Housing Statistics for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

Latest release

Collation of housing and household characteristics statistics from ABS collections

Reference period
2021

Key statistics

  • Home ownership increased to 42.3% of households in 2021, up from 39.6% in 2016.

  • Four in five people (81.4%) lived in appropriately sized (not overcrowded) dwellings in 2021, up from 78.9% in 2016.

  • The median weekly rent was $300 in 2021, while the median monthly mortgage repayment was $1,721.

Historical experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and the lasting impacts of colonisation have had a significant impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander housing conditions and homelessness[¹].

The first release of this publication in May 2022 was externally peer-reviewed. The ABS greatly values the knowledge, expertise and contributions of these reviewers and thanks them for their time and input.

Information sources and comparability

Housing information for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is available in several ABS collections. See the Information Sources table below for further information.

The information presented in this publication was sourced from the Census of Population and Housing (Census), the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS). When reading this publication keep in mind that data from the Census cannot be compared to data from the NATSIHS and NATSISS due to different collection methods.

This release incorporates results from the 2021 Census, with previous Census data available in the data downloads.  The 2021 Census product release guide outlines when second and third release results, including Remoteness, Homelessness and Socio-economic index for areas (SEIFA), will be released. 

Information sources

Table 1 summarises key information about the use, available geographic disaggregation, frequency of collection and comparability of ABS sources that collect data on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander housing.

Table 1. ABS sources that collect data on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander housing
 Census of Population and Housing (Census)

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS)

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS)Census Estimates of Homelessness

Applicable population - housing questions

All persons

All personsAll personsAll persons

Best For

Analysis at small disaggregations such as low-level geography or age groups on key topics.

Analysis at national, state/territory and remoteness geographies.

Cross-classifying socioeconomic, cultural, health and wellbeing information.

Analysis at national, state/territory and remoteness geographies.

Cross-classifying socioeconomic, cultural, health and wellbeing information.

Analysis of homelessness prevalence (person counts and rates) from SA2 level.

Cross-classifying Homeless operational groups by various personal characteristics.

Geography

Available at all levels of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS)

Data quality better at higher levels of geography such as State and Territory and Remoteness

Data quality better at higher levels of geography such as State and Territory and Remoteness

Data quality better at Statistical Area level 3 (SA3) and above.

Frequency

Collected every 5 years. Most recent available data is 2021.

2004-05, 2012-13[ᵃ], 2018-19.

1994, 2002, 2008, 2014-15.

Collected every 5 years. Most recent available data is 2016.

Comparability

Not comparable with other collections.

Housing data is comparable with the NATSISS only.

Housing data is comparable with the NATSIHS only.

Not comparable with other collections, including Census.

More information – data and analysis

Find Census data

Census of Population and Housing: Census dictionary

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey, 2014-15

Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness

ᵃ The 2012-13 NATSIHS was collected and published under the broader Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (AATSIHS).

Table 2 provides an overview of the housing topics available in the Census, NATSIHS,  NATSISS and Census Estimates of Homelessness

Table 2. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander housing topics available in ABS sources
 

Census of Population and Housing (Census)

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS)

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS)

Census Estimates of Homelessness

Applicable population – housing questions

All persons

All persons

All persons

All persons

Dwelling structure

Y

Y

Y

Y

Household composition

Y

Y

Y

Y

Family household composition

Y

Y

Y

N

Number of persons in household

Y

Y

Y

Y

Tenure type

Y

Y

Y

Y

Landlord type

Y

Y

Y

Y

Number of bedrooms

Y

Y

Y

Y

Canadian National Occupancy Standard/ Housing Suitability

Y

Y

Y

Y

Equivalised total household income

(weekly)

Y

Y

Y

Y

Rent (weekly)

Y

N

Y

Y

Mortgage Repayments (monthly)

Y

N

Y(ᵃ)

Y

Household facilities that are not available or that do not work

N

Y

Y

N

Types of repairs or maintenance carried out in last 12 months

N

Y

Y

N

Types of major structural problems

N

Y

Y

N

Number of major structural problems

N

Y

Y

N

Whether household living in house of an acceptable standard

N

Y

Y

N

Types of community facilities available to the household

N

N

Y

N

Satisfaction with services provided by public housing service provider

N

N

Y

N

Dwelling Type

Y

N

N

Y

Type of non-private dwelling

Y

N

N

Y

Relationship in household

Y

Y

Y

Y

Count of persons temporarily absent from household

Y

N

N

Y

Type of homelessness

N

N

N

Y

(ᵃ) Weekly mortgage repayments, not monthly.

Population change over time

When considering timeseries changes, it is important to note that there have been significant increases in the number of people identifying as having Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin over time. Increases in the population are influenced by demographic factors such as births, deaths and migration, and by non-demographic factors including changes in whether or not a person identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander for each collection, the identification of children or others who have had their form completed by parents or someone else on their behalf, and the impact of communications and collection procedures. Changes in Indigenous status over time can affect the interpretation of data for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It is important to remember that Indigenous status is collected through self-identification and any change in how a person chooses to identify will affect the count of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in ABS collections.

Community Housing and Infrastructure Needs Survey

The Community Housing and Infrastructure Needs Survey (CHINS) is no longer conducted by the ABS. It was collected in 1999, 2001 and 2006 and produced reliable national statistics on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander housing and infrastructure in discrete communities. The aim of CHINS was to provide information to assist government agencies in policy and program development and target funding to discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities most in need.

Information collected included:

  • details of the current housing stock, management practices and financial arrangements of Indigenous organisations that supply housing to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
  • details of housing and related infrastructure such as water, electricity, sewerage, drainage and solid waste disposal, as well as other facilities such as transport, communication, education, sport and health services, available in discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.

Closing the gap and other national government reporting

ABS surveys, Census of Population and Housing and administrative information are major data sources for a number of government reports that measure outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. These include the National Agreement on Closing the Gap, the Overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage report, and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework.

An overview of ABS collections used in Closing the Gap and other National Government Reporting is available in Closing the Gap and Other National Government Reporting. Where possible this publication presents information using the same methodology used by these reports.

Closing the gap targets

There is one housing related target as part of the National Agreement on Closing the Gap that is measured using ABS data sources:

Target 9: ‘By 2031, increase the proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in appropriately sized (not overcrowded) housing to 88 per cent.’

Data for this target is available in the 'Closing the Gap target - Appropriately sized housing - Persons' data download.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households are defined as a dwelling where at least one person who usually lives in the dwelling identified as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander.

According to the 2021 Census, there were 352,041 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households, representing 3.8% of all households in Australia. This is up from 2.1% in 2001.

Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

  1. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
  2. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
  3. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.

Source: 2001, 2006, 2011, 2016 and 2021 Census of Population and Housing

Data available in table 1.1 in 'Dwelling Characteristics' from 'Data downloads'

Dwelling characteristics

ABS data sources classify dwellings as ‘non-private’ or ‘private’ dwellings.

Non-private dwellings are establishments which provide a communal type of accommodation e.g. hotels and boarding houses. If a non-private dwelling is unoccupied on Census night it is not counted.

Private dwellings are most often separate houses, townhouses, apartments or flats, but can also be caravans, cabins, tents or boats.

The majority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons counted on Census night in 2021 were staying in private dwellings (95.9%), and the remainder (4.1% or 33,391) were counted in non-private dwellings.

    Non-private dwellings

    Of those counted in non-private dwellings on Census night in 2021:

    • 13,131 (39.3%) were in prisons
    • 4,237 (12.7%) in hotels, motels or bed and breakfasts
    • 3,093 (9.3%) in staff quarters (including nurses’ quarters)
    • 2,648 (7.9%) were in boarding schools
    • 2,351 (7.0%) were in nursing home and aged care accommodation.

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    2. Other non-private dwelling includes Convent, monastery, etc.
    3. Includes accommodation for the retired or aged (not self-contained).

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 2.3 in 'Dwelling Characteristics' from 'Data downloads'

    Private dwellings

    The Dwelling structure variable provides a standard classification of the different types of private dwelling structures, such as houses, flats and townhouses. Data on dwelling structure are used to monitor changes in housing characteristics, to help formulate housing policies and to review existing housing stock.

    In the 2021 and 2016 Censuses most of the information on dwelling structure was sourced from the ABS Address Register. Prior to 2016, information on dwelling structure was collected by Census Field Officers.  The change in collection methods may have an impact when comparing dwelling structure information over time. For more information see Dwelling structure in the Census Dictionary.

    There were 352,041 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander private dwellings (households) that were counted in the 2021 Census. Of these:

    • Separate houses were the most common dwelling structure with 281,729 dwellings (80.3% of dwellings).
    • The next most common was semi-detached row or terrace houses or townhouses with 38,396 dwellings of this structure (10.9% of dwellings).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    2. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    3. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    4. ‘Other’ dwelling structure includes: Caravan; Cabin; Houseboat; Improvised home, tent, sleepers out; and House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.

    Source: 2016 and 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 3.9 in 'Dwelling Characteristics' from 'Data downloads'

    Number of bedrooms

    The Number of bedrooms variable provides a count of the number of bedrooms in each occupied private dwelling, including caravans in caravan parks. A bedroom is defined as a room within the dwelling that is defined as a bedroom on the dwelling plan, even if it has been converted to another room such as a study. This includes rooms that have been created as a result of alterations and additions to the dwellings (such as built-in verandas, extensions and sunrooms, etc.) which the occupants consider to be bedrooms. A studio apartment or bedsitter is considered to have no bedrooms, as there is no separate room in which to sleep.

    Information about the number of bedrooms in a dwelling is used to provide an indication of:

    • dwelling size
    • average number of persons per bedroom
    • overcrowding, by calculating occupancy ratios (i.e. the number and demographics of people per bedroom).

    In 2021, three bedrooms was the most common dwelling size (42.2% of households), followed by four bedrooms (27.2%).

    Number of bedrooms by dwelling structure

    In 2021:

    • The majority of separate houses had three or more bedrooms (87.9%) with three-bedroom houses being the most common (45.8%).
    • Most semi-detached houses had two (39.2%) or three (39.0%) bedrooms.
    • Four in five (80.5%) flats and apartments had two or fewer bedrooms with two bedrooms being the most reported (56.7%).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. Denominator includes not stated responses for Number of bedrooms.
    2. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    3. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    4. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    5. ‘Other’ dwelling structure includes: Caravan; Cabin; Houseboat; Improvised home, tent, sleepers out; and House or flat attached to a shop, office, etc.

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 5.3 in 'Dwelling characteristics' from 'Data downloads'

    Standard of housing

    Information has been collected on household facilities, maintenance and major structural problems in the ABS Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander surveys since the 2008 NATSISS to better understand the condition of housing in which people live.

    The most recent available data on this topic is from the 2018-19 NATSIHS. 2022-23 NATSIHS results will be available in 2024.

    Household facilities

    The types of basic household facilities that are considered important for a healthy living environment include those that:

    • assist in washing people, clothes and bedding
    • safely remove waste
    • enable the safe storage and cooking of food.


    The household spokesperson was asked whether any of the listed household facilities were not available or were not working. Not working includes instances where the item works but there is no power or fuel supply available for it to be useable. More than one response was allowed. The response categories were:

    • stove/oven/other cooking facilities
    • fridge
    • toilet
    • bath or shower
    • washing machine
    • kitchen sink
    • laundry tub
    • none of these.

    Major structural problems

    The household spokesperson was also asked about any major structural problems that existed. The household spokesperson may have a lack of knowledge of housing construction and standards which could impact reporting of the following structural problems. In non-remote areas, people were asked whether the dwelling has any of the listed major structural problems, while in remote areas people were asked if the house had any of the listed problems that need to be fixed. More than one response was allowed. The response categories were:

    • rising damp
    • major cracks in walls/floors
    • sinking/moving foundations
    • sagging floors
    • walls or windows that aren't straight
    • wood rot/termite damage
    • major electrical problems
    • major plumbing problems
    • major roof defect
    • other major structural problems
    • no structural problems.

    Acceptable standard of housing

    The ‘acceptable standard of housing’ variable was introduced in the 2008 NATSISS and is calculated based on the household facilities available in the household and the number of major structural problems. A dwelling was deemed to be of an acceptable standard where it had fewer than three major structural problems and had:

    • working facilities for washing people
    • working facilities for washing clothes or bedding
    • working facilities for preparing food
    • working sewerage facilities.

    A dwelling was deemed to be not of an acceptable standard where any of the above facilities were unavailable or there were more than two structural problems.

    Housing and infrastructure in remote areas is more expensive and logistically more difficult to maintain[²]. With one in nine (11.4% in 2016) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households located in remote areas, compared with just 1.4% of Other households, they are more likely to be impacted by major structural problems and inadequate facilities.

    Between the 2012-13 and the 2018-19 NATSIHS, the proportion of dwellings that were of an acceptable standard:

    • did not change significantly (around four in five dwellings) nationally
    • remained stable in both non-remote and remote areas
    • was lower in remote areas than non-remote (64.8% compared with 82.6% in 2018-19).

    Cells in this table containing data have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

    1. Dwelling had fewer than three major structural problems and all household facilities were available and in working order.

    Source: 2012-13 and 2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS)

    Data available in table 1.2 in 'Standard of housing' from 'Data downloads'

    Household facilities

    There was no significant change nationally between 2012-13 and 2018-19 in the proportion of dwellings with working facilities (84.3% and 86.7% respectively).

    In 2018-19, dwellings in non-remote areas were more likely to have working facilities than those in remote areas. The biggest difference between non-remote and remote areas were for working facilities for preparing food (difference of 13.7 percentage points) and for washing clothes or bedding (difference of 11 percentage points).

    Cells in this table containing data have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

    Source: 2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS)

    Data available in table 2.2 in 'Standard of housing' from 'Data downloads'

    Major structural problems

    In 2018-19, two-thirds (67.1%) of dwellings had no major structural problems, while almost one in ten dwellings had three or more problems (9%). There was no significant change for either of these indicators since the 2012-13 NATSIHS.

    The most common type of major structural problem reported for all dwellings (including those with no major structural problems) was major cracks in walls and floors (12.4%), followed by walls or windows that were not straight (10.0%).

    Cells in this table containing data have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

    1. Denominator includes dwellings with no major structural problems.

    Source: 2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS)

    Data available in table 3.1 in 'Standard of housing' from 'Data downloads'

    Remoteness

    In 2018-19, survey participants reported:

    • Over two-thirds (69.0%) of dwellings in non-remote areas had no major structural problems compared with over half (54.5%) of those in remote areas.
    • Dwellings in remote areas were more likely to have three or more major structural problems (12.1% compared with 8.5%).

    Cells in this table containing data have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

    Source: 2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS)

    Data available in table 3.2 in 'Standard of housing' from 'Data downloads'

    Tenure type

    The Tenure type variable describes whether a household rents or owns their dwelling or whether the household occupies it under another arrangement.

    In 2021:

    • Home ownership increased to 42.3%, up from 33.0% in 2001 and 39.6% in 2016.
    • Just over one in four dwellings were owned with a mortgage (28.1%), compared with one in seven that were owned outright (14.1%).
    • More than half of dwellings were rented (56.1%).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    2. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    3. Based on Place of Enumeration. Australia includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    4. Owned with a mortgage includes ‘Being purchased under a shared equity scheme’.

    Source: 2001, 2006, 2011, 2016 and 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Tenure and landlord type' from 'Data downloads'

    Across the states and territories:

    • Northern Territory had the highest proportion of dwellings that were rented (71.6%), down from 77.8% in 2001.
    • Tasmania had the highest rate of dwellings (56.3%) that were owned (outright/with a mortgage).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. Based on Place of Enumeration.
    2. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    3. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    4. Australia includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    5. Owned with a mortgage includes ‘Being purchased under a shared equity scheme’.

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Tenure and landlord type' from 'Data downloads'

    Family composition - counting households

    In 2021:

    • Over half (58.0%) of dwellings owned with a mortgage were occupied by couple families with children.
    • Over two in five (44.4%) dwellings owned outright were owned by couple families with no children.
    • Almost half (46.4%) of rented dwellings were occupied by one parent families.
    • Dwellings owned outright were more likely to be occupied by multiple family households than those that were rented (7.9% compared with 6.3%).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. In multiple family households, only the family composition of the primary family is recorded. See the Census Glossary for a definition of the Primary family.
    2. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    3. Excludes 'Visitors only', 'Other non-classifiable' households and 'Other households' including lone person and group households, which in 2016 accounted for 19.3% of households.
    4. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    5. Owned with a mortgage includes ‘Being purchased under a shared equity scheme’.
    6. Includes couple families with children under 15 years, couple families with no children under 15 but with dependent students, and couple families with no children under 15 and no dependent students but with non-dependent children. See 2016 Census Dictionary for definition of non-dependent children.

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 2.1 in 'Tenure and landlord type' from 'Data downloads'

    Family composition - counting families

    In 2021:

    • One parent families in multiple family households were more likely to live in a home that was owned outright (13.0%) compared with those in one family households (8.4%).
    • Almost three-quarters (74.1%) of one parent families in one family households lived in a rented home compared with almost two-thirds (65.2%) of one parent families in multiple family households.
    • Couple families with children in multiple family households were more likely to live in a rented home compared with those in one family households (56.2% compared with 42.2%).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. A family with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    2. Excludes 'Visitors only', 'Other non-classifiable' households and 'Other households' including lone person and group households.
    3. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    4. Owned with a mortgage includes ‘Being purchased under a shared equity scheme’.
    5. Includes couple families with children under 15 years, couple families with children under 15 but with dependent students, and couple families with no children under 15 and no dependent students but with non-dependent children. See 2016 Census Dictionary for definition of non-dependent children.

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 3.1 in 'Tenure and landlord type' from 'Data downloads'

    Landlord type

    The Landlord type variable provides information on the type of landlord for rented dwellings. It applies to all households who are renting their dwelling (including caravans, etc. in caravan parks). Landlord Type allows data to be produced for studies of the socio-economic characteristics of tenants of public authority housing as well as tenants in privately owned accommodation.

    Just over one in four dwellings (27.6%) were rented from Real Estate Agents in 2021, up from 25.3% in 2016. This was the most common landlord type, followed by State or Territory Housing Authority at 14.4%, down from 19.3% in 2016.

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    2. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    3. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    4. Person not in same household includes parent, other relative and other person.
    5. Other landlord type includes Residential park (includes caravan parks and marinas), Government employer (including Defence Housing Authority) and Other employer.

    Source: 2016 and 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Tenure and landlord type' from 'Data downloads'

    State and territory

    In 2021:

    • The Northern Territory had the highest rate of renting from a State or Territory Housing Authority (36.5%). This was almost twice as high as South Australia (19.6%) and Western Australia (19.2%).
    • The Northern Territory also had the highest rate of renting from a community housing provider (13.5%). This was more than twice as high as the other states and territories.
    • Queensland and Victoria had the highest rate of renting from a Real Estate Agent (32.5% and 32.0% respectively).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. Based on Place of Enumeration.
    2. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    3. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    4. Australia includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    5. Person not in same household includes parent, other relative and other person.
    6. Other landlord type includes Residential park (includes caravan parks and marinas), Government employer (including Defence Housing Authority) and Other employer.

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Tenure and landlord type' from 'Data downloads'

    Housing suitability and overcrowding

    When considering the following information, note that the ABS’s housing suitability variable is based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS) and the definitions below may not adequately reflect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of overcrowding. CNOS does not take into consideration Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural norms such as 'demand sharing', which can lead households to be seen as 'crowded'[³]. Maintaining a large, open household is a core obligation for many Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people, driven by a culture of sharing and connection to family. Household size can vary due to visiting family seeking temporary or semi-permanent accommodation for reasons such as accessing health or other services in the area or attending cultural events[⁴]. This measure may also be affected by under-reporting, with the number of actual occupants in a household not accurately reported for fear of negative consequences by the household’s rental agency for housing more people than allowed by their tenancy agreement[⁵].

    For more information on this measure see Housing suitability in the Census Dictionary.

    The Housing suitability variable compares the number of bedrooms in the dwelling with the number of bedrooms required based on household demographics. This means that the variable can be used to provide a measure of overcrowding in households.

    For the purposes of this analysis:

    • dwellings requiring one or more bedrooms are considered overcrowded
    • dwellings requiring four or more bedrooms are considered severely crowded
    • dwellings with spare bedrooms or the right number of bedrooms are considered appropriately sized or ‘not overcrowded’.

    Canadian National Occupancy Standard

    There is no single standard measure for housing suitability. However, the CNOS is widely used in Australia and internationally and the housing suitability variable is based on this standard. 

    Housing Suitability is a housing utilisation measure based upon a comparison of the number of bedrooms in a dwelling together with a series of household demographics such as the number of usual residents, their relationship to one another, and their age and sex.

    The measure assesses the bedroom requirements of a household by specifying that:

    • there should be no more than two persons per bedroom
    • children less than five years of age of different sexes may reasonably share a bedroom
    • children less than 18 years of age and of the same sex may reasonably share a bedroom
    • single household members 18 years and over should have a separate bedroom
    • parents or couples should have a separate bedroom
    • a lone person household may reasonably occupy a bed sitter.

    Closing the gap - people living in appropriately sized (not overcrowded) housing

    In contrast to the rest of the publication, the information below on the Closing the gap target is based on a count of persons, not households. This person level data is included in the Data Download: ‘Closing the Gap Target – Appropriately sized housing – Persons’.

    In 2021:

    • Four in five (81.4%) people lived in appropriately sized housing, up from 78.9% in 2016.
    • The Australian Capital Territory had the highest rate of people living in appropriately sized housing (90.7%) while the Northern Territory had the lowest (43.4%).
    • The Northern Territory had the largest absolute increase between 2016 and 2021 in those living in appropriately sized housing, rising 5.0 percentage points, followed by Western Australia (3.6 percentage points).
    • Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory had slight decreases in those living in appropriately sized housing (-1.1 and -0.9 percentage points respectively).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. Based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard, dwellings not requiring one or more bedrooms. Denominator excludes dwelling with Housing Suitability not stated and unable to be determined. Excludes persons who were not enumerated at their place of usual residence.
    2. Based on Place of Usual Residence. Includes No usual address and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    3. Includes Other Territories

    Source: 2016 and 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Closing the Gap target - Adequately sized housing - Persons' from 'Data downloads'

    Housing suitability - counting households

    Analysis presented in the below commentary is based on counts of households.

    In 2021:

    • Over one-third of dwellings had one bedroom spare (34.1%). This was most common, followed by those that needed no additional bedrooms and had none spare (26.2%).
    • Just under one in ten dwellings (9.5%) were overcrowded, requiring one or more bedrooms.
    • Just over 1% of dwellings were severely crowded, requiring four or more extra bedrooms.

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. Based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard. Denominator excludes dwelling with Housing Suitability not stated and unable to be determined.
    2. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    3. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    4. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    5. Dwellings requiring one or more bedrooms are considered ‘overcrowded’.

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Housing suitability and Overcrowding - Households' from 'Data downloads'

    In 2021, most households (90.5%) were not overcrowded (did not need one or more bedrooms). This has gradually improved over the last five Census from 84.3% in 2001.

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    2. Based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard, dwellings not requiring one or more bedrooms. Denominator excludes dwelling with Housing Suitability not stated and unable to be determined.
    3. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    4. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.

    Source: 2001, 2006, 2011, 2016 and 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Housing suitability and Overcrowding - Households' from 'Data downloads'

    Tenure type - counting households

    In 2021, dwellings that were owned were more likely than dwellings that were rented to not be overcrowded (94.2% compared with 87.5%). Rented dwellings that were not overcrowded increased over the last twenty years, from 80.5% in 2001.

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    2. Based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard, dwellings not requiring one or more bedrooms. Denominator excludes dwelling with Housing Suitability not stated and unable to be determined.
    3. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Other Territories and Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    4. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    5. Owned with a mortgage includes ‘Being purchased under a shared equity scheme’.

    Source: 2001, 2006, 2011, 2016 and 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in tables 3.1, 3.3, 3.5, 3.7 and 3.9 in 'Housing suitability and Overcrowding - Households' from 'Data downloads'

    Standard of housing

    Housing of acceptable standard

    Overcrowding can have a significant impact on the quality of life for people living in these conditions due to additional stress on shared amenities such as bathroom, kitchen and laundry facilities, and a lack of privacy.

    In the 2018-19 NATSIHS, most overcrowded dwellings (79.5%) in non-remote areas were of an acceptable standard, similar to dwellings in non-remote areas that were appropriately sized (82.8%).

    In remote areas, overcrowded dwellings were less likely than dwellings that were appropriately sized to be considered acceptable standard housing. Around half of overcrowded dwellings (52.5%) in remote areas were of an acceptable standard, compared with 68.2% of appropriately sized dwellings.

    Cells in this table containing data have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

    1. Dwelling had fewer than three major structural problems and all household facilities were available and in working order.
    2. Based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard, overcrowded dwellings require one or more bedrooms.

    Source: 2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS)

    Data available in table 4.2 in 'Housing suitability and Overcrowding - Households' from 'Data downloads'

    Facilities and major structural problems

    The 2018-19 NATSIHS showed that overcrowded dwellings in remote areas were more likely than those in non-remote areas to have:

    • major structural problems (52.5% compared with 35.9%)
    • household facilities that were not available or did not work (42.6% and 12.8% respectively).

    Cells in this table containing data have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

    1. Based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard, overcrowded dwellings require one or more bedrooms.

    Source: 2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS)

    Data available in tables 5.3 and 6.3 in 'Housing suitability and Overcrowding - Households' from 'Data downloads'

    Homelessness

    Census estimates of homelessness

    Since the 2001 Census, the ABS publishes estimates of the prevalence of homelessness, and the characteristics and living arrangements of those likely to be homeless on Census night. Estimates are also provided for people whose living arrangements are close to the statistical boundary of homelessness, but who are not classified as homeless. The available data includes an estimate of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons experiencing homelessness.

    The ABS definition of homelessness has been developed for application to the general population in Australia. While Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are over-represented in the measures of homelessness developed with this definition, there are likely to be additional aspects to homelessness from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' perspectives that the definition does not currently adequately capture, including high rates of residential mobility or living remotely in the bush on Country[⁶]. It is also important to recognise that whilst participation rates in the Census by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have increased due to more targeted strategies, some do not easily engage with government data collections based on historical fear and mistrust of government[⁷]. For more information about the Census Estimates of Homelessness, see 4736.0 - Information Paper: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Perspectives on Homelessness, 2014 and Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness, 2016.

    Rates of homelessness for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are linked to several complex factors, including the lasting impacts of colonisation.

    The most recent available data on this topic is from 2016. 2021 estimates will be available in early to mid-2023. See the 2021 Census product release guide for more information.

    In 2016, it was estimated that 23,437 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were likely to be homeless on Census Night. Most of these people were living in ‘severely’ crowded dwellings (16,399). The smallest was persons in other temporary lodgings (43).

    Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.

    1. Based on Place of Usual Residence. Includes Other Territories.
    2. Persons living in 'severely' crowded dwellings includes usual residents in dwellings needing 4 or more extra bedrooms under the Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS).
    3. Persons staying temporarily with other households includes 'visitor only' households where all persons report having no usual address.

    Source: 2016 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Homelessness' from 'Data downloads'

    Experience of homelessness

    The 2014-15 NATSISS collected information on past experiences of homelessness. This information is not comparable with prevalence estimates of homelessness derived from the Census of Population and Housing. It refers to whether a person has ever previously been without a 'permanent place to live' for the following reasons:

    • family/relationship breakdowns
    • tight housing/rental market
    • violence/abuse/neglect
    • alcohol or drug use
    • financial problems
    • mental illness
    • job loss
    • gambling
    • eviction
    • natural disaster or other damage to house
    • health issues.

    For further information, see the 2014-15 NATSISS Glossary.

    The 2014-15 NATSISS showed just over one-quarter (29.1%) of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over had experienced homelessness in their lifetime. Experience of homelessness was most common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 35-44 years (40.9%), 25-34 years (38.5%) and 45-54 years (34.4%).

    Cells in this table containing data have been randomly adjusted to avoid the release of confidential data. Discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.

    Source: 2014-15 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS)

    Data available in table 2.1 in 'Homelessness' from 'Data downloads'

    Household income

    The following commentary on household income uses the variable ‘Equivalised total household income (weekly)’. This item uses total household income adjusted by the application of an equivalence scale to help compare income levels between households of different size and composition. The 'modified OECD' equivalence scale is used. For more information see Equivalised total household income (weekly) in the 2021 Census Dictionary.

    In 2021, the median equivalised total household weekly income for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households was:

    • $830 nationally, up from $641 in 2016 (not adjusted for inflation)
    • highest in the Australian Capital Territory ($1,379)
    • lowest in the Northern Territory ($578).
    1. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    2. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    3. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    4. 2016 data has not been adjusted for inflation.
    5. Australia includes Other Territories.

    Source: 2016 and 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Household income' from 'Data downloads'

    Housing costs

    Rent payments

    The Rent (weekly) variable records the individual dollar amounts of rent paid by households on a weekly basis for the dwelling in which they were counted on Census night. The Census is the only source of rent data for small areas and for small populations. This data is important for housing policy and planning, and for studying the housing conditions of small populations.

    Rent - states and territories

    In 2021:

    • The median weekly rent paid by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households was $300 nationally, up from $255 in 2016 (not adjusted for inflation).
    • Households in five states/territories paid above the national median weekly rent – Australian Capital Territory ($425), New South Wales ($340), Victoria ($330) and Queensland ($305).
    • Households in the Northern Territory paid the lowest median weekly rent ($130) and the Australian Capital Territory paid the highest ($425).
    1. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    2. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    3. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    4. 2016 data has not been adjusted for inflation.
    5. Australia includes Other Territories.

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 2.1 in 'Housing costs' from 'Data downloads'

    Rent – landlord type

    Median weekly rent payments in 2021 were highest for households that were privately rented:

    • $380 for those rented through Real Estate Agents
    • $300 for those rented through someone not in the same household such as parents.

    In comparison, median weekly rent payments were around half as much when rented through the government or a community group:

    • $180 when rented through a community housing provider
    • $160 when rented through a State or Territory Housing Authority.

    Mortgage repayments

    The Mortgage repayments (monthly) variable records the mortgage repayments being paid by a household. This data is used for analysis of home ownership and for providing benchmark data for evaluating housing needs, housing finance and housing demand.

    Mortgage - states and territories

    In 2021:

    • The median monthly mortgage repayment paid by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander households was $1,721, up from $1,660 in 2016 (not adjusted for inflation).
    • Households in four states/territories paid above the national median monthly mortgage repayments - the Australian Capital Territory ($2,141), the Northern Territory ($2,000), New South Wales ($1,755) and Western Australia ($1,733).
    • Households in Tasmania paid the lowest median monthly mortgage ($1,300) while the Australian Capital Territory paid the highest ($2,141).
    1. Based on Place of Enumeration. Includes Migratory, Offshore and Shipping.
    2. A household with at least one person who identified as being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander who is a usual resident in the household and was at home on Census night.
    3. Excludes 'Visitors only' and 'Other non-classifiable' households.
    4. 2016 data has not been adjusted for inflation.
    5. Australia includes Other Territories.

    Source: 2021 Census of Population and Housing

    Data available in table 1.1 in 'Housing costs' from 'Data downloads'

    References

    List of references

    [¹] Keys Young 1998. Homelessness in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Context and its possible implications for the Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP). Prepared for the Department of Family and Community Services, 30 November 1998, (final report). NSW: Sydney. Available at Homelessness in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context and its possible implications for the Supported Accommodation Assistance Program | The Homeless Hub.

    [²] Fien, J. and Charlesworth, E. 2012, ‘Why Isn’t It Solved?: Factors Affecting Improvements in Housing Outcomes in Remote Indigenous Communities in Australia’, Habitat International, vol. 36, pp. 20–25. Available at ‘Why isn’t it solved?’: Factors affecting improvements in housing outcomes in remote Indigenous communities in Australia (researchgate.net).

    [³] Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute 2017. Understanding ‘demand sharing’ of Indigenous households. Available at Understanding 'demand sharing' of Indigenous households | AHURI.

    [⁴] Memmott P, Birdsall-Jones C & Greenop K. 2012. Australian Indigenous house crowding. AHURI final report No. 194. Melbourne: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. Available at Australian Indigenous house crowding (ahuri.edu.au).

    [⁵] Memmott, P., Greenop, K., Clarke, A., Go-Sam, C., Birsall-Janes, C., Harvey-Janes, W., Corunna, V. & Western, M. 2012. Survey Analysis for Indigenous Policy in Australia. 12. NATSISS crowding data: What does it assume and how can we challenge the orthodoxy? Available at Survey Analysis for Indigenous Policy in Australia - ANU.

    [⁶] Memmott, P. Long, S. and Thomson, L. 2006. Indigenous Mobility in Rural and Remote Australia. Available at Indigenous mobility in rural and remote Australia | AHURI.

    [⁷] NATSIHA, 2020. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Housing Authority Parliamentary Enquiry into Homelessness in Australia Submission. Available at Inquiry into homelessness in Australia – Parliament of Australia (aph.gov.au) Submission 162.

    Available data

    Information used in this publication is available by time series and geography in the Data Downloads section. Please see tables below by topic for information about how to locate this information in the downloads.

    Further housing information is available from ABS collections as listed in the 'Information sources and comparability' section. Customised data requests are also available on request. Please see Contact the ABS.

    Dwelling characteristics

    Dwelling characteristics data download content
    TopicDisaggregationCollectionTable number
    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander householdsState/TerritoryCensus 2001-2021Table 1.1
    RemotenessCensus 2001-2016Table 1.2
    Type of Non-Private DwellingState/TerritoryCensus 2016Table 2.1
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table 2.2
    State/TerritoryCensus 2021Table 2.3
    Dwelling structureState/TerritoryCensus 2016Table 3.1
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table 3.2
    Local Government AreaCensus 2016Table 3.5
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2016Table 3.6
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2016Table 3.7
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2016Table 3.8
    State/TerritoryCensus 2021Table 3.9
    Local Government AreaCensus 2021Table 3.11
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2021Table 3.12
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2021Table 3.13
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2021Table 3.14
    Dwelling structure (expanded)State/TerritoryCensus 2016Table 3.3
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table 3.4
    State/TerritoryCensus 2021Table 3.10
    Number of bedroomsState/TerritoryCensus 2016Table 4.1
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table 4.2
    State/TerritoryCensus 2021Table 4.3
    Dwelling structure by number of bedroomsState/TerritoryCensus 2016Table 5.1
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table 5.2
    State/TerritoryCensus 2021Table 5.3

    See 'Dwelling characteristics' download for data on this topic.

    Standard of housing

    Standard of housing data download content
    TopicDisaggregationCollectionTables
    Whether dwelling of an acceptable standardState/TerritoryNATSISS 2008 and 2014-15, NATSIHS 2012-13 and 2018-19Table 1.1
    RemotenessTable 1.2
    Types of household facilities available and Whether has facilities that are not available or do not work.State/TerritoryNATSIHS 2012-3Table 2.1
    RemotenessNATSIHS 2012-3Table 2.2
    State/TerritoryNATSISS 2014-15Table 2.3
    RemotenessNATSISS 2014-15Table 2.4
    State/TerritoryNATSIHS 2018-19Table 2.5
    RemotenessNATSIHS 2018-19Table 2.6
    Types and number of major structural problemsState/TerritoryNATSIHS 2012-3Table 3.1
    RemotenessNATSIHS 2012-3Table 3.2
    State/TerritoryNATSISS 2014-15Table 3.3
    RemotenessNATSISS 2014-15Table 3.4
    State/TerritoryNATSIHS 2018-19Table 3.5
    RemotenessNATSIHS 2018-19Table 3.6

    See 'Standard of housing' download for data on this topic.

    Tenure and landlord type

    Tenure and landlord type data download content
    TopicDisaggregationCollectionTables
    Tenure and Landlord typeState/Territory Census 2001-2021Table 1.1
    Remoteness Census 2001-2016Table 1.2
    Local Government Areas Census 2011Table 1.3
    Indigenous Regions Census 2011Table 1.4
    Indigenous Areas Census 2011Table 1.5
    Indigenous Locations Census 2011Table 1.6
    Local Government Areas Census 2016Table 1.7
    Indigenous Regions Census 2016Table 1.8
    Indigenous Areas Census 2016Table 1.9
    Indigenous Locations Census 2016Table 1.10
    Local Government AreasCensus 2021Table 1.11
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2021Table 1.12
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2021Table​​​​​​​ 1.13
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2021Table​​​​​​​ 1.14
    Tenure and Landlord type by Family Composition (Households)State/Territory Census 2011Table​​​​​​​ 2.1
    Remoteness Census 2011Table​​​​​​​ 2.2
    State/Territory Census 2016Table​​​​​​​ 2.3
    Remoteness Census 2016Table​​​​​​​ 2.4
    State/TerritoryCensus 2021Table​​​​​​​ 2.5
    Tenure and Landlord type by Family Composition (Families)State/TerritoryCensus 2016Table​​​​​​​ 3.1
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table​​​​​​​ 3.2
    State/TerritoryCensus 2021Table​​​​​​​ 3.3

    See 'Tenure and landlord type' download for data on this topic.

    Closing the Gap target - Appropriately sized housing - Persons

    Closing the Gap target (Appropriately sized housing - Persons) data download content
    TopicDisaggregationCollectionTable
    Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander persons living in appropriately sized (not overcrowded) dwellingsState/Territory Census 2001 to 2021Table 1.1
    Remoteness Census 2001 to 2016Table 1.2
    Local Government Areas Census 2011Table 1.3
    Indigenous Regions Census 2011Table 1.4
    Indigenous Areas Census 2011Table 1.5
    Indigenous Locations Census 2011Table 1.6
    Local Government Areas Census 2016Table 1.7
    Indigenous Regions Census 2016Table 1.8
    Indigenous Areas Census 2016Table 1.9
    Indigenous Locations Census 2016Table 1.10
    Local Government Areas Census 2021Table 1.11
    Indigenous Regions Census 2021Table 1.12
    Indigenous Areas Census 2021Table 1.13
    Indigenous Locations Census 2021Table 1.14
    State/Territory NATSIHS 2012-13 and 2018-19, and NATSISS 2014-15Table 2.1
    Remoteness NATSIHS 2012-13 and 2018-19, and NATSISS 2014-15Table 2.2

    See 'Closing the Gap target - Appropriately sized housing - Persons' download for data on this topic.

    Housing suitability and Overcrowding - Households

    Housing suitability and Overcrowding (Households) data download content
    TopicDisaggregationCollectionTable
    Housing suitability (overcrowding) of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander householdsState/Territory Census 2001 to 2021Table 1.1
    Remoteness Census 2001 to 2016Table 1.2
    Local Government Areas Census 2011Table 1.3
    Indigenous Regions Census 2011Table 1.4
    Indigenous Areas Census 2011Table 1.5
    Indigenous Locations Census 2011Table 1.6
    Local Government Areas Census 2016Table 1.7
    Indigenous Regions Census 2016Table 1.8
    Indigenous Areas Census 2016Table 1.9
    Indigenous Locations Census 2016Table 1.10
    Local Government Areas Census 2021Table 1.11
    Indigenous Regions Census 2021Table 1.12
    Indigenous Areas Census 2021Table 1.13
    Indigenous Locations Census 2021Table 1.14
    State/Territory NATSIHS 2012-13 and 2018-19, and NATSISS 2014-15Table 2.1
    Remoteness NATSIHS 2012-13 and 2018-19, and NATSISS 2014-15Table 2.2
    Tenure type by Housing suitability (overcrowding)State/Territory Census 2001Table 3.1
    Remoteness Census 2001Table 3.2
    State/Territory Census 2006Table 3.3
    Remoteness Census 2006Table 3.4
    State/Territory Census 2011Table 3.5
    Remoteness Census 2011Table 3.6
    State/Territory Census 2016Table 3.7
    Remoteness Census 2016Table 3.8
    State/Territory Census 2021Table 3.9
    Whether dwelling of an acceptable standard by Canadian National Occupancy Standard (overcrowding)Remoteness NATSISS 2014-15Table 4.1
    Remoteness NATSIHS 2018-19Table 4.2
    Whether any major structural problems by Canadian National Occupancy Standard (overcrowding)Remoteness NATSIHS 2012-13Table 5.1
    Remoteness NATSISS 2014-15Table 5.2
    Remoteness NATSIHS 2018-19Table 5.3
    Household facilities that are not available or that do not work by Canadian National Occupancy Standard (overcrowding)Remoteness NATSIHS 2012-13Table 6.1
    Remoteness NATSISS 2014-15Table 6.2
    Remoteness NATSIHS 2018-19Table 6.3

    See 'Housing suitability and Overcrowding - Households' download for data on this topic.

    Homelessness

    Homelessness data download content
    TopicDisaggregationCollectionTable
    Homeless Operational Groups and Other Marginal HousingIndigenous statusCensus 2016Table 1.1
    Whether ever experienced homelessnessAge groupsNATSISS 2014-15Table 2.1

    See 'Homelessness' download for data on this topic.

    Household income

    Household income data download content
    TopicDisaggregationCollectionTable
    Median equivalised total household weekly incomeState/Territory Census 2001 to 2021Table 1.1
    Remoteness Census 2001 to 2021Table 1.2
    Tenure type by Median equivalised total household weekly incomeState/Territory Census 2011Table 2.1
    Remoteness Census 2011Table 2.2
    State/Territory Census 2016Table 2.3
    Remoteness Census 2016Table 2.4
    State/Territory Census 2021Table 2.5
    Housing suitability (overcrowding) by Median equivalised total household weekly incomeState/Territory Census 2011Table 3.1
    Remoteness Census 2011Table 3.2
    State/Territory Census 2016Table 3.3
    Remoteness Census 2016Table 3.4
    State/Territory Census 2021Table 3.5

    See 'Household income' download for data on this topic.

    Housing costs

    Housing costs data download content
    TopicDisaggregationCollectionTable
    Median mortgage repayments (monthly)State/TerritoryCensus 2011-2021Table 1.1
    RemotenessCensus 2011 and 2016Table 1.2
    Local Government AreasCensus 2011Table 1.3
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2011Table 1.4
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2011Table 1.5
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2011Table 1.6
    Local Government AreasCensus 2016Table 1.7
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2016Table 1.8
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2016Table 1.9
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2016Table 1.10
    Local Government AreasCensus 2021Table 1.11
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2021Table 1.12
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2021Table 1.13
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2021Table 1.14
    Median rent payments (weekly)State/TerritoryCensus 2011-2021Table 2.1
    RemotenessCensus 2011 and 2016Table 2.2
    Local Government AreasCensus 2011Table 2.3
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2011Table 2.4
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2011Table 2.5
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2011Table 2.6
    Local Government AreasCensus 2016Table 2.7
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2016Table 2.8
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2016Table 2.9
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2016Table 2.10
    Local Government AreasCensus 2021Table 2.11
    Indigenous RegionsCensus 2021Table 2.12
    Indigenous AreasCensus 2021Table 2.13
    Indigenous LocationsCensus 2021Table 2.14
    Median rent payments (weekly) by Landlord typeState/TerritoryCensus 2016Table 3.1
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table 3.2
    State/TerritoryCensus 2021Table 3.3

    See 'Housing costs' download for data on this topic.

    Socio-economic index of dwelling location

    Socio-economic index of dwelling location data download content
        
    Index of relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage (IRSAD)(a) by tenure typeState/TerritoryCensus 2011Table 1.1
    RemotenessCensus 2011Table 1.2
    State/TerritoryCensus 2016Table 1.3
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table 1.4
    Index of relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage (IRSAD)(a) by housing suitability (overcrowding)State/TerritoryCensus 2011Table 2.1
    RemotenessCensus 2011Table 2.2
    State/TerritoryCensus 2016Table 2.3
    RemotenessCensus 2016Table 2.4

    See 'Socio-economic index of dwelling location' download for data on this topic.

    Data downloads

    Housing data tables

    Data files

    Previous catalogue number

    This release previously used catalogue number 4744.0

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