Data Assets

Data Integration Project Register

The Person Level Integrated Data Asset (PLIDA)

Commencement date: 01/06/2015
Project status: Ongoing

Project Summary

The Person Level Integrated Data Asset (PLIDA) (formerly MADIP) is a secure data asset combining information on healthcare, education, government payments, income and taxation, employment, and population demographics (including the Census) over time.

Underpinning the PLIDA data asset is the ‘Person Linkage Spine’. The spine aims to cover all people who were resident in Australia at any point during a given reference period. The spine is kept separate from the main body of data, improving privacy and security. The spine and the PLIDA data asset are updated approximately annually.


PLIDA shows how combining existing public data can be used to:

  • Inform policy development and better targeting of services, such as health and early childhood services, to people and communities who need them, and
  • Provide insight into the effectiveness of government programs to ensure they are delivering value to the Australian public.

Data Linkages to PLIDA

Only data that are reasonably necessary for an approved purpose are shared and used in PLIDA. Data that has an enduring linkage to PLIDA is regularly updated for ongoing research.

Other sources of data have been explored for inclusion in PLIDA or for once-off linkage to PLIDA data for specific projects. For a list of once-off linkages to PLIDA, please refer to PLIDA data and legislation. To find out more about specific projects that use data in PLIDA, please refer to the relevant categories in this publication.

Enduring Linkages to PLIDA

This table describes the range of datasets that now have an enduring link to the PLIDA data asset. The periods of time (reference periods) for information in PLIDA datasets are shown by starting year. The PLIDA Modular Product describes the complete list of deidentified data items and reference periods available to approved researchers.

Australian Bureau of Statistics
Australian Taxation Office
Department of Health and Aged Care
Services Australia
Department of Social Services
Department of Education
National Disability Insurance Agency
State and Territory Registrars of Births, Deaths, and Marriages
Department of Home Affairs
Census of Population and Housing 2011
Census of Population and Housing 2016
Census data provides a rich snapshot of the nation and informs government, community and businesses.
Current ABS policy restricts the linking of data from more than one Census. This means data from multiple Censuses cannot be brought together for longitudinal PLIDA analysis. The exception to this is the Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset, which brings together a small sample of Census data exploring how Australian society changes over time.
Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset 2016The Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset brings together a 5% sample of Census data from the 2006, 2011 and 2016 Censuses. It contains information such as age, sex, country of birth, labour force status, as well as dwelling, household and family characteristics, across each of these Censuses.
Researchers can apply to use the ACLD for longitudinal PLIDA analysis for specific projects.
National Health Survey (2014-15, 2017-18)Information on Australian’s health and wellbeing such as medical conditions, health and lifestyle risk factors, mental health and use of health services.
Survey of Disability, Ageing, and Carers (2018)Information about people with a disability, older people (aged 65 and over) and their carers.
ABS Business Characteristics Survey (2005-06 to 2017-18) 1An annual survey providing estimates in business use of information technology, innovation, and a broad range of other non-financial business characteristics.

BLADE Core Dataset 2

  • Indicative data items
  • BLADE Locations data
  • Business Activity Statement
  • Business Income Tax
  • Pay As You Go
An economic data tool combining tax, trade, and intellectual property information with ABS data to provide a better understanding of the Australian economy and business performance over time. A limited set of BLADE information (generally from 2001 onwards) is available in PLIDA.

Personal Income Tax data:

  • Client Register (from 2006)
  • Payment Summary (from 2010-11 )
  • Income Tax Return (from 2010-11 )
Information about taxpayers’ occupation and income, employment payments and amounts withheld during a financial year, and all persons with a registered tax file number (TFN) for tax and superannuation purposes.
Single Touch Payroll (from 2020-2021)Information about employees' salaries and wages, pay as you go (PAYG) withholding and superannuation as reported through the Single Touch Payroll system.
JobKeeper (2020-2021)Information about JobKeeper subsidy payments to businesses affected by coronavirus (COVID-19).
Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (from 2006)Information about the use of prescription medications & services subsidised under the PBS.
Medicare Benefits Schedule (from 2006)Information on the usage of Medicare subsidised health care services.
Centralised Register of Medical Practitioners (Provider Directory) (from 2011)Information about registered medical practitioners, including specialties.
Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) (from 2010)Information about COVID-19 and other vaccination status, including core demographics.
Medicare Consumer Directory (2006-June 2020)All persons with an active Medicare enrolment. This dataset was previously known as the Medicare Enrolments Database.
DOMINO Centrelink Administrative data (from 2009)Data Over Multiple Individual Occurrences (DOMINO) contains snapshots of the characteristics of recipients of government payments such as the Age Pension and JobSeeker (formerly Newstart Allowance). This dataset was previously known as Social Security and Related Information (SSRI).
Data Exchange (from July 2015)Program performance information that contains de-identified data on clients that receive social services including their demographics and services being delivered.
Australian Early Development Census (AEDC) (2009, 2012, 2015, 2018)Measures how well children in their first year of full time school are developing across 5 important domains.
Australian Apprenticeships Incentives Program (AAIP) and Training Contracts (from 2006)Information on apprenticeships and traineeships, AAIP payments, and Trade Support Loan (TSL) payments.
Higher Education Information Management System Data (HEIMS) (from 2005)Information on higher education studies including course type, student status and study load.
Provider Registration and International Students Management System (PRISMS) (from 2006)Information on the course enrolments of overseas students.
Total VET Activity (TVA) (from 2015)Information about students and the Vocational Education and Training (VET) delivery activities of registered training organisations. This dataset is supplied by agreement with the Department of Education, the Office of the Student Identifiers Registrar and the National Centre for Vocational Educational Research.
National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) data (from June 2019)Information on primary disability, including services attained, by participants in the National Disability Insurance Scheme.
Death Registrations (from 2005)Information relating to registered death records from Australian States and Territories.

Migration data:

  • Visa information & Citizenship grants (from 2000)
  • Client information (from 1984)
  • Net Overseas Migration (NOM) Traveller data (from 2004)
  • Skilled Migration Points (from 2005)
  • Adult Migrant English Program data (from 2003)
Information about various migrant types, including permanent, skilled, temporary and other migrant programs, including their demographics and movement over time.

1. Business Characteristics Survey data is available for request. Use of the data is limited to the creation of flags indicating types of businesses or for the creation of new categorical data items only.
2. The ABS has enabled the integration of some BLADE datasets with information about employer characteristics to employee data in PLIDA. BLADE Core data is available for request. Use of Business Income Tax data is limited to the creation of flags indicating types of businesses or for the creation of new categorical data items only.


The ABS maintains a catalogue of approved projects that use PLIDA data and other datasets. Information on these projects can be found here on the Data Integration Project Register, and also on the PLIDA/MADIP Research Projects page.

The PLIDA Modular Product can be used to explore patterns and trends in the Australian population and provide new insights into the development and evaluation of government policies, programs and services. Researchers affiliated with Australian Government or academic research organisations can apply for access to the deidentified data in the secure ABS DataLab.

PLIDA/MADIP Case Studies
This webpage presents four case studies highlighting the types of insights that were gained by analysing data from the evaluation phase of the PLIDA.

Privacy Impact Assessments

The ABS employs a privacy-by-design approach for PLIDA (formerly MADIP) and regularly assesses privacy risks. Privacy impact assessments conducted for PLIDA/MADIP and specific projects are published on the ABS Privacy Impact Assessments webpage, including:

  • 24/08/2021 – Australian Immunisation Register (AIR) data integration project
  • 20/11/2020 - Linkage of Cancer Institute of NSW data with the Multi-Agency Data Integration Project (MADIP)
  • 16/09/2020 - Jobs Related Data Integration Project
  • 29/11/2019 – Update to 2018 Privacy Impact Assessment – 2019 MADIP PIA Update
  • 28/08/2018 - Independent Privacy Impact Assessment - Linkage of National Health Survey 2014/15 with the Multi-Agency Data Integration Project (MADIP)
  • 04/04/2018 - Independent Privacy Impact Assessment – Multi-Agency Data Integration Project (MADIP)

Business Longitudinal Analysis Data Environment (BLADE)

Commencement date: 10/10/2013
Project status: Ongoing

Project Summary

The Business Longitudinal Analysis Data Environment (BLADE) combines tax data about businesses with information from ABS surveys and other administrative data sources to enable a better understanding of the Australian economy through statistical analysis.


Authorised researchers can use BLADE to study how businesses fare over time and the factors that drive performance, innovation, job creation, competitiveness and productivity.

Data CustodianDataset(s)
Australian Bureau of StatisticsBusiness Register extract (2001-02 to 2018-19)
Business Characteristics data (2005-06 to 2017-18)
Business Characteristics Survey: Management Capabilities Module variables (2015-16)
ABS Survey data: Business Expenditure on Research and Development (financial years 2004-05 to 2011-12, 2013-14, 2015-16, 2017-18)
ABS Survey data: Private Non-Profit Expenditure on Research and Development (financial years 2008-09, 2011-12, 2012-13, 2014-15, 2016-17)
ABS Survey of Research and Experimental Development, Government (financial years 2008-09, 2011-12, 2012-13, 2014-15, 2016-17, 2017-18)
ABS Survey Data: Economic Activity Survey (2006-07 to 2016-17)
Energy Water and Environment Survey (2008-09, 2011-12, 2017-18, 2018-19)
Australian Taxation OfficeBusiness Activity Statement (2001-02 to 2018-19)
Business Income Tax (2001-02 to 2017-18)
Pay As You Go (2001-02 to 2018-19)
Intellectual Property AustraliaIntellectual Property Longitudinal Research Data (2001-02 to 2017-18)
Department of Home AffairsMerchandise Exports data (2003-04 to 2018-19)
Merchandise Imports data (2003-04 to 2018-19)


30/04/20 - Microdata: Business Longitudinal Analysis Data Environment, Businesses in Australia 2018-19 (cat. no. 8178.0)
TableBuilder product that enables counts of businesses by various characteristics that were active in the Australian economy in the 2018-19 financial year.

05/04/2019 - Research Paper: Approaches to Analysing Micro-Drivers of Aggregate Productivity, March 2019 (cat. no. 1351.0.55.164)
This research used BLADE data to explore methods of estimating firm contributions to aggregate productivity.

16/06/2016 - Data Integration Case Study - BLADE

10/07/2015 - Information Paper: Construction of the Expanded Analytical Business Longitudinal Database, 2001-02 to 2012-13 (cat. no. 8171.0)
This paper provides a summary of the methodology used to create the EABLD (now known as BLADE), the initial set of data included and a description of potential uses.

Linked Employer-Employee Database (LEED)

Commencement date: 12/11/2013
Project status: Ongoing

Project Summary

The Linked Employer-Employee Dataset (LEED) combines employer information and employee information into an enduring cross-sectional linked dataset. LEED capitalises on data already combined through the Business Longitudinal Analysis Data Environment (BLADE).

LEED can provide unique insights into labour market issues from both a supply and demand perspective and is used to inform labour productivity, firm profitability, job creation, and the effects of policies and business practices on both employees and employers.

This project builds on the outcomes of the LEED prototype (2013) and subsequent feasibility study in 2015 which demonstrated the value of the dataset. In 2018, the ABS developed the current LEED as an enduring data asset.


The LEED enables more detailed analysis of the Australian labour market than was previously possible - across the three lenses of jobs, persons and businesses.

  • Jobs - provides information on the jobs held in Australia each year (more than 19 million in 2016-17), including new information about the composition of jobs and about jobs in small geographic areas.
  • Persons - supports detailed statistical analysis on an annual basis, as well as providing new insights on employment (such as multiple job-holding).
  • Businesses - provides further insights into topics such as job creation and destruction as industries change over time, and elements that assist in exploring the drivers of firm-level performance.

Due to the rich detail of the underlying data, the LEED enables analysis at small geographic areas, such as 2,288 Statistical Areas across Australia, as well as at Local Government Areas and Electoral Divisions. In the 2019 publication of Jobs in Australia, the ABS released Spotlight articles for each of Australia's Local Government Areas, which highlight key statistics about jobs.

The LEED underpins both the Jobs in Australia and Personal Income in Australia publications. Outputs from the LEED are an essential input into the quarterly labour accounts - a core ABS offering.

Data CustodianDataset(s)
Australian Bureau of StatisticsABS Business Register (2011-12 to 2016-17)
Australia Taxation OfficePersonal Income Tax (2011-12 to 2016-17)
Business Activity Statement (2011-12 to 2016-17)
Business Income Tax (2001-02 to 2016-17) Pay As You Go (2001-02 to 2016-17)


17/12/2019 - Personal Income in Australia, 2011-12 to 2016-17 (cat. no. 6624.0.55.002)
Formerly Estimates of Personal Income for Small Areas, this release provides a comprehensive range of income indicators across small geographic areas. This publication is now based on the LEED, ensuring better consistency with Jobs in Australia.

27/09/2019 - Microdata: Jobs in Australia, 2011-12 to 2016-17 (cat. no. 6160.0.00.001)
Release of Jobs in Australia data through TableBuilder. This enables users to build their own customised tables from the Linked Employer-Employee Dataset microdata, including for State and Commonwealth Electoral Divisions.

01/08/2019 - Jobs in Australia, 2011-12 to 2016-17 (cat. no. 6160.0)
Jobs in Australia (JIA) provides aggregate statistics from the recently developed Linked Employer-Employee Dataset. It provides information about filled jobs in Australia, the people who hold them, and their employers. JIA provides data across 2,288 Statistical Areas as well as Local Government Areas.

04/04/2019 - Microdata: Jobs in Australia, 2011-12 to 2015-16 (cat. no. 6160.0.00.001)
Release of Jobs in Australia data through TableBuilder. This enables users to build their own customised tables from the Linked Employer-Employee Dataset microdata, including for State and Commonwealth Electoral Divisions. Update for 2016-17 data forthcoming.

18/01/2016 - Microdata: Employee Earnings and Jobs, Australia, 2011-12 (cat. no. 6311.0.55.001)
Employee Earnings and Jobs (EEJ) microdata is a 10% weighted sample of the linked employer-employee data that the ABS developed through the LEED Foundation projects and is available through the Data Lab.

11/12/2015 - Information Paper: Construction of Experimental Statistics on Employee Earnings and Jobs from Administrative Data, Australia, 2011-12 (cat. no. 6311.0)
This paper provides the background to the LEED Foundation projects, a description of the data sources, integration methodology and confidentiality process, summary of results, and limitations of the experimental statistics.

14/05/2015 - Research Paper: Use of a Prototype Linked Employer-Employee Database to Describe Characteristics of Productive Firms, May 2015 (cat. no. 1351.0.55.055)
This study uses a prototype linked employer-employee database (LEED) to analyse both employee and firm characteristics to identify factors that explain differences in labour productivity across firms and industries.

Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset (ACLD)

Commencement date: 11/10/2013
Project status: Ongoing

    Project Summary

    The Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset (ACLD) combines a 5% sample of data from the 2006, 2011, and 2016 Censuses.


    Viewing the population over time highlights the effect of policies longer term. This allows for the study of the changing patterns in social and economic conditions at the individual level, gives insight into the pathways that tend to lead to particular outcomes, and how these pathways vary for different population groups.

    The ACLD has been used to investigate such questions as:

    • Were Australians who were unemployed in 2011 and had moved regions by 2016 more likely to be employed than those who had remained in the same area?
    • What are the characteristics of persons transitioning into aged care facilities? How do they compare to those that don’t go into aged care facilities?
    • What are recent school leavers up to?
    • How is family structure changing over time? What are the characteristics of persons who are transitioning into single parenthood?
    Data CustodianDataset(s)
    Australian Bureau of Statistics2016 Census of Population and Housing
    2011 Census of Population and Housing
    2006 Census of Population and Housing


    18/12/2019 - Australians' journeys through life: Stories from the Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset (cat. no. 2081.0)
    This analytical release highlights various journeys through life for Australians. Areas of analysis include employment, education and housing transitions. The most recent release explores the characteristics and transitions from 2006 to 2016 for Australians approaching retirement age.

    20/03/2019 - Microdata: Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset, ACLD (cat. no. 2080.0)
    This release provides information about the ACLD microdata available in TableBuilder and DataLab. It includes the original 2006-11 dataset published in 2013. The 2011-16 dataset was most recently updated in March 2019 and the three-wave (2006-11-16) data was also released in March 2019.

    20/03/2019 - Information Paper: Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset, Methodology and Quality Assessment, 2006-2016 (cat. no. 2080.5)
    This publication provides in-depth information about the sampling and linking methodologies, and linkage results, It includes information about the original 2006-11 dataset published in 2013, the 2011-16 dataset most recently updated in March 2019, and the three-wave (2006-11-16) data released in March 2019.

    26/02/2019 - Australians' journeys through life: Stories from the Australian Census Longitudinal Dataset (cat. no. 2081.0)
    This analytical release highlights various journeys through life for Australians. Areas of analysis include employment, education and housing transitions. The current release focuses on a series of interactive maps which enable users to choose a particular region and explore, in depth, the employment status of people who moved out of that region and of those who stayed.

    28/11/2014 - Census Data Enhancement project: An update, 2011 (cat. no. 2062.0)
    This publication summarises the outcomes of the 2011 Census Data Enhancement (CDE) project, including the creation of the ACLD.

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