Data used in these indicators
MADIP Data Asset
The data used in these indicators were sourced from the Multi-Agency Data Integration Project (MADIP) integrated data asset.
MADIP data used to produce these indicators include:
- Medicare Consumer Directory, 2006-2020
- Medicare Benefits Schedule, 2011-2020
- Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, 2011-2020
- ATO Client Register, 2006-2020
- Income Tax Returns, 2016-17 to 2018-19
- Payment Summaries, 2015-16 to 2019-20
- Census of Population and Housing, 2016
- Australian Early Development Census, 2018
- Migrant, 1990-2018.
More information about these and other datasets available in the MADIP asset can be found here: Data Assets | Australian Bureau of Statistics (abs.gov.au).
The MADIP data asset is linked using the Person Linkage Spine. More information about this can be found here: Person linkage spine | Australian Bureau of Statistics (abs.gov.au)
The Migrant data are a suite of administrative datasets (client information, visa grants, and visa applications) from the Department of Home Affairs. This data pertains to permanent migrants and temporary entrants to Australia, as well as Australian citizens who have travelled into or out of Australia. The data provides information on a person’s visa information, citizenship status and their movements into and out of Australia.
Scope of the indicators
These indicators relate to permanent migrants to Australia.
The scope and coverage of these estimates are defined and constrained by the characteristics of the data sources from which they are produced. As such, users should note that some permanent migrants might not be captured within these estimates.
The scope of the Migrant data includes:
- Clients listed during the period 1 January 1990* to 31 December 2018;
- Visas granted between 1 January 1990* to 31 December 2018; and
- Visa applications lodged between 1 January 1990* to 31 December 2018.
* Includes incomplete data for records prior to 1 January 1990
The Migrant data were further scoped to create a population base for these indicators. This involved the following steps:
- Retaining all people who arrived in Australia from 01/01/2000 to 30/06/2018 and held a permanent visa as their last held visa.
- Retaining records of those who held a resident return visa (subclasses 155 and 157) and Australian citizens that previously held a permanent visa within the time period mentioned above.
Other data from the MADIP asset is then linked to the scoped migrant population, via the Spine.
Same day visas
The Visa Grants data contain a small number of cases where multiple visas were issued on the same date.
The following business rules were applied to select a visa in these cases:
- If the same day visas are the same, then the repeating visa is selected if permanent.
- If the same day visas contain a combination of permanent visas (i.e., Skilled, Family and Humanitarian), then the visa is reassigned to an ‘undetermined’ class called Permanent Undetermined.
- If the same day visas contain a combination of temporary and permanent visas, then the permanent visa is selected.
There are some cases where distinct records on the Migrant datasets have been determined to belong to the same person when linked to the Person Linkage Spine. In these cases, the record with the most recent arrival date is kept as it relates to the most current visa.
Aggregating Migrant data
Once same day visa grants have been reconciled and duplicate records on the Person linkage spine have been de-duplicated, visa subclass (3 digit) information is then aggregated into visa streams (highest level grouping) to produce the Skilled, Family, Humanitarian, Other, and Total Permanent groupings.
This group includes persons who have arrived in Australia on a Skill stream visa. The Skill stream consists of several categories for prospective migrants where there is demand in Australia for their particular skills. They could be nominated by an employer or State/Territory Government, apply under points based Skilled Migration, have outstanding talents or demonstrated business skills. For more information about this program, see Skilled migration program (homeaffairs.gov.au).
This group includes persons who have arrived in Australia on a Child, Partner, Parent or Other Family stream visa. These migrants are selected based on their family relationship (spouse, de facto partner, intent to marry, child, parent, other family) with their sponsor who is an Australian citizen, permanent resident, or eligible New Zealand Citizen.
This group includes permanent entrants under the Humanitarian Program. For more information about this program, see Resettle in Australia (homeaffairs.gov.au).
Other and Undetermined
Includes all other permanent visa categories (not included in the Skill, Family or Humanitarian streams) or where the type of permanent visa could not be determined.
A person who was born overseas, was not an Australian citizen or New Zealand citizen on arrival, does not currently hold New Zealand citizenship, and has permanent Australian resident status.
Suppression of data in cells
Data are subject to suppression where a small number of individuals contribute to an individual estimate.
Inclusion of unknown characteristics
Migrant datasets are linked to other information from the MADIP data asset to derive the indicators. If a specific characteristic cannot be linked or derived, records missing this information are excluded from the calculations included in the specific indicator.
These experimental estimates are also affected by the dynamic nature and source of the data. The impact on accuracy and coherence with other integrated ABS migrant statistics are described below.
How to interpret Indicators
While every effort will be made to maintain the stability of these indicators into the future, they may be subject to revisions as linkage methods develop, the MADIP Data Asset matures, and more data become available.
The data used in these indicators have different reference periods. Information about this can be found within the footnotes of each table. This should be considered, and caution exercised when trying to analyse relationships between the indicators.
Care has been taken to articulate the scope and coverage of the datasets used and the populations in the individual indicators themselves.
Migrant data are sourced from a dynamic administrative data source, and potentially subject to the following sources of error:
Conceptual misalignment - The Australian Immigration system is purpose-built and complex, and in some cases, it is difficult to determine how a particular data item should be used to describe any changes to migration characteristics (i.e., visa granted, location of visa grant, whether primary or secondary applicant etc.). While care is taken, some visa related data items are subject to this type of validity error. An example of this is year of arrival from the Census versus arrival date from the Migrant data. For detailed information about this conceptual difference, see Understanding Migrant Outcomes - Insights from the Australian Census and Migrants Integrated Dataset, Australia methodology, 2016 | Australian Bureau of Statistics (abs.gov.au).
Reporting error - This is likely to be present in migrant data. Efforts have been made to address significant reporting errors such as illegal characters or incomplete fields. Despite these efforts, some reporting errors may remain.
These experimental indicators are the first time the ABS has published MADIP data brought together in this way. There are differences between these estimates and similar statistics produced by the ABS. When compared to other integrated ABS migrant data sources, changes may be due to differences in the concepts, scope and methodology used. For example, these estimates will differ from estimates from the Microdata: Australian Census and Migrants Integrated Dataset, 2016 (ACMID) and Microdata: Personal Income of Migrants, Australia (PITMID).
The ACMID 2016 relates to people who responded to the 2016 Census of Population and Housing and had a permanent visa record on the Department of Home Affairs (Home Affairs) Permanent Migrant Settlement Dataset with a date of arrival between 1 January 2000 and 9 August 2016. ACMID estimates were a result of integrating the data from these two data sources and calibrating the linked records to known population totals from the Home Affairs dataset. For further information about the methods, scope and coverage of ACMID, see Understanding Migrant Outcomes - Insights from the Australian Census and Migrants Integrated Dataset, Australia methodology, 2016.
Personal Income Tax and Migrants Integrated Dataset (PITMID) relates to persons 15 years and over who have migrated to Australia under a permanent or provisional visa with an arrival date between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2019. PITMID estimates were compiled from the 2016-17 PITMID. Estimates were created by integrating Australian Tax Office (ATO) Personal Income Tax data for the 2016-17 financial year with an extract of permanent migrant settlement records from the Department of Home Affairs. PITMID estimates are not calibrated. For further information about the methods, scope and coverage of PITMID, see Personal Income of Migrants, Australia methodology, 2016-17 financial year.
Privacy and confidentiality
Legislative requirements to ensure privacy and secrecy of this data have been followed. Only those authorised under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975 have been allowed to view data about individuals in compiling these statistics and conducting these analyses. In accordance with the Census and Statistics Act 1905, results have been confidentialised to ensure that they are not likely to enable identification of a particular person or organisation.
All personal information is handled in accordance with the Australian Privacy Principles contained in the Privacy Act 1988.
Suggestions and feedback
Your feedback and/ or suggestions is welcome. If you have any feedback and/or suggestions for future improvements to these data, the data notes, or this product, please contact the National Migrant Statistics Unit at firstname.lastname@example.org.