwelling being rented from?

Who is this dwelling being rented from?

Who is 1 Smith Street rented from?

For all state/territory specific Government housing authorities, select ‘Government Housing Authority/Housing Department (Public Housing)’.

Some examples of Government housing authorities are: DCJ Housing (NSW), HousingVic, Department of Housing and Public Works (Qld), Department of Communities (WA), Housing SA, Housing Tasmania, Department of Local Government, Housing and Community Development (NT), Housing ACT, Aboriginal housing authorities.

Community Housing Providers are not-for-profit organisations that provide affordable rental housing to people on lower incomes. This includes housing co-operatives.

• Rental type
• Real estate agent
• Government Housing Authority/Housing Department (Public Housing)
• Community housing provider
• Parent or other relative not in this dwelling
• Other person not in this dwelling
• Manager of a residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
• Employer – government (including Defence Housing Australia)
• Employer – private

How this variable is created

This variable is created based on responses from the Tenure type and Landlord type questions on the Census form.

Only one response can be given for this item. If respondents provide more than one response to this question in error, the first response is used.

History and changes

The question about landlord type was first asked in the 1954 Census and has been included in every subsequent Census.

In 1971, the response categories increased to three: State Housing Authority; Employer; and Other landlord. The number of response categories continued to increase from three (from 1971 until 1991) to seven (in 1996 and 2001) and then to eight for subsequent censuses.

For 2021, instructional text has been added for the Community housing provider category and the response order changed to place this category closer to the top. Additionally, the following categories have been amended as follows:

20162021
CodeCategoryCodeCategory
60Housing co-operative/community/church group21Community housing provider
40Residential park (includes caravan parks and marinas)40Owner/manager of a residential park (includes caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
51Employer - Government (includes Defence Housing Authority)51Employer - Government (includes Defence Housing Australia) 

Data use considerations

Landlord type allows data to be produced for studies of the socioeconomic characteristics of different tenants. It also allows for comparisons with residents in privately owned accommodation.

This data can be used with Dwelling structure (STRD) and Dwelling location (DLOD) to provide more context to the Landlord type.

The non-response rate for Landlord type (LLDD) was 0.9% in 2021. This is a decrease from 1.8% in 2016. 

Related variables and glossary terms

Mortgage affordability indicator (MAID)

Definition

This variable allocates an in scope household to one of two categories:

  • mortgage repayments less than or equal to 30% of household income
  • mortgage repayments more than 30% of household income.

Scope

Occupied private dwellings owned with a mortgage or purchased under a shared equity scheme  

Categories

CodeCategory
1Households where mortgage repayments are less than or equal to 30% of household income
2Households where mortgage repayments are more than 30% of household income
3Unable to be determined
@Not applicable

Number of categories: 4

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Visitor only households
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s
  • Other non-classifiable dwellings
  • Tenure type (TEND) - Owned outright, Rented, Occupied rent-free, Occupied under a life tenure scheme, Other tenure type, Not stated, Not applicable

Question(s) from the Census form

What is the total of all income the person usually receives?

What is the total of all income the person usually receives?

What is the total of all income Person 1 usually receives?

Do not deduct: tax, superannuation contributions, amounts salary sacrificed, or any other automatic deductions.
Include:
• Wages and salaries
• Regular overtime
• Commissions and bonuses
• Government pensions, benefits and allowances
• Profit or loss from:
• Unincorporated business/farm (e.g. sole traders, partnerships)
• Rental properties
• Other income from:
• Superannuation
• Child support
• Dividends from shares
• Interest
• Workers’ compensation
• Any other income sources
• More information
• Person's usual total income

$3,500 or more per week
($182,000 or more per year)

$3,000 - $3,499 per week
($156,000 - $181,999 per year)

$2,000 - $2,999 per week
($104,000 - $155,999 per year)

$1,750 - $1,999 per week
($91,000 - $103,999 per year)

$1,500 - $1,749 per week
($78,000 - $90,999 per year)

$1,250 - $1,499 per week
($65,000 - $77,999 per year)

$1,000 - $1,249 per week
($52,000 - $64,999 per year)

$800 - $999 per week
($41,600 - $51,999 per year)

$650 - $799 per week
($33,800 - $41,599 per year)

$500 - $649 per week
($26,000 - $33,799 per year)

$400 - $499 per week
($20,800 - $25,999 per year)

$300 - $399 per week
($15,600 - $20,799 per year)

$150 - $299 per week
($7,800 - $15,599 per year)

$1 - $149 per week
($1 - $7,799 per year)

$0 or nil income

Negative income

More Information

Additional information relating to the question on: What is the total of all income the person usually receives?

What is the total of all income Person 1 usually receives?

Do not deduct: tax, superannuation contributions, amounts salary sacrificed, or any other automatic deductions.
Include:
• Wages and salaries
• Regular overtime
• Commissions and bonuses
• Government pensions, benefits and allowances
• Profit or loss from:
• Unincorporated business/farm (e.g. sole traders, partnerships)
• Rental properties
• Other income from:
• Superannuation
• Child support
• Dividends from shares
• Interest
• Workers’ compensation
• Any other income sources

More information
Information from this question provides an indication of living standards in different areas.

Count total income from all sources, not just a regular wage or salary. Total income is the person's personal income before any tax, superannuation contributions, amounts salary sacrificed or other automatic payments are deducted.

If the person is currently affected by COVID lockdown restrictions, report the total income they usually received before the lockdown began.

Government pensions, benefits and allowances
Include:
• Age Pension
• Family Tax Benefit
• Parenting Payment
• Disability Support Pension
• JobSeeker Payment
• Youth and student allowances
• Carer Allowance
• Any other government pension, benefit or allowance
Note: remember to include the total value of any pensions, benefits and other government allowances that the person is currently receiving.

Business owners and self-employed people
Business owners and self-employed people should include the total profit or loss from the operations of their business, or their share of the business in a partnership.

The profit or loss of a business is calculated as its gross receipts less its operation expenses (such as rent, materials and fuel costs).

If the person has other sources of income, such as wages or government allowances, these should be added to their business income to calculate their total income from all sources.

Other income
For interest and dividends, calculate the amount the person expects to receive in a full year and add this to their total yearly income from other sources; divide by 26 to work out a fortnightly amount; or, divide by 52 to work out a weekly amount.

For other regular income, such as superannuation or child support, include the amount the person currently receives for one week or fortnight, or calculate the amount they expect to receive in a full year and add this to their total yearly income from other sources.

Include Private Pensions and Workers Compensation under Other income.

Negative income
Negative income occurs when the operating expenses are higher than the gross receipts (or revenue) of a self-employed person, business or a rental property. A person has negative income if these losses are greater than any income, benefits or allowances received from other sources.

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

Is this dwelling:

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.
• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Mortgage affordability indicator example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Mortgage affordability indicator example - occupied rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Mortgage affordability indicator example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

Total dwelling payments
$
.00 per week
OR

$
.00 per fortnight
OR

$
.00 per month
OR

$0 or Nil payments

More information

Additional instructions relating to the question on: How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

If exact amount is not known, please provide your best estimate.

How this variable is created

The Mortgage affordability indicator is calculated by dividing Mortgage repayments (MRED) by an imputed household income. Both variables are expressed as single dollar values. The calculation determines whether mortgage repayments are:

  • less than or equal to 30% of household income
  • more than 30% of household income

The Census collects the income of each person in the household aged 15 years or over in ranges. To sum these personal income values to calculate a household income, a specific dollar amount is allocated to each person. A median dollar value for each range, derived using data from the Survey of Income and Housing, is used for this purpose. For more information about this survey see the Survey of Income and Housing, User Guide. 

Mortgage repayments are already collected in a single dollar amount.

Mortgage affordability indicator is coded to ‘Unable to be determined’ where:

  • Mortgage (monthly) dollar value (MRED) is Not stated
  • at least one resident aged 15 and over was either not at home on Census Night or did not state their Total personal income (INCP)
  • no residents aged 15 and over who were at home on Census Night stated their Total personal income (INCP)

History and changes

This is a new variable for 2021. QuickStats will use the Mortgage affordability indicator variable, and therefore comparisons shouldn’t be made with previous Census data in QuickStats.

In previous censuses, a measure of mortgage affordability could only be obtained from QuickStats. This measure was different from MAID as it used all occupied private dwellings whether owned outright, owned with a mortgage or rented, as the denominator population.

MAID only applies to dwellings owned with a mortgage or purchased under a shared equity scheme, which is a more accurate representation of the population to measure mortgage affordability.

Data use considerations

As housing costs are usually a major component of total living costs they are often analysed in relation to income and referred to as a housing affordability ratio. However, comparisons using these measures are subject to certain limitations.

As described above, the Census collects personal income in ranges. For this purpose, a single median value for each income range is calculated. It should also be noted that individuals may tend to understate their incomes on the Census, compared with the amounts that would be reported in surveys designed specifically to measure incomes. As a result of these limitations, the use of Census imputed incomes in the calculation of each household’s housing costs to income ratio may significantly overstate the true proportion of households with mortgage repayments greater than 30% of income.

Mortgage repayments may be greater than 30% of income for a number of reasons, and do not necessarily indicate being in financial stress.

  • Mortgage repayments normally include both an interest component and a principal or capital component. For some analyses, repayments of principal may be considered a form of saving rather than a housing cost.
  • High mortgage repayments may reflect a choice to buy a more expensive home, for example in an area that is close to their place of employment, or a preference for a relatively high standard of housing compared with other consumption possibilities.
  • Some households choose to pay more than the minimum required payment, to pay off a mortgage faster.

This variable does not have a non-response rate as it is created during Census processing by using responses from more than one question on the Census form. 

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Tenure type (TEND)
  • Total personal income (weekly) (INCP)
  • Mortgage repayment (monthly) (MRED)

Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values (MRED)

Definition

This variable records the monthly mortgage repayments being paid by a household for the dwelling in which they were counted on Census Night. It is applicable to occupied private dwellings. A private dwelling is defined in Dwelling structure (STRD) and can include caravans in caravan parks, occupied tents, and houseboats.

The Census collects this information in single dollar values. For practical purposes this information is recoded to a specific number of ranges for standard Census products (such as QuickStats and Community Profiles). The ranges are listed in Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges (MRERD).

Scope

Occupied private dwellings that are owned with a mortgage (including being purchased under a shared equity scheme)

Categories

CodeCategory
0000 - 9999$0 to $9,999 singly
&&&&Not stated
@@@@Not applicable

Number of categories:  10,002

Not applicable (@@@@) category comprises:

  • Occupied private dwellings with Tenure type (TEND) of owned outright, rented, being occupied rent free, being occupied under a life tenure scheme, other and not stated
  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

Is this dwelling:

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.
• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Landlord type example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Landlord type example - rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Landlord type example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

Total dwelling payments
$
.00 per week
OR

$
.00 per fortnight
OR

$
.00 per month
OR

$0 or Nil payments

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

If exact amount is not known, please provide your best estimate.

How this variable is created

Data for this variable is derived from the Tenure type and Housing costs questions on the Census form. Household repayments data is automatically captured from numeric text responses.

History and changes

The question relating to Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values was first asked for the 1976 Census, though in some previous years this variable has been referred to as ‘Housing loan repayments (monthly)’. Since 2011, Nil repayments is recorded as $0 in Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values and as a separate category called ‘Nil repayments’ in Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges. Prior to 2011 a response of nil was coded as ‘Not Stated’.

No changes have been made for 2021.

Data use considerations

The data in these variables is important for the analysis of home ownership and for providing benchmark data for evaluating housing needs, housing finance and housing demand.

Processing Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values is subject to some recognition error for responses provided on paper Census forms, particularly when responses incorrectly include cents and the decimal point is missing or unclear. Some high or low values when combined with income may form unlikely combinations. While the data is subject to data assurance checks to ensure an acceptable level of quality, numeric responses are accepted as reported by the respondents on the form.

The non-response rate for Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values (MRED) was 6.0% in 2021. This is an increase from 4.2% in 2016.

Related variables and glossary terms

Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges (MRERD)

Definition

This variable records the mortgage repayments being paid by a household in ranges. It is applicable to occupied private dwellings on Census Night. A private dwelling is defined in Dwelling structure (STRD) and can include caravans in caravan parks, occupied tents, and houseboats.

For practical purposes this information is recoded to a specific number of ranges for standard Census products (such as QuickStats and Community Profiles).

The Census also collects this information in single dollar values (MRED).

Scope

Occupied private dwellings that are owned with a mortgage (including being purchased under a shared equity scheme)

Categories

CodeCategory
01Nil repayments
02$1-$149
03$150-$299
04$300-$449
05$450-$599
06$600-$799
07$800-$999
08$1,000-$1,199
09$1,200-$1,399
10$1,400-$1,599
11$1,600-$1,799
12$1,800-$1,999
13$2,000-$2,199
14$2,200-$2,399
15$2,400-$2,599
16$2,600-$2,799
17$2,800-$2,999
18$3,000-$3,499
19$3,500-$3,999
20$4,000-$4,999
21$5,000 and over
&&Not stated
@@Not applicable

Number of categories:  23

Not applicable (@@) category comprises:

  • Occupied private dwellings with Tenure type (TEND) of owned outright, rented, being occupied rent free, being occupied under a life tenure scheme, other and not stated
  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

Is this dwelling:

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.
• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges example - rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

Total dwelling payments
$
.00 per week
OR

$
.00 per fortnight
OR

$
.00 per month
OR

$0 or Nil payments

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

If exact amount is not known, please provide your best estimate.

How this variable is created

Data for this variable is derived from the Tenure type and Housing costs questions on the Census form. Household repayments data is automatically captured from numeric text responses.

History and changes

The question relating to Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values was first asked for the 1976 Census, though in some previous years this variable has been referred to as ‘Housing loan repayments (monthly)’. Since 2011, Nil repayments is recorded as $0 in Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values and as a separate category called ‘Nil repayments’ in Mortgage repayments (monthly) ranges. Prior to 2011 a response of nil was coded as ‘Not Stated’.

No changes have been made for 2021.

Data use considerations

The data in these variables is important for the analysis of home ownership and for providing benchmark data for evaluating housing needs, housing finance and housing demand.

Processing Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values is subject to some recognition error for responses provided on paper Census forms, particularly when responses incorrectly include cents and the decimal point is missing or unclear. Some high or low values when combined with income may form unlikely combinations. While the data is subject to data assurance checks to ensure an acceptable level of quality, numeric responses are accepted as reported by the respondents on the form.

This variable is derived from Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values (MRED). The non-response rate for Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values (MRED) was 6.0% in 2021. This is an increase from 4.2% in 2016.

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values (MRED)
  • Dwelling structure (STRD)
  • Household composition (HHCD)
  • Tenure type (TEND)
  • Mortgage affordability indicator (MAID)
  • Rent affordability indicator (RAID)

Type of non-private dwelling (NPDD)

Definition

This variable classifies the Type of non-private dwelling in which people were counted on Census Night. Non-private dwellings (NPDs) are establishments which provide a communal and often short-term type of accommodation.

'Other and non-classifiable' includes all other types of NPDs not listed, including ski lodges and youth or backpacker hostels.

Scope

Non-private dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
01Hotel, motel, bed and breakfast
02Nurses’ quarters
03Staff quarters
04Boarding house, private hotel
05Boarding school
06Residential college, hall of residence
07Public hospital (not psychiatric)
08Private hospital (not psychiatric)
09Psychiatric hospital or institution
10Hostel for the disabled
11Nursing home
12Accommodation for the retired or aged (not self-contained)
13Hostel for homeless, night shelter, refuge
14Child care institution
15Corrective institution for children
16Other welfare institution
17Prison, corrective institution for adults
18Immigration detention centre
19Convent, monastery, etc
20Other and non-classifiable
&&Not stated
@@Not applicable

Number of categories:  22

Not applicable (@@) category comprises:

  • Occupied and unoccupied private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

This variable is not collected from a question on the Census form.

How this variable is created

The types of Non-private dwelling is sourced from the ABS Address Register. For information on how the Address Register is maintained, refer to ABS Address Register, Users' Guide.

It is reviewed by Census enumeration management staff prior to Census Night and verified by Census Field Officers after calls or visits to the establishments. Non-private dwellings can also be created or have their details modified throughout this time.

History and changes

Information on the types of Non-private dwellings that people are located in on Census Night has been collected in every Census since 1911.

Since the 2006 Census, additional response options were introduced to identify immigration detention centres, youth or backpacker hostels and ski lodges.

Since 2016, NPD type is sourced from the ABS Address Register and is updated as needed from information collected by ABS field officers during enumeration.

The output categories for this classification were unchanged for 2021.

Data use considerations

Hotels (01) and private hotels (04) are categorised differently within Type of non-private dwelling (NPDD). This is mainly because of differences in length of residency, service provision, and how the hotel or private hotel classifies itself.

‘Accommodation for the retired or aged (not self-contained)’ (12) is accommodation where meals are provided.

Self-contained retirement villages where the residents live independently are not classified as Non-private dwellings. These are Occupied private dwellings and can be identified by the variable Dwelling location (DLOD).

'Other welfare institutions' (16) have increased in 2021. Address lists are sourced from state and territory governments and non-government organisations to identify accommodation for the homeless. These lists were more comprehensive in the 2021 Census than in previous censuses.

The 2021 Census also requested tenure information from these list providers so that addresses could be more accurately classified as 'Hostels for the homeless' (13) or 'Other welfare institutions' (16). Short-term accommodation was coded as 'Hostels for the homeless' (13) while medium-term accommodation/transitional housing and long-term accommodation was coded as 'Other welfare institutions' (16). 

The coding is based on the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) definition of Supported accommodation type that also informs the Supported Accommodation flag that indicates homelessness.

Type of non-private dwelling (NPDD) does not have a non-response rate as it is sourced from the ABS Address Register

Related variables and glossary terms

Rent affordability indicator (RAID)

Definition

This variable allocates an in scope household to one of two categories:

  • rent payments less than or equal to 30% of household income
  • rent payments more than 30% of household income.

Scope

Occupied private dwellings being rented

Categories

CodeCategory
1Households where rent repayments are less than or equal to 30% of household income
2Households where rent repayments are more than 30% of household income
3Unable to be determined
@Not applicable

Number of categories:  4

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Visitor only households
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s
  • Other non-classifiable dwellings
  • Tenure type (TEND) - Owned outright, Occupied rent-free, Occupied under a life tenure scheme, Other tenure type, Not stated, Not applicable

Question(s) from the Census form

What is the total of all income the person usually receives?

What is the total of all income the person usually receives?

What is the total of all income Person 1 usually receives?

Do not deduct: tax, superannuation contributions, amounts salary sacrificed, or any other automatic deductions.
Include:
• Wages and salaries
• Regular overtime
• Commissions and bonuses
• Government pensions, benefits and allowances
• Profit or loss from:
• Unincorporated business/farm (e.g. sole traders, partnerships)
• Rental properties
• Other income from:
• Superannuation
• Child support
• Dividends from shares
• Interest
• Workers’ compensation
• Any other income sources
• More information
• Person's usual total income

$3,500 or more per week
($182,000 or more per year)

$3,000 - $3,499 per week
($156,000 - $181,999 per year)

$2,000 - $2,999 per week
($104,000 - $155,999 per year)

$1,750 - $1,999 per week
($91,000 - $103,999 per year)

$1,500 - $1,749 per week
($78,000 - $90,999 per year)

$1,250 - $1,499 per week
($65,000 - $77,999 per year)

$1,000 - $1,249 per week
($52,000 - $64,999 per year)

$800 - $999 per week
($41,600 - $51,999 per year)

$650 - $799 per week
($33,800 - $41,599 per year)

$500 - $649 per week
($26,000 - $33,799 per year)

$400 - $499 per week
($20,800 - $25,999 per year)

$300 - $399 per week
($15,600 - $20,799 per year)

$150 - $299 per week
($7,800 - $15,599 per year)

$1 - $149 per week
($1 - $7,799 per year)

$0 or nil income

Negative income

More Information

Additional information relating to the question on: What is the total of all income the person usually receives?

What is the total of all income Person 1 usually receives?
Do not deduct: tax, superannuation contributions, amounts salary sacrificed, or any other automatic deductions.
Include:
• Wages and salaries
• Regular overtime
• Commissions and bonuses
• Government pensions, benefits and allowances
• Profit or loss from:
• Unincorporated business/farm (e.g. sole traders, partnerships)
• Rental properties
• Other income from:
• Superannuation
• Child support
• Dividends from shares
• Interest
• Workers’ compensation
• Any other income sources

More information
Information from this question provides an indication of living standards in different areas.

Count total income from all sources, not just a regular wage or salary. Total income is the person's personal income before any tax, superannuation contributions, amounts salary sacrificed or other automatic payments are deducted.

If the person is currently affected by COVID lockdown restrictions, report the total income they usually received before the lockdown began.

Government pensions, benefits and allowances
Include:
• Age Pension
• Family Tax Benefit
• Parenting Payment
• Disability Support Pension
• JobSeeker Payment
• Youth and student allowances
• Carer Allowance
• Any other government pension, benefit or allowance
Note: remember to include the total value of any pensions, benefits and other government allowances that the person is currently receiving.

Business owners and self-employed people
Business owners and self-employed people should include the total profit or loss from the operations of their business, or their share of the business in a partnership.

The profit or loss of a business is calculated as its gross receipts less its operation expenses (such as rent, materials and fuel costs).

If the person has other sources of income, such as wages or government allowances, these should be added to their business income to calculate their total income from all sources.

Other income
For interest and dividends, calculate the amount the person expects to receive in a full year and add this to their total yearly income from other sources; divide by 26 to work out a fortnightly amount; or, divide by 52 to work out a weekly amount.

For other regular income, such as superannuation or child support, include the amount the person currently receives for one week or fortnight, or calculate the amount they expect to receive in a full year and add this to their total yearly income from other sources.

Include Private Pensions and Workers Compensation under Other income.

Negative income
Negative income occurs when the operating expenses are higher than the gross receipts (or revenue) of a self-employed person, business or a rental property. A person has negative income if these losses are greater than any income, benefits or allowances received from other sources.

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

What is the total of all income the person usually receives?

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.
• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Rent affordability indicator example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Rent affordability indicator example - occupied rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Rent affordability indicator example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

Total dwelling payments
$
.00 per week
OR

$
.00 per fortnight
OR

$
.00 per month
OR

$0 or Nil payments

More information

Additional instructions relating to the question on: How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

If exact amount is not known, please provide your best estimate.

How this variable is created

The Rent affordability indicator is calculated by dividing rent payments (RNTD) by an imputed household income. Both variables are expressed as single dollar values. The calculation determines whether rent payments are:

  • less than or equal to 30% of household income
  • more than 30% of household income

The Census collects the income of each person in the household aged 15 years or over in ranges. To sum these personal income values to calculate a household income, a specific dollar amount is allocated to each person. A median dollar value for each range, derived using data from the Survey of Income and Housing, is used for this purpose. For more information about this survey see the Survey of Income and Housing, User Guide.

Rent payments are already collected in a single dollar amount.

Rent affordability indicator is coded to ‘Unable to be determined’ where:

  • Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD) is Not stated
  • at least one resident aged 15 and over was either not at home on Census Night or did not state their Total personal income (INCP)
  • no residents aged 15 and over who were at home on Census Night stated their Total personal income (INCP)

History and changes

This is a new variable for 2021. QuickStats will use the Rent affordability indicator (RAID) variable, and therefore comparisons shouldn’t be made with previous Census data in QuickStats.

In previous censuses, a measure of rental affordability could only be obtained from QuickStats. This measure was different from RAID as it used all occupied private dwellings whether owned outright, owned with a mortgage or rented, as the denominator population.

RAID only applies to dwellings being rented, which is a more accurate representation of the population to measure rental affordability.

Data use considerations

As housing costs are usually a major component of total living costs they are often analysed in relation to income, and referred to as a housing affordability ratio. However, comparisons using these measures are subject to certain limitations. As described above, the Census collects personal income in ranges. For this purpose, a single median value for each income range is calculated. It should also be noted that individuals may tend to understate their incomes on the Census, compared with the amounts that would be reported in surveys designed specifically to measure incomes. As a result of these limitations, the use of Census imputed incomes in the calculation of each household’s housing costs to income ratio may significantly overstate the true proportion of households with rent payments greater than 30% of income.

Households are often reimbursed some of their housing costs, but these reimbursements may not be offset in housing costs reported in the Census but included instead in income. Employer subsidies and Commonwealth Rent Assistance (CRA) are examples where the housing costs to income ratio is significantly affected by the default treatment of these amounts in Census reporting. This is particularly important when comparing ratios for households in public housing with those who are in receipt of CRA.

Rent payments greater than 30% of income may not necessarily indicate that a household is in financial stress.

  • Some households may choose to live in an area with high property values because it is close to their place of employment or they prefer a relatively high standard of housing compared with other consumption possibilities.
  • Higher income households may be able to spend more of their income on housing without this affecting their ability to pay for other costs of living. Lower income households may have less choice and capacity in this regard. For this reason, housing affordability ratios, such as this, are usually limited to lower income households.

This variable does not have a non-response rate as it is created during Census processing by using responses from more than one question on the Census form.

Related variables and glossary terms

Residential status in a non-private dwelling (RLNP)

Definition

This variable describes the residential status of each person in a non-private dwelling. It records whether people enumerated in non-private dwellings (such as motels, hospitals and colleges) are staying there as:

  • members of staff of the accommodation (e.g. owner, proprietor, porter, cook, teacher, warden, family of owner or family of staff)
  • residents
  • guests
  • patients
  • inmates.

Housing and family relationship information is not available for people in non-private dwellings because they are counted using Personal forms.

Scope

All persons in a non-private dwelling on Census Night

Categories

CodeCategory
1Owner, proprietor, staff and family
2Guest, patient, inmate, other resident
&Not stated
@Not applicable
VOverseas visitor

Number of categories:  5

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Persons in occupied private dwellings
  • Persons in migratory, off-shore or shipping SA1s

See Understanding supplementary codes for more information.

Question(s) from the Census form

What is the person’s residential status in this dwelling?

What is the person’s residential status in this dwelling?

What is Person 1's residential status in this dwelling?

For a person staying in accommodation such as a hotel, hostel, boarding house, hospital, nursing home, or staff or student quarters on the night of Tuesday 10 August 2021, select one of the following:

More information

Guest

Patient

Inmate

Resident

Owner, proprietor or manager

Staff (e.g. porter, cook, teacher, warden)

Family of owner, proprietor, manager or staff

Other

More information

Additional information relating to the question: What is the person’s residential status in this dwelling?

What is Person 1's residential status in this dwelling?

For a person staying in accommodation such as a hotel, hostel, boarding house, hospital, nursing home, or staff or student quarters on the night of Tuesday 10 August 2021, select one of the following:

More information

This question is asked of people who spent Census night in a non-private dwelling (e.g. at hotels, hostels and nursing homes, religious and charitable institutions, boarding schools, defence establishments, hospitals and other communal dwellings).

Where a non-private dwelling is for staff accommodation, only those people operating the staff accommodation should report as an owner, proprietor, staff or family. Those people who are not operating the accommodation (e.g. nurses, miners) should select 'Resident'.

Please select the option that most closely applies to the person.

How this variable is created

This variable is collected through the Census Personal form. Data is captured from the Residential status in this dwelling question, and responses are captured in 8 separate mark box responses. These responses are then grouped into two output categories.

History and changes

A question on status in a non-private dwelling was first asked in the 1976 Census and has been asked for every Census since then.

No changes have been made for 2021.

Data use considerations

Residential status in a non-private dwelling is only applicable to persons who were in a non-private dwelling on Census Night and were enumerated on a Census Personal form.

The non-response rate for Residential status in a non-private dwelling (RLNP) was 42.0% in 2021. This is an increase from 27.6% in 2016. Non-response is generally higher for persons who were staying at a non-private dwelling on Census Night than those counted in an occupied private dwelling.

The higher percentage of non-response may be related to COVID-19, the uptake of the online form and the introduction of a new pathway to complete a Census form without receiving Census material in the mail. COVID-19 related restrictions limited the ability to enumerate non-private dwellings using the Personal Form. Additionally, some people staying in non-private dwellings accessed the Household form rather than the Personal form using the new pathway to the Census website. The Household form does not capture details on NPD type and Residential status that are collected on Personal Forms.

Related variables and glossary terms

Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD)

Definition

This variable records the individual dollar amounts of rent paid by households on a weekly basis for the dwelling in which they were counted on Census Night. A private dwelling is defined in Dwelling structure (STRD) and can include caravans in caravan parks, occupied tents, and houseboats.  

In standard Census products (Quickstats, Community profiles), ranges are used rather than individual dollar amounts. The ranges are listed in Rent (weekly) ranges (RNTRD).

Scope

Occupied private dwellings being rented

Categories

CodeCategory
0001-9999$1 to $9,999 singly
&&&&Not stated
@@@@Not applicable

Number of categories:  10,001

Not applicable (@@@@) category comprises:

  • Occupied private dwellings with Tenure type (TEND) of Owned outright, Owned with a mortgage, Being purchased under a shared equity scheme, Being occupied under a life tenure scheme, Occupied rent free, Other and Not stated
  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

Is this dwelling:

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.
• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Rent (weekly) dollar values example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Rent (weekly) dollar values example - rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Rent (weekly) dollar values example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

Total dwelling payments
$
.00 per week
OR

$
.00 per fortnight
OR

$
.00 per month
OR

$0 or Nil payments

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

If exact amount is not known, please provide your best estimate.

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from the Tenure type and Household payments questions on the Census form.

Household payments data is automatically captured from numeric text responses. If rental payment responses are reported as a fortnightly or monthly figure they are derived to a weekly figure. Responses to the tenure type question are used to determine whether payments are recorded as rent or mortgage repayments.

History and changes

Information on how much rent is paid for a private dwelling has been collected for all censuses since 1911.

Since the 1996 Census, the actual dollar amount paid for a dwelling has been collected rather than the range.

In 2021, the applicability has changed so that dwellings with the Tenure type of 'Occupied rent free' are included in the Not applicable category. Consequently $0 (category 0000) has been removed.

Data use considerations

The Census is the only source of rent data for small areas and for small groups of the population. Such data is important for housing policy and planning, and for studying the housing conditions of small populations.

Processing Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD) is subject to some recognition error for responses provided on paper Census forms, particularly when responses incorrectly include cents and the decimal point is missing or unclear. While the data is subject to data assurance checks to ensure an acceptable level of quality, numeric responses are accepted as reported by respondents on the form.

The non-response rate for Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD) was 3.9% in 2021. This is an increase from 3.4% in 2016. 

Related variables and glossary terms

Rent (weekly) ranges (RNTRD)

Definition

This variable records the rent paid for a dwelling on a weekly basis in ranges. It is applicable to the dwelling the household was counted in on Census Night. A private dwelling is defined in Dwelling structure (STRD) and can include caravans in caravan parks, occupied tents, and houseboats.

This data is output in standard Census products (QuickStats, Community profiles) in ranges.

Rent is also captured in individual dollar amounts in Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD).

Scope

Occupied private dwellings being rented

Categories

CodeCategory
01$1 - $74
02$75 - $99
03$100 - $124
04$125 - $149
05$150 - $174
06$175 - $199
07$200 - $224
08$225 - $249
09$250 - $274
10$275 - $299
11$300 - $324
12$325 - $349
13$350 - $374
14$375 - $399
15$400 - $424
16$425 - $449
17$450 - $474
18$475 - $499
19$500 - $524
20$525 - $549
21$550 - $649
22$650 - $749
23$750 - $849
24$850 - $949
25$950 and over
&&Not stated
@@Not applicable

Number of categories:  27

Not applicable (@@) category comprises:

  • Occupied private dwellings with Tenure type (TEND) of Owned outright, Owned with a mortgage, Being purchased under a rent/buy scheme, Being occupied under a life tenure scheme, Occupied rent free, Other and Not stated
  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

Is this dwelling:

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.
• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Rent (weekly) ranges example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Rent (weekly) ranges example - rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Rent (weekly) ranges example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

Total dwelling payments
$
.00 per week
OR

$
.00 per fortnight
OR

$
.00 per month
OR

$0 or Nil payments

More information

Additional information relating to the question on: How much does your household pay for this dwelling?

How much does the household pay for 1 Smith Street?

Include rent and mortgage repayments and site fees if the dwelling is a caravan or manufactured home in a caravan park or manufactured home estate.

Exclude water rates, council rates, repairs, maintenance, body corporate and other fees.

If no payments, please select '$0 or Nil payments'.

More information

If exact amount is not known, please provide your best estimate.

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from the Tenure type and Household payments questions on the Census form.

Household payments data is automatically captured from numeric text responses. If rental payment responses are reported as a fortnightly or monthly figure they are derived to a weekly figure. Responses to the Tenure type question are used to determine whether payments are recorded as rent or mortgage repayments.

History and changes

Information on how much rent is paid for a private dwelling has been collected for all censuses since 1911.

Since the 1996 Census, the actual dollar amount paid for a dwelling has been collected rather than the range.

In 2021, the output categories for the dollar ranges have been revised. Category 18 splits into four $25 intervals (categories 18-21), increasing the number of categories from 25 in 2016 to 27 in 2021. The applicability has changed so that now dwellings with the Tenure type of 'Occupied rent free' are included in the Not applicable category and the 01 category starts at $1.

Data use considerations

The Census is the only source of rent data for small areas and for small groups of the population. Such data is important for housing policy and planning, and for studying the housing conditions of small populations.

Processing Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD) is subject to some recognition error for responses provided on paper Census forms, particularly when responses incorrectly include cents and the decimal point is missing or unclear. While the data is subject to data assurance checks to ensure an acceptable level of quality, numeric responses are accepted as reported by respondents on the form.

This variable is derived from Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD). The non-response rate for Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD) was 3.9% in 2021. This is an increase from 3.4% in 2016. 

Related variables and glossary terms

  • Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD)
  • Tenure type (TEND)
  • Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values (MRED)

Dwelling structure (STRD)

Definition

This variable records the structure of private dwellings.

Scope

Private dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
11Separate house
21Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with one storey
22Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. with two or more storeys
31Flat or apartment in a one or two storey block
32Flat or apartment in a three storey block
33Flat or apartment in a four to eight storey block
34Flat or apartment in a nine or more storey block
35Flat or apartment attached to a house
91Caravan
92Cabin, houseboat
93Improvised home, tent, sleepers out
94House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.
&&Not stated
@@Not applicable

Number of categories:  14

Not applicable (@@) category comprises:

  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1

Category definitions

Separate house
  • Is structurally independent from surrounding dwellings.
  • May have a flat attached to it, such as a granny flat or converted garage (the flat is categorised under Flat or apartment - see below).
  • The number of storeys of separate houses is not recorded.
  • Dwellings in manufactured home estate.
Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse, etc. with one, two or more storeys
  • Have their own private grounds.
  • No other dwelling above or below them.
  • They are attached in some structural way to one or more neighbouring dwellings.
Flat or apartment
  • Dwellings in blocks of flats or apartments.
  • Do not have their own private grounds.
  • Usually share a common entrance foyer or stairwell.
  • Flats attached to houses such as granny flats, and houses converted into two or more flats.
Caravan
  • Includes all occupied caravans, regardless of where they are located. Occupied campervans are also included. For further detailed information see Caravans in this glossary.
Cabins and houseboats
  • This includes all occupied cabins and houseboats.
  • Cabins are self-contained and not intended for long-term residential use. This includes occupied cabins located in residential parks or set up as temporary accommodation.
  • A houseboat is an occupied mobile dwelling (intended for use on water). It is not typically intended for long-term use, although it could be currently used on a permanent or semi-permanent basis.
  • Occupied houseboats are treated as occupied private dwellings regardless of location.
  • Separate houses in caravan or residential parks or marinas occupied by managers or caretakers are not included in this category.
Improvised home, tent, sleepers-out
  • These include sheds, tents, humpies and other improvised dwellings that were occupied on Census night.
  • This category includes people sleeping-out, including those sleeping on the streets, in abandoned buildings, under bridges or in cars.
House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.
  • A house or flat attached to a shop, office, factory or any other non-residential structure is included in this category.

Question(s) from the Census form

This variable is not collected from a question on the Census form.

How this variable is created

Initially, this data is sourced from the ABS Address Register. For more details, refer to the ABS Address Register, Users' Guide.

In some cases the Dwelling structure is updated after information is returned from ABS field officers during their visits to dwellings.

New dwellings added by Census staff can have their Dwelling structure added by the field officer or imputed from the surrounding dwellings during processing.

Depending on Dwelling structure type and the method by which the Address Register is updated, the private dwelling’s structure can be derived from the Address Register (with Building Approvals data also assisting in some cases) or information obtained by Census field officers. Structure for Non-private dwellings (NPDs) are set to ‘not applicable’.

Certain types of dwelling structures, such as 'Improvised homes, tent, sleepers-out' are given particular attention during data processing to quality assure the homeless population.

History and changes

Some information on the structure of Private dwellings has been collected for all censuses since 1911, though the specific types of classification used have varied significantly.

Cabins and Houseboats

Prior to the 1986 Census, occupied craft in marinas were treated as Non-private dwellings, however occupied houseboats and occupied small boats are now treated as Occupied private dwellings.

Collection methods before 2016

From 1976 to 2011, the information on Dwelling structure was collected by Census Field Officers in the Collector Record Book at the time the Census forms were delivered instead of being on the Census form.

In 2016 there was a change in the way the data was collected. It was initially recorded by ABS Address Canvassing Officers in the lead up to the Census, as part of establishing the Address Register as a mail-out frame for designated areas (93% of Australian addresses). In areas enumerated using the traditional approach of delivering forms, the information was collected by ABS Field Officers during the Census collection period. Location of private dwelling data was also updated as required by ABS Field Officers during the Census enumeration period. Dwellings in remote areas continue to have their structure collected solely by field officers.

In 2021, the Address Register is considered the main source of Dwelling location data, and real-world frame amendments are made when appropriate, by Field and Office staff.

Categories

For the 2016 Census, there was a change to one of the response categories for this variable. The previous category of 'Caravan, cabin or houseboat' was separated into two categories:

  • Caravan
  • Cabin, houseboat

In 2021, there has been further disaggregation of the flat/apartment categories to align with different building rules in place for buildings with a height greater than 25 metres and to meet increasing stakeholder demand for more data about high rise apartment buildings. The previous category ‘In a four or more storey block’ is separated into two categories:

  • In a four to eight storey block
  • In a nine or more storey block
Separate house and semi-detached definitions

For the 2021 Census, there is a change to the half a metre rule that had previously distinguished separate houses from semi-detached dwellings. The new definition is purely structural in which a separate house (constructed in the last 20 years) must be structurally independent, regardless of separation from adjacent dwellings. This change aligns with the way structure data is provided for the Building Approvals collection. See Housing variables for more information.

Missing dwelling structure

For the 2021 Census, addresses that do not have Dwelling structure recorded from observation or by the ABS address register can have the information populated by imputation.

Data use considerations

Data on Dwelling structure is used to monitor changes in housing characteristics, to help formulate housing policies and to review existing housing stock.

Minor inconsistencies in Dwelling structure counts may exist between censuses due to updated information on structure to the ABS Address Register and the subjective interpretation of structural definitions between individual Field Officers.

Although a review has been conducted to update Dwelling structure in light of changes to the half a metre rule for buildings constructed in the last 20 years, some older dwellings may still reflect the old definition.

Flats attached to houses are at a high risk of being missed as they are hard to identify, this is also the case for flats above shops.

The non-response rate for Dwelling structure (STRD) was 0.3% in 2021. This is a decrease from 0.5% in 2016.

Non-response for this variable was largely caused by previously unidentified dwellings being added to the census frame. This can occur when a member of the public submits their form online for an address that is not on the ABS Address Register or contacts the Census Inquiry Service. This results in dwelling structure not being recorded and is therefore left as a not stated response. 

Dwellings with no dwelling structure coded went through an imputation process to try and assign a structure code based on surrounding dwellings. Where a structure was unable to be assigned, the dwelling structure remained as not stated. 

Related variables and glossary terms

Tenure type (TEND)

Definition

This variable describes whether a dwelling is owned, being purchased or rented.

The tenure category 'Being purchased under a shared equity scheme' refers to households who are purchasing less than 100% equity in the dwelling, and may or may not be paying rent for the remainder. 

‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme' refers to households or individuals who have a 'life tenure' contract to live in the dwelling but usually have little or no equity in the dwelling. This is a common arrangement in retirement villages.

Scope

Occupied private dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
1Owned outright
2Owned with a mortgage
3Purchased under a shared equity scheme
4Rented
5Occupied rent free
6Occupied under a life tenure scheme
7Other
&Not stated
@Not applicable

Number of categories:  9

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

Is this dwelling:

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.
• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Tenure type example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Tenure type example - rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Tenure type example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from responses to the Tenure type question on the Census form which asks if the dwelling is owned, being purchased or being rented.

Respondents are asked to only mark one response. Where a respondent provides more than one response, the responses are accepted in the order they appear on the form and the extra responses are rejected.

History and changes

The question relating to Tenure type (TEND) was first asked for the 1911 Census. From 1976 to 1991, nature of occupancy data was derived from mortgage and rent questions. For all other censuses a direct question on nature of occupancy was included.

Since 2006, the question on tenure type has changed to remain consistent with the current ABS statistical standard for tenure type. It captures the difference between owners with and without a mortgage. Prior to this it differentiated whether a dwelling was owned outright or being purchased.

For 2021, minor changes were made to category labels.

Data use considerations

There are no known data use considerations at this time.

The non-response rate for Tenure type (TEND) was 5.4% in 2021. This is a decrease from 7.7% in 2016. 

Related variables and glossary terms

Tenure and landlord type (TENLLD)

Definition

This variable combines Tenure type (TEND) and Landlord type (LLDD) to provide more detailed information for rented dwellings.

Scope

Occupied private dwellings

Categories

CodeCategory
1Owned outright
2Owned with a mortgage
3Rented:  Real estate agent
4Rented:  State or territory housing authority
5Rented:  Community housing provider
6Rented:  Person not in same household
7Rented:  Other landlord type
8Rented:  Landlord type not stated
9Other tenure type
&Tenure type not stated
@Tenure type not applicable

Number of categories:  11

  • Other tenure type includes dwellings being occupied rent free and dwellings being occupied under a life tenure scheme
  • Owned with a mortgage includes dwellings being purchased under a shared equity scheme

Not applicable (@) category comprises:

  • Unoccupied private dwellings
  • Non-private dwellings
  • Migratory, off-shore and shipping SA1s

Question(s) from the Census form

Is this dwelling: (please open this section to view response categories)

Is this dwelling:

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.
• Dwelling ownership
• Owned outright
• Owned with a mortgage
• Purchased under a shared equity scheme
• Rented
• Occupied rent free
• Occupied under a life tenure scheme
• Other

Example

Tenure and landlord type example - owned outright response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright (selected response)

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Rent arrangements

These questions do not apply, based on your answer to the previous question.

Example

Tenure and landlord type example - rent free response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented

Occupied rent free (selected response)

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Example

Tenure and landlord type example - rented response selected

Is the dwelling at 1 Smith Street:

Include owners of caravans, manufactured homes or houseboats in ‘Owned with a mortgage’ or ‘Owned outright’ regardless of whether or not the site is owned.

A shared equity scheme is a government or not-for-profit scheme - assisting people on lower incomes to buy a home by sharing up to 30% of the ownership.

Life tenure schemes are a common arrangement in retirement villages. Include leaseholds, and loan and license agreements in ‘Occupied under a life tenure scheme’.

Dwelling ownership

Owned outright

Owned with a mortgage

Purchased under a shared equity scheme

Rented (selected response)

Occupied rent free

Occupied under a life tenure scheme

Other

Who is this dwelling being rented from?

Who is this dwelling being rented from?

Who is 1 Smith Street rented from?

For all state/territory specific Government housing authorities, select ‘Government Housing Authority/Housing Department (Public Housing)’.

Some examples of Government housing authorities are: DCJ Housing (NSW), HousingVic, Department of Housing and Public Works (Qld), Department of Communities (WA), Housing SA, Housing Tasmania, Department of Local Government, Housing and Community Development (NT), Housing ACT, Aboriginal housing authorities.

Community Housing Providers are not-for-profit organisations that provide affordable rental housing to people on lower incomes. This includes housing co-operatives.
• Rental type
• Real estate agent
• Government Housing Authority/Housing Department (Public Housing)
• Community housing provider
• Parent or other relative not in this dwelling
• Other person not in this dwelling
• Manager of a residential park (including caravan parks and manufactured home estates)
• Employer – government (including Defence Housing Australia)
• Employer – private

How this variable is created

This variable is derived from responses to the Tenure type and Landlord type questions on the Census form.

History and changes

The Tenure and landlord type (TENLLD) combined variable was first available for use during the 2011 Census. Prior to this, data was obtained by manually combining the Tenure type (TEND) and Landlord type (LLDD) variables.

For 2021, the category ‘Rented: Housing co-operative, community or church group’ has been reworded to ‘Rented: Community housing provider’, and it has been repositioned to category 5, moving the category ‘Rented: Person not in same household’ to category 6.

‘Other tenure type’ has been rescoped for 2021 to include houses being occupied rent free, which in previous censuses have been covered by the rented categories (4-8), to align with the ABS Standard for Tenure Type.

Data use considerations

'Other tenure type' includes dwellings occupied under a life tenure scheme and dwellings occupied rent free. 'Owned with a mortgage' includes dwellings being purchased under a shared equity scheme (termed a rent/buy scheme in 2011).

This variable does not have a non-response rate as it is created during Census processing by using responses from more than one question on the Census form. 

Related variables and glossary terms