6160.0 - Jobs in Australia, 2011-12 to 2016-17 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 01/08/2019   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

Multiple job holders in Australia

In Australia there were 2.1 million multiple job holders during the 2016-17 financial year. These were people who worked two or more jobs at the same time, at some point during the year.

The multiple job holder rate is the proportion of workers with multiple jobs in comparison to the number of employed people. The multiple job holder rate increased slightly from 14.4% in 2011-12 to 15.6% in 2016-17.

Of all the multiple job holders in 2016-17, 72.6% held two jobs, 19.4% held three jobs, and the remainder held four or more jobs.

Females were more likely to be multiple job holders than males. In 2016-17, 53.7% of multiple job holders were female and 46.3% were male. The multiple job holding rate for females (17.5%) was higher than that for males (13.8%).

Graph 1: Multiple job holders by sex, 2011-12 to 2016-17

Graph showing the number of multiple job holders by sex, 2011-12 to 2016-17

People under the age of 30 were more likely to be multiple job holders. Of all the multiple job holders in 2016-17, 11.9% were aged under 21; 15.0% were aged between 21-24; and 16.0% were aged between 25-29. This compares with 2011-12, where 12.5% were aged under 21; 14.8% aged between 21-24; and 15.4% aged between 25-29.

For females, multiple job holding rates were highest for those aged 18-20, which matches the highest age bracket for males in 2016-17. For both males and females, rates were lowest for those aged 85 and over and 80-84 respectively (Table 1).

Table 1: Number of multiple job holders by age, 2016-17

TOTAL EMPLOYED ('000)
MULTIPLE JOB HOLDERS ('000)
MULTIPLE JOB HOLDING RATE1 (%)
MALE
FEMALE
PERSONS
MALE
FEMALE
PERSONS
MALE
FEMALE
PERSONS
AGE GROUP









14 years and under
8.5
10.6
19.1
0.4
0.6
1.0
5.1
5.7
5.5
15-17
134.1
157.1
291.1
19.7
26.7
46.4
14.7
17.0
15.9
18-20
349.1
341.5
690.6
90.2
111.9
202.1
25.8
32.8
29.3
21-24
606.5
561.7
1,168.2
146.1
169.0
315.1
24.1
30.1
27.0
25-29
850.7
784.5
1,635.2
164.5
172.0
336.5
19.3
21.9
20.6
30-34
842.7
752.4
1,595.1
127.6
126.5
254.1
15.1
16.8
15.9
35-39
757.4
660.9
1,418.3
94.9
99.2
194.1
12.5
15.0
13.7
40-44
709.4
644.3
1,353.7
79.1
96.4
175.6
11.2
15.0
13.0
45-49
706.8
670.8
1,377.6
73.7
101.5
175.1
10.4
15.1
12.7
50-54
641.5
609.7
1,251.2
62.9
88.9
151.8
9.8
14.6
12.1
55-59
588.4
551.0
1,139.4
53.3
72.9
126.2
9.1
13.2
11.1
60-64
437.7
382.7
820.5
36.8
42.3
79.1
8.4
11.1
9.6
65-69
243.9
188.8
432.7
16.8
15.1
31.9
6.9
8.0
7.4
70-74
109.1
76.0
185.2
6.1
4.5
10.6
5.6
5.9
5.7
75-79
45.9
35.7
81.5
1.9
1.4
3.3
4.1
4.1
4.1
80-84
22.6
19.5
42.1
0.6
0.7
1.3
2.8
3.6
3.2
85 & over
14.8
18.8
33.6
0.4
0.7
1.1
2.4
4.0
3.3
TOTAL
7,069.2
6,466.2
13,535.4
975.0
1,130.3
2,105.3
13.8
17.5
15.6
Note: The multiple job holding rate is calculated as the percentage of multiple job holders over the total number employed.


Across the jurisdictions, the Northern Territory had the highest rate of multiple job holding, at 19.1%, while South Australia reported the lowest (14.9%) during 2016-17. The Northern Territory had the highest rate in 2011-12, and New South Wales had the lowest (Table 2c).

Table 2a: Number of employed persons by State, 2011-12 to 2016-17

EMPLOYED PERSONS ('000)
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
2015-16
2016-17






NSW
4,034.6
4,063.6
4,095.1
4,132.0
4,204.3
4,329.8
VIC
3,172.1
3,202.4
3,238.9
3,273.3
3,340.1
3,433.8
QLD
2,609.0
2,628.3
2,632.4
2,635.0
2,654.4
2,710.2
SA
895.9
896.4
900.3
893.8
891.0
899.6
WA
1,442.4
1,486.6
1,491.9
1,486.4
1,467.3
1,454.9
TAS
269.9
266.7
266.7
267.6
269.9
275.1
NT
131.9
135.2
138.0
137.8
137.4
138.6
ACT
237.6
239.5
238.6
239.0
242.3
249.2
TOTAL
12,843.8
12,965.8
13,050.0
13,111.4
13,262.5
13,535.4



Table 2b: Number of multiple job holders by State, 2011-12 to 2016-17

MULTIPLE JOB HOLDERS ('000)
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
2015-16
2016-17






NSW
560.2
657.9
632.8
608.7
600.0
661.7
VIC
461.2
487.4
491.2
495.9
493.7
543.6
QLD
376.0
397.3
394.4
414.0
387.5
421.0
SA
127.2
136.4
134.2
129.9
123.5
133.6
WA
219.8
237.8
234.0
232.0
216.6
228.8
TAS
41.7
42.1
43.6
43.8
42.5
46.4
NT
24.1
26.7
25.9
26.8
24.8
26.5
ACT
35.1
46.3
34.3
35.8
36.4
39.5
TOTAL
1,849.0
2,036.0
1,994.4
1,990.6
1,929.4
2,105.3



Table 2c: Rate of multiple job holding by State, 2011-12 to 2016-17

MULTIPLE JOB HOLDING RATE (%)
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
2014-15
2015-16
2016-17






NSW
13.9
16.2
15.5
14.7
14.3
15.3
VIC
14.5
15.2
15.2
15.2
14.8
15.8
QLD
14.4
15.1
15.0
15.7
14.6
15.5
SA
14.2
15.2
14.9
14.5
13.9
14.9
WA
15.2
16.0
15.7
15.6
14.8
15.7
TAS
15.5
15.8
16.4
16.4
15.7
16.9
NT
18.3
19.7
18.8
19.4
18.1
19.1
ACT
14.8
19.4
14.4
15.0
15.0
15.8
TOTAL
14.4
15.7
15.3
15.2
14.6
15.6


A multiple job holders’ first concurrent job is the one in which they earn the most income. The most common industry of first concurrent job was Health care and social assistance (14.4%), and almost four out of every five of these workers were female. The second concurrent job is the highest income job held at the same time as the first concurrent job. The largest share of these were in the Administrative and support services (14.2%), with these being shared by male and female multiple job holders (55.6% males and 44.4% females).

In their first concurrent job, female multiple job holders were most likely to work in Health care and social assistance (240,000 female multiple job holders), Education and training (161,600), or Retail trade (127,500), while male multiple job holders were most likely to work in Administrative and support services (130,200 male multiple job holders), Construction (111,400), or Accommodation and food services (91,900).


Table 3: Industry of first and second concurrent job, 2016-17

NUMBER OF MULTIPLE JOB HOLDERS ('000)
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
Total




















A
22.4
0.2
2.2
0.1
2.1
1.7
2.5
4.2
1.7
0.1
0.9
0.9
1.6
6.3
1.1
1.5
1.1
0.8
1.0
53.0
B
0.5
1.4
0.6
0.1
1.6
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.1
0.9
0.3
1.3
3.5
0.8
0.6
0.3
0.3
0.9
15.2
C
3.5
0.4
11.7
0.3
5.8
3.6
8.5
9.5
2.6
0.7
4.0
1.5
4.8
18.3
3.5
3.7
3.0
2.3
3.4
92.2
D
0.3
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.7
0.2
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.1
0.6
0.2
0.7
2.1
0.9
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.4
9.6
E
2.9
1.1
5.5
0.7
35.3
2.7
7.8
8.2
3.2
0.7
12.6
2.9
6.3
22.5
4.5
4.2
2.8
2.8
6.9
135.2
F
2.4
0.2
3.6
0.2
2.8
7.3
8.9
5.9
2.2
0.8
2.1
1.3
4.4
10.6
2.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.9
65.1
G
3.2
0.3
7.2
0.3
6.7
9.5
54.9
30.0
4.1
2.6
4.9
4.0
12.0
21.5
7.6
15.1
11.2
7.4
6.3
210.4
H
4.3
0.2
6.0
0.2
4.8
4.0
21.2
89.6
3.2
1.7
3.6
4.5
9.0
22.9
4.2
10.3
8.0
8.2
4.7
212.9
I
2.1
0.4
2.1
0.3
3.0
1.7
4.6
4.7
13.3
0.5
2.4
1.2
2.6
10.8
3.3
2.7
1.8
1.6
1.8
61.5
J
0.1
0.0
0.5
0.0
0.7
0.5
2.3
2.0
0.3
7.0
0.7
0.6
2.8
3.1
1.2
2.3
0.8
1.3
0.6
27.0
K
0.9
0.3
1.9
0.2
2.7
1.5
6.1
5.0
1.4
0.8
8.6
1.3
5.3
7.8
4.4
4.8
4.9
1.9
1.8
62.2
L
1.0
0.2
1.0
0.1
2.5
1.0
3.7
5.2
1.1
0.6
1.6
7.6
2.4
5.4
1.6
2.0
2.0
1.3
1.2
41.8
M
1.8
0.8
3.5
0.4
5.6
3.4
11.1
10.7
1.9
2.8
5.5
2.4
28.9
17.9
10.0
13.7
6.3
3.6
3.9
135.4
N
6.7
1.9
9.7
1.1
13.4
5.9
14.4
20.2
7.1
2.4
6.1
3.6
14.0
73.9
9.7
10.1
14.2
4.7
5.7
227.1
O
1.2
0.2
1.4
0.3
3.2
1.0
6.1
5.1
1.9
1.0
3.4
1.1
6.3
12.7
26.0
11.9
9.2
4.5
3.0
99.9
P
1.7
0.2
2.3
0.2
3.3
1.9
11.3
9.7
1.9
2.1
4.6
1.6
9.9
12.3
28.4
101.7
19.3
7.8
6.9
228.2
Q
1.9
0.2
3.0
0.2
3.6
2.5
14.7
13.6
2.1
1.2
9.1
2.5
9.5
34.2
14.3
31.3
143.1
5.1
8.6
302.7
R
0.6
0.0
0.9
0.1
1.1
0.8
3.7
6.4
0.6
1.1
0.8
0.8
2.3
4.3
2.4
5.6
2.1
8.5
1.6
44.0
S
1.2
0.2
2.0
0.1
2.6
1.5
5.6
5.6
1.3
0.6
1.9
1.1
3.6
6.8
3.7
6.6
6.1
2.2
11.3
64.9
Total
59.0
8.3
65.8
5.4
102.6
51.5
190.0
238.6
51.3
27.2
74.6
39.9
128.8
299.4
130.7
232.5
240.5
66.9
72.3
2,105.3
Note: In Table 3 above, the rows represent industry of first concurrent job, and the columns represent the industry of second concurrent job. For the full industry names, refer to Attachment 1.


The median total employment income of multiple job holders was $40,500. Those with a maximum of two concurrent jobs recorded a median employment income of $41,400, while people with 3 jobs and 4 or more jobs had lower median employment incomes ($38,600 and $38,000 respectively).

The highest median employee incomes for first concurrent jobs were in Mining ($66,200), followed by Electricity, gas, water and waste services ($49,700). The Mining industry also recorded the highest median employee income for second jobs ($16,800), followed by Electricity, gas, water and waste services ($9,400).

The lowest median employee incomes for first concurrent jobs were in Accommodation and food services ($13,800), closely followed by Agriculture, forestry and fishing ($14,100). Public administration and safety and Education and training had the lowest median employee incomes for second jobs, at $2,000 and $2,800 respectively.

While some second concurrent jobs (49.6%) were held for the entire year, many were not. Of those held for less than an entire year, the median duration was 22 weeks. Results show that multiple job holders worked the same duration in their second concurrent job in 2016-17 and 2011-12, when the median duration was also 22 weeks.

For more information on multiple job holders, refer to Table 4 in the download tab of the Jobs in Australia publication.

It is worth noting that the job counts in this publication differ from the filled job estimates from other data sources such as the Australian Labour Account and the Labour Force Australia. The Jobs in Australia data sourced from Linked Employer Employee Dataset (LEED) provide insights into all job relationships that were held throughout the year, while the Labour Account and Labour Force Survey provide point-in-time data each quarter.

The LEED is a very rich dataset, containing over 100 million individual records which provide annual demographic, geographic and financial information from 2011-12 through to 2016-17. This allows for micro-economic analysis of multiple job holders.

Notes:

1. A concurrent job is a job which overlapped with another job by at least 31 days at some point during the financial year.
2. In this publication, the main job held by a person is the job in which they received the highest employment income. Using income or earnings to identify a person's main job differs from ABS household surveys, which define a person's main job as the job in which the most hours are usually worked.
3. While a person may own and manage more than one enterprise, due to data limitations, only one self-employment job can be recorded for any owner manager of unincorporated enterprises (OMUE), however they can hold other jobs as an employee.

Attachment 1: Industry division names

A - Agriculture, forestry and fishing
B - Mining
C - Manufacturing
D - Electricity, gas, water and waste services
E - Construction
F - Wholesale trade
G - Retail trade
H - Accommodation and food services
I - Transport, postal and warehousing
J - Information media and telecommunications
K - Financial and insurance services
L - Rental, hiring and real estate services
M - Professional, scientific and technical services
N - Administrative and support services
O - Public administration and safety
P - Education and training
Q - Health care and social assistance
R - Arts and recreation services
S - Other services