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Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product

Quarterly estimates of key economic flows in Australia, including gross domestic product (GDP), consumption, investment, income and saving

Reference period
December 2020
Released
3/03/2021
Future releases
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    Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product, March 2021
  • Next Release 1/09/2021
    Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product, June 2021
  • Next Release 1/12/2021
    Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product, September 2021
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Key statistics

  • The Australian economy rose 3.1% in seasonally adjusted chain volume measures
  • Through the year GDP fell 1.1%
  • The terms of trade rose 4.7%
  • Household saving ratio decreased to 12.0% from 18.7%

Economic overview

Unless otherwise stated all figures are in seasonally adjusted, chain volume measures.

The reference year for chain volume measures is 2018-19.

For more information about the changes in this issue, please see revisions and changes on this page.

December key figures, percentage changes (a)

 Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20Sep 20 to Dec 20Dec 19 to Dec 20
Chain volume GDP and related measures (b)
 GDP0.4-0.3-7.03.43.1-1.1
 GDP per capita (c)0.1-0.6-7.23.33.0-1.8
 Gross value added market sector (d)0.2-0.6-7.93.23.4-2.3
 Real net national disposable income-0.5-0.2-7.35.24.92.1
Productivity
 GDP per hour worked0.20.63.4-1.4-2.5
 Real unit labour costs1.2-0.6-8.9-0.96.9-4.1
Prices
 GDP chain price index (original)-1.21.0-0.3-0.11.72.4
 Terms of trade-4.50.40.81.34.77.4
Current price measures
 GDP-0.20.3-7.54.04.20.6
 Household saving ratio5.37.922.018.712.0na

na not available
a. Change on preceding quarter, except for the last column which shows the change between the current quarter and the corresponding quarter of the previous year. Excludes Household saving ratio.
b. Reference year for chain volume measures and real income measures is 2018-19.
c. Population estimates are as published in the National, state and territory population (cat. no. 3101.0) and ABS projections.
d. ANZSIC divisions A to N, R and S. See Glossary - Market sector.
 

Australian economy rose 3.1% in December quarter

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rose 3.1% this quarter as COVID-19 related restrictions continued to ease. This follows a 3.4% rise in the September quarter 2020. The continuation in the recovery is reflected in through the year results, which improved from -3.7% to -1.1% in the December quarter.

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Strong growth in the terms of trade

The terms of trade rose 4.7% this quarter off the back of higher export prices, particularly for iron ore. The strength in the terms of trade contributed to a 4.2% increase in nominal GDP, the strongest rise since September quarter 1983.

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Private demand continues to recover

Domestic final demand contributed 3.2 percentage points to GDP growth. Household final consumption expenditure contributed 2.3 percentage points as constraints on households and businesses continued to lift. Private investment contributed a further 0.7 percentage points to growth.

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Household spending rises

Spending by households rose 4.3% this quarter, but remained 2.7% down through the year. 

Spending on goods rose 2.8% for the quarter and is up 6.2% through the year. Purchase of vehicles rose a record 31.8%, reflecting elevated household disposable income and shifting spending patterns with continued limitations on some expenditure items such as international travel. 

Spending on services rose 5.2%. This reflects a partial recovery with spending down 7.8% through the year. Recreation and culture, hotels, cafes and restaurants and health all continued to rebound as movement and trading restrictions eased.

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Victoria records the strongest increase in household spending

Household spending by Victorians increased 10.4% as strict lockdown restrictions were lifted. The level of spending remains weak at 7.2% below its pre-COVID level.

Household spending for the rest of Australia, excluding Victoria, rose 2.3% in the quarter. 

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Household saving ratio remains at a high level

The household saving to income ratio declined to 12.0% from 18.7% last quarter, remaining at elevated levels. Falls in gross disposable income and increases in household consumption both contributed to the decline in saving. 

Gross disposable income fell 3.1% in the quarter, but remained strong through the year (up 4.8%). The quarterly fall reflected a decline in government support payments.

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Private investment records strongest rise since September quarter 2017

Private investment rose 3.9% for the quarter. Both housing and business investment increased, supported by government initiatives and improvements in conditions.

Ownership transfer costs (15.2%) and dwelling investment (4.1%) both contributed to the increase in housing activity. The rise in business investment was driven by a 8.9% increase in machinery and equipment.

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Bumper harvest leads to a record rise in Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing gross value added (GVA)

GVA rose 2.7% this quarter, with rises in 17 out of the 19 industries. Favourable weather conditions contributed to a large grain harvest, which is reflected in a 26.8% increase in Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing GVA. The impacts of this flowed through the supply chain, including in Wholesale Trade (up 3.6%) and Transport, Postal and Warehousing (up 6.1%). The increase in agricultural production was also reflected in a 23.5% increase in rural exports.

Accommodation and Food Services, Administrative and Support Services and Arts and Recreation Services, industries that were heavily impacted by the pandemic, continued to rebound this quarter as restrictions eased. Despite this, the activity in all three industries remains well below pre-pandemic levels.

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Compensation of employees (COE) rises with underlying activity

COE rose 1.5% this quarter as employment and hours worked increased. Private sector COE continues to recover after being strongly impacted during the onset of the pandemic, rising 1.4% for the quarter. Public sector COE grew 1.8% for the quarter to be 6.7% higher through the year.

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a. Contributions may not be additive due to rounding.

Operating surplus declines following reductions in government support for business

Gross operating surplus plus gross mixed income (GOSMI) fell 5.7%, driven by non-mining industries as support payments from government declined.

Mining operating surplus partly offset the fall, rising 8.3%. The strong growth this quarter reflects rising iron ore prices and increased demand for Australia's LNG.

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Expenditure

 % Change% Change% points contribution
to growth in GDP
Sep 20 to
Dec 20
Dec 19 to
Dec 20
Sep 20 to Dec 20
Final consumption expenditure   
 General government0.87.40.2
 Households4.3-2.72.3
 Total final consumption expenditure3.2-0.12.4
Gross fixed capital formation   
 Private   
  Dwellings4.10.60.2
  Ownership transfer costs15.215.30.2
  Non-dwelling construction-1.9-6.2-0.1
  Machinery and equipment8.9-4.30.3
  Cultivated biological resources-20.7-
  Intellectual property products1.4-5.4-
 Public2.51.80.1
 Total gross fixed capital formation3.6-0.90.8
Changes in inventoriesnana-0.1
Gross national expenditure3.2-0.33.1
Exports of goods and services3.8-11.70.8
Imports of goods and services4.9-9.6-0.9
Statistical discrepancy (E)nana0.1
Gross domestic product3.1-1.13.1

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
na not available

Final consumption expenditure (FCE) 3.2%

Household FCE increased 4.3%, this was driven by a:

  • 9.1% rise in recreation and culture
  • 17.5% rise in hotels, cafes and restaurants
  • 11.8% rise in other goods and services
  • 31.8% rise in purchase of vehicles

The increase was partly offset by a:

  • 7.5% fall in electricity, gas and other fuel
  • 1.8% fall in food

General government FCE contributed to growth with a rise of 0.8%, driven by a:

  • 2.0% rise in national non-defence
  • 0.7% rise in state and local

The increase was partly offset by a:

  • 3.5% fall in national defence

Gross fixed capital formation (GFCF) 3.6%

Private investment increased 3.9%, driven by a:

  • 8.9% increase in machinery and equipment
  • 15.2% increase in ownership transfer costs
  • 4.1% increase in dwellings

Public investment increased 2.5%, driven by a:

  • 4.9% increase in state and local general government

The increase was partly offset by a:

  • 0.7% decrease in national general government

Changes in inventories

Total inventories rose $126m following a fall of $555m in the September quarter. The largest contributors to the rise were a:

  • $2,887m rise in wholesale trade
  • $516m rise in public authorities 

The rise was partly offset by a:

  • $1,525m fall in manufacturing
  • $550m fall in mining
  • $456m fall in farm

Exports and imports of goods and services

Exports of goods and services rose 3.8%, driven by a:

  • 117.7% rise in cereals
  • 8.0% rise in other mineral fuels
  • 10.6% rise in other rural

Imports of goods and services rose 4.9%, driven by a:

  • 32.8% rise in non-industrial transport equipment
  • 36.2% rise in industrial transport equipment
  • 6.5% rise in consumption goods nes

Income

Income estimates are in seasonally adjusted current prices

 % Change% Change% points contribution
to growth in GDP
Sep 20 to
Dec 20
Dec 19 to
Dec 20
Sep 20 to Dec 20
Compensation of employees1.52.00.7
Gross operating surplus   
 Private non-financial corporations-7.511.7-1.9
 Other(a)1.32.90.2
Gross mixed income-12.713.6-1.3
Taxes less subsidies on production and imports727.5-44.26.6
Statistical discrepancy (I)nana-0.1
Gross domestic product4.20.64.2

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
na not available
a. Includes Public non-financial corporations, Financial corporations, General government and Dwellings owned by persons.

 

Compensation of employees (COE) 1.5%

Compensation of employees rose 1.5 per cent as employment and hours worked increased with underlying activity in the economy.

All states and territories recorded quarterly rises. The largest increases were:

  • 3.7% rise in the Northern Territory
  • 2.1% rise in Western Australia
     
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Gross operating surplus (GOS) -4.0%

Private non-financial corporations GOS declined 7.5%, driven by a:

  • decline in subsidies received from government with reduced JobKeeper and Boosting cash flow for employers. These falls were recorded in 14 of 18 industries.

Partly offset by a:

  • rise in Mining driven strong iron ore prices and international demand for LNG.

Other sectors GOS rose 1.3%, driven by a:

  • 11.4% rise in public non-financial corporations
  • 0.9% rise in financial corporations
  • 0.5% rise in dwellings owned by persons

Taxes less subsidies on production and imports 727.5%

Taxes less subsidies on production and imports rose a record 727.5% reflecting a fall in subsidies on production and imports of $30.1 billion or 52.2%. The decrease in subsidies was driven by large falls in both the JobKeeper and Boosting cash flow for employers policies. Taxes on production and imports rose 2.9% driven by GST and stamp duties.

Production

 % Change% Change% points contribution to growth in GDP
Sep 20 to Dec 20Dec 19 to Dec 20Sep 20 to Dec 20
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing26.820.00.5
Mining-1.0-3.6-0.1
Manufacturing1.2-2.00.1
Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services-0.9-2.8-
Construction0.3-5.2-
Wholesale Trade3.64.30.1
Retail Trade3.76.30.2
Accommodation and Food Services7.9-13.20.2
Transport, Postal and Warehousing6.1-16.80.2
Information Media and Telecommunications5.22.10.1
Financial and Insurance Services0.42.9-
Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services7.4-3.80.2
Professional, Scientific and Technical Services4.71.90.3
Administrative and Support Services9.4-14.00.3
Public Administration and Safety0.85.5-
Education and Training0.20.8-
Health Care and Social Assistance2.22.40.2
Arts and Recreation Services8.4-8.20.1
Other Services9.9-7.20.2
Ownership of dwellings0.41.7-
Taxes less subsidies on products8.6-1.20.5
Statistical discrepancy (P)nana-
Gross domestic product3.1-1.13.1

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
na not available

 

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing 26.8%

This increase was driven by a:

  • 33.2% rise in Agriculture, driven by the bumper grain harvest. This result reflected the 117.7% increase in cereal exports.

This was partly offset by a: 

  • 0.6% fall in Forestry and Fishing

Mining -1.0%

This decrease was driven by a:

  • 3.8% fall in Coal Mining reflecting reduced global demand
  • 1.1% fall in Iron Ore Mining driven by weather disruptions to production

This was partly offset by a:

  • 0.9% rise in Oil and Gas Extraction as it recovered from unplanned maintenance disruptions in the previous quarter
  • 4.3% rise in Exploration and Other Mining Support Services driven by mineral exploration of gold, copper and nickel

Manufacturing 1.2%

This increase was driven by a: 

  • 8.2% rise in Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing with increased demand from the transport industry
  • 7.4% rise in Petroleum, Coal, Chemical and Rubber Products Manufacturing with increased demand for petroleum as restrictions were eased  

This was partly offset by a:

  • 8.2% fall in Food, Beverage and Tobacco Products Manufacturing reflecting supply constraints of meat products. This fall follows a 14.0% rise in the previous quarter

Wholesale Trade 3.6%

The increase was driven by:

  • Motor Vehicle and Motor Vehicle Parts Wholesaling driven by a rise in sales of passenger and industrial vehicles 
  • Basic Material Wholesaling driven by cereal grains reflecting downstream impact of the bumper harvest

Accommodation and Food Services 7.9%

The increase was driven by:  

  • Food and Beverage Services as hotels, cafes and restaurants continued to recover with the easing of restrictions
  • Accommodation reflecting a rise in domestic travel

Transport, Postal and Warehousing 6.1%

The increase was driven by a:

  • 6.1% rise in Transport, Postal and Storage Services driven by warehousing services due to the large grain harvest. Postal, Courier Pick-up and Delivery Services rose due to increased online sales
  • 3.5% rise in Road Transport driven by increased passenger movement with the easing of interstate restrictions and increased freight services

Information Media and Telecommunications 5.2%

The increase was driven by a:

  • 7.6% rise in Other Information and Media Services, driven by internet publishing and broadcasting due to a rise in demand for advertising campaigns 
  • 2.9% rise in Telecommunication Services reflecting increased demand from businesses as offices across the country reopened

Financial and Insurance Services 0.4%

Finance rose 0.3% reflecting a rise in deposit balances by households. Dwelling loan balances also contributed to growth, consistent with improved housing market activity over the second half of 2020.

Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services 7.4%

This rise was driven by a:

  • 8.6% rise in Property Operators and Real Estate Services reflecting continued improvement in the housing market
  • 0.8% rise in Rental and Hiring Services driven by strength in heavy machinery rentals and a recovery in car rentals with the rise in domestic travel

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services 4.7%

The increase was driven by a:

  • 7.4% rise in Other Professional, Scientific and Technical Services driven by increased services from advertising agencies, engineering and conveyancing

This was partly offset by a:

  • 2.8% fall in Computer System Design and Related Services

Administrative and Support Services 9.4%

Administrative Services contributed to the rise with increased demand for labour hire with improvements in the labour market.

Health Care and Social Assistance 2.2%

The rise was driven by both private and public health services due to increased demand for medical aids, therapeutic services, dental, general practice medical services, and disability assistance services.

Arts and Recreation Services 8.4%

The rise was broad based across the industry with rises in sports and recreation, gambling activities and performing arts as travel and social distancing restrictions continued to ease.

Other Services 9.9%

The rise was broad based across the industry with demand for personal care, automotive repair and maintenance and other services improving as businesses reopened with easing of restrictions.

State and territory final demand

 Percentage change from Sep 20 to Dec 20
NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACTAust.(a)
Final consumption expenditure         
 General government1.50.8-1.20.14.42.1-0.3-1.40.8
 Households3.110.42.30.90.32.45.24.24.3
Gross fixed capital formation         
 Private4.25.14.9-1.51.58.414.14.83.9
 Public2.21.54.16.11.35.7-0.70.82.5
State final demand2.96.82.00.61.53.34.11.33.3

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
a. Australia estimates relate to Domestic final demand.

 

    Quarterly volume measures, seasonally adjusted

    The image is a map of Australia by state/territory showing quarterly volume measures.

    Quarterly volume measures, seasonally adjusted

    The image is a map of Australia by state/territory showing quarterly volume measures;
    New South Wales' state final demand increased 2.9% for the quarter.
    Victoria's state final demand increased 6.8% for the quarter.
    Queensland's state final demand increased 2.0% for the quarter.
    South Australia's state final demand increased 0.6% for the quarter.
    Western Australia's state final demand increased 1.5% for the quarter.
    Tasmania's state final demand increased 3.3% for the quarter.
    Northern Territory's state final demand increased 4.1% for the quarter.
    Australian Capital Territory's state final demand increased 1.3% for the quarter.

    New South Wales 2.9%

    Total final consumption expenditure increased 2.7%, driven by a:

    • 3.1% increase in household consumption, reflecting the continued recovery in expenditure on recreation and culture, hotels, cafes and restaurants, and operation of vehicles
    • 1.5% increase in government consumption with a rise in social benefits to households driven by increased aged care payments

    Private gross fixed capital formation increased 4.2%, due to a:

    • 17.6% increase in machinery and equipment driven by increased vehicle purchases across a range of industries
    • 18.2% increase in ownership transfer costs following continued easing of COVID-19 restrictions and low levels of activity earlier in the year

    Partly offset by a:

    • 5.2% decrease in non-dwelling construction due to a continued decline in new building activity

    Public gross fixed capital formation increased 2.2%, driven by a:

    • 4.6% increase in state and local general government reflecting increased work on road and rail infrastructure

    Partly offset by a:

    • 7.0% decrease in state and local public corporations, driven by project completions  

    Victoria 6.8%

    Household final consumption expenditure increased 10.4%, driven by easing COVID-19 restrictions, which led to rises in:

    • Recreation and culture, clothing and footwear, other goods and services, hotels, cafes and restaurants, purchase of vehicles, and health

    Government final consumption expenditure increased 0.8%, driven by a:

    • 2.5% increase in national non-defence general government FCE with increased university employee expenses, and increased Commonwealth aged care payments

    Private gross fixed capital formation increased 5.1%, driven by a:

    • 16.3% increase in machinery and equipment, reflecting increased purchases of vehicles across a number of industries, as well as agricultural equipment
    • 3.0% increase in total dwelling investment driven by investment in new houses supported by the HomeBuilder stimulus

    Public gross fixed capital formation increased 1.5%, driven by a:

    • 2.4% rise in state and local general government, reflecting increased investment in road and rail infrastructure and health
    • 6.2% increase in Commonwealth public non-financial corporations

    Queensland 2.0%

    Total final consumption expenditure increased 1.3%, due to a: 

    • 2.3% increase in household consumption expenditure led by the continued recovery in expenditure on hotels, cafes and restaurants, purchase of vehicles, operation of vehicles, and other goods and services

    Partly offset by a:

    • 1.2% decrease in government expenditure

    Private gross fixed capital formation increased 4.9%, due to a:

    • 9.6% increase in dwelling investment following increased approvals and supported by the HomeBuilder stimulus
    • 27.8% increase in ownership transfer costs consistent with increased activity in the property market

    Public gross fixed capital formation increased 4.1%, due to a:

    • 8.1% increase in state and local general government driven by increased work on road and rail infrastructure projects

    Partly offset by a:

    • 6.7% decrease in state and local public corporations as a result of project completions

    South Australia 0.6%

    Total final consumption expenditure increased 0.7%, driven by a:

    • 0.9% increase in household consumption led by increased expenditure on operation of vehicles, purchase of vehicles, other goods and services, and hotels, cafes and restaurants
    • 0.1% increase in government FCE with increased Commonwealth spending on aged care which was partly offset by reduced defence and state and local expenditure

    Private gross fixed capital formation decreased 1.5%, driven by a:

    • 15.6% decrease in non-dwelling construction, reflecting lower engineering and building construction across industries

    Partly offset by an:

    • 8.8% rise in machinery and equipment, reflecting greater purchases in Mining and other industries

    Public gross fixed capital formation increased 6.1%, driven by a:

    • 10.1% rise in state and local general government, reflecting increased investment in education and health
    • 18.8% increase in Commonwealth public non-financial corporations driven by investment in naval infrastructure

    Western Australia 1.5%

    Total final consumption expenditure increased 1.5%, due to a:

    • 4.4% increase in government consumption expenditure driven by increases in social benefits to households. The state government's electricity rebate contributed to the rise.
    • 0.3% increase in household consumption expenditure led by increased expenditure on other goods and services, hotels, cafes and restaurants, purchase of vehicles, and operation of vehicles. This was partly offset by a fall in electricity, gas and other fuels with the decline in out of pocket expenditure.

    Private gross fixed capital formation increased 1.5%, driven by an:

    • 8.9% increase in dwelling investment following increased approvals and support from state policies and the Commonwealth HomeBuilder stimulus
    • 19.6% increase in ownership transfer costs consistent with increased activity in the property market

    Partly offset by a:

    • 6.0% decrease in machinery and equipment, particularly in the Mining and Construction industries

    Public gross fixed capital formation increased 1.3%, driven by a:

    • 2.6% increase in public corporations, spread across levels of government

    Tasmania 3.3%

    Total final consumption expenditure increased 2.3%, due to a:

    • 2.4% increase in household consumption expenditure led by the continued recovery in expenditure on hotels, cafes and restaurants, other goods and services, operation of vehicles, and health
    • 2.1% increase in government consumption expenditure led by increased Commonwealth aged care payments, and increased state employee expenses to support health and education services

    Private gross fixed capital formation increased 8.4%, driven by a:

    • 19.4% rise in machinery and equipment, reflecting purchases of heavy machinery and vehicles across Construction and Transport industries
    • 9.2% rise in dwelling construction, reflecting increased construction of new houses, and alterations and additions, supported by state policies and Commonwealth HomeBuilder stimulus

    Public gross fixed capital formation increased 5.7%, driven by a:

    • 10.9% rise in state and local general government driven by investment in education, and road infrastructure
    • 2.8% rise in public non-financial corporations investment, spread across levels of government

    Northern Territory 4.1%

    Total final consumption expenditure increased 2.7%, driven by a:

    • 5.2% increase in household consumption expenditure led by the continued recovery in spending on hotels, cafes and restaurants, recreation and culture, other goods and services, and operation of vehicles

    Partly offset by a:

    • 0.3% decrease in government consumption expenditure as a result of reduced COVID-19 support by defence

    Private gross fixed capital formation increased 14.1%, due to a:

    • 64.9% increase in machinery and equipment reflecting increased purchases of vehicles and heavy machinery across a range of industries
    • 5.8% increase in non-dwelling construction led by Mining investment
    • 25.7% increase in ownership transfer costs

    Partly offset by a:

    • 3.9% decrease in dwelling investment due to a reduction in alterations and additions following high levels earlier in the year

    Public gross fixed capital formation decreased 0.7%, driven by an:

    • 11.2% decrease in state and local public corporations

    Partly offset by a:

    • 6.7% increase in Commonwealth public non-financial corporations

    Australian Capital Territory 1.3%

    Total final consumption expenditure increased 0.9% driven by a:

    • 4.2% increase in household consumption expenditure led by the continued recovery in expenditure on hotels, cafes and restaurants, recreation and culture, other goods and services, and operation of vehicles

    Partly offset by a:

    • 1.4% decrease in government consumption expenditure as a result of reduced Commonwealth FCE on COVID-19 support services

    Private gross fixed capital formation increased 4.8%, driven by a:

    • 9.3% rise in non-dwelling construction driven by increased engineering construction 
    • 3.3% rise in dwelling investment driven by an increase in alterations and additions

    Public gross fixed capital formation increased 0.8%, driven by a:

    • 14.3% increase in state and local general government, reflecting increased investment in health and education
    • 5.5% increase in Commonwealth public non-financial corporations

    Key tables

    Key national accounts aggregates

      Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20Sep 20 to Dec 20Through the year, Dec 19 to Dec 20
    Percentage change (a)
    Chain volume GDP and related measures (b)
     GDP0.4-0.3-7.03.43.1-1.1
     GDP per capita (c)0.1-0.6-7.23.33.0-1.8
     Gross value added market sector (d)0.2-0.6-7.93.23.4-2.3
     Net domestic product0.4-0.5-8.64.13.7-1.8
    Real income measures (b)
     Real gross domestic income-0.7-0.2-6.83.74.20.5
     Real gross national income-0.3-0.1-5.94.34.12.1
     Real net national disposable income-0.5-0.2-7.35.24.92.1
     Real net national disposable income per capita (c)-0.9-0.5-7.55.24.71.4
    Current price measures
     GDP-0.20.3-7.54.04.20.6
    Productivity
     Hours worked0.2-0.9-10.04.93.2-3.5
     Hours worked market sector (d)0.4-1.4-11.75.53.3-5.0
     GDP per hour worked0.20.63.4-1.40.02.5
     Gross value added per hour worked market sector (d)-0.20.84.2-2.20.12.8
     Real unit labour costs1.2-0.6-8.9-0.96.9-4.1
     Real unit labour costs - non-farm1.4-0.5-9.3-1.07.4-4.0
    Prices
     GDP implicit price deflator-0.60.6-0.50.61.11.7
     Domestic final demand implicit price deflator0.40.3-0.20.00.30.4
     Terms of trade-4.50.40.81.34.77.4
    Levels
    Chain volume GDP and related measures (b)
     GDP ($m)497 109495 641460 930476 618491 525. .
     GDP per capita (c) ($)19 45019 33217 94518 54619 094. .
     Gross value added market sector (d) ($m)337 850335 851309 198319 097330 074. .
     Net domestic product ($m)411 241409 306374 103389 288403 710. .
    Real income measures (b)
     Real gross domestic income ($m)496 349495 327461 472478 499498 600. .
     Real gross national income ($m)485 123484 685456 180475 772495 434. .
     Real net national disposable income ($m)398 842398 133368 955388 185407 199. .
     Real net national disposable income per capita (c) ($)15 60515 52914 36415 10515 819. .
    Current price measures
     GDP ($m)504 517506 076468 281486 897507 579. .
     GDP per capita (c) ($)19 74019 73918 23118 94619 718. .
     Gross national income ($m)494 084495 367462 180483 428504 298. .
     National net saving ($m)31 30532 32329 76429 22336 151. .
     Household saving ratio5.37.922.018.712.0. .
    Prices
     Terms of trade (index) (e)99.499.7100.5101.8106.7. .

    . . not applicable
    - nil or rounded to zero
    a. Change on preceding quarter; last column shows the change between the current quarter and the corresponding quarter of the previous year.
    b. Reference year for chain volume measures and real income measures is 2018-19.
    c. Population estimates are as published in the National, state and territory population (cat. no. 3101.0) and ABS projections.
    d. ANZSIC divisions A to N, R and S. See Glossary - Market sector.
    e. Reference year for indexes is 2018-19 = 100.0.

    Revisions to percentage changes (a)

      Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20
    Percentage change (a)
    Chain volume GDP and related measures (b)
     GDP---0.1
     GDP per capita (c)0.1--0.1
     Gross value added market sector (d)0.1--0.1
     Net domestic product---0.1
    Real income measures (b)
     Real gross domestic income---0.2
     Real gross national income--0.10.10.3
     Real net national disposable income--0.10.10.4
     Real net national disposable income per capita (c)--0.10.10.4
    Current price measures
     GDP-0.1--0.10.3
     Household saving ratio (e)-0.3-0.1-0.2
    Productivity
     Hours worked--0.10.5
     Hours worked market sector (d)--0.10.10.2
     GDP per hour worked----0.3
     Gross value added per hour worked market sector (d)0.1--0.3-0.1
     Real unit labour costs----0.2
     Real unit labour costs - non-farm----0.2
    Prices
     Terms of trade-0.1--0.10.6

    - nil or rounded to zero
    a. Change on preceding quarter.
    b. Reference year for chain volume measures and real income measures is 2018-19.
    c. Population estimates are as published in the National, state and territory population (cat. no. 3101.0) and ABS projections.
    d. ANZSIC divisions A to N, R and S. See Glossary - Market sector.
    e. Revisions to levels.

    Analytical expenditure aggregates

    Percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20Sep 20 to Dec 20Through the year, Dec 19 to Dec 20Contribution to growth, Sep 20 to Dec 20
    Final consumption expenditure
     General government1.22.02.91.50.87.40.2
     Households0.3-1.4-12.37.94.3-2.72.3
      Goods0.21.3-3.05.12.86.20.6
      Services0.4-2.9-17.89.85.2-7.81.7
      Essential0.30.6-4.74.41.21.30.4
      Discretionary0.3-4.5-24.715.09.9-9.11.8
    Gross fixed capital formation  
     Private-1.0-0.3-5.90.73.9-1.70.7
      Mining6.63.20.6-3.31.41.8-
      Non-mining-3.4-1.7-6.6-1.52.5-7.30.2
      Total private business investment-1.1-0.5-4.7-2.02.2-5.00.2
     Public-0.2-0.1-0.4-0.22.51.80.1
    Final demand       
     Public 0.91.62.21.21.16.20.3
     Private --1.1-10.76.04.2-2.52.9

    - nil or rounded to zero

     

    Revisions to percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20
    Final consumption expenditure
     General government-0.1-0.10.1
     Households-0.1-0.10.2-
      Goods-0.4-0.4-0.1
      Services0.1-0.10.1-
      Essential-0.3-0.10.1
      Discretionary0.3-0.30.3-0.2
    Gross fixed capital formation
     Private-0.10.30.9
      Mining0.8-0.50.11.9
      Non-mining0.20.10.50.6
      Total private business investment0.4-0.10.41.0
     Public-0.80.50.1-0.5
    Final demand    
     Public -0.20.2-0.1-
     Private --0.30.2

    - nil or rounded to zero

    Expenditure aggregates

    Contributions to growth

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20Sep 20 to Dec 20
    Final consumption expenditure
     General government0.20.40.60.30.2
     Households0.2-0.8-6.74.02.3
    Gross fixed capital formation
     Private-0.2--1.00.10.7
     Public----0.1
    Domestic final demand0.2-0.4-7.14.53.2
    Changes in inventories0.3-0.3-0.51.0-0.1
    Exports of goods and services-0.2-1.0-1.8-0.90.8
    Imports of goods and services0.11.52.4-1.1-0.9
    Statistical discrepancy (E)--0.1--0.1
    Gross domestic product0.4-0.3-7.03.43.1

    - nil or rounded to zero

    Expenditure on GDP

    Percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20Sep 20 to Dec 20Through the year, Dec 19 to Dec 20Contribution to growth, Sep 20 to Dec 20
    Final consumption expenditure
     General government1.22.02.91.50.87.40.2
     Households0.3-1.4-12.37.94.3-2.72.3
     Total final consumption expenditure0.5-0.5-8.25.93.2-0.12.4
    Private gross fixed capital formation
     Dwellings-3.2-0.1-4.91.64.10.60.2
     Ownership transfer costs9.10.6-18.221.615.215.30.2
     Non-dwelling construction-2.50.4-1.8-3.1-1.9-6.2-0.1
     Machinery and equipment-0.2-1.4-8.2-3.08.9-4.30.3
     Cultivated biological resources-1.26.28.94.4-20.7-
     Intellectual property products0.9-1.7-7.22.21.4-5.4-
     Total private gross fixed capital formation-1.0-0.3-5.90.73.9-1.70.7
    Public gross fixed capital formation
     Public corporations-8.37.7-7.17.2-0.66.7-
     General government2.3-2.31.7-2.33.50.50.1
     Total public gross fixed capital formation-0.2-0.1-0.4-0.22.51.80.1
    Total gross fixed capital formation-0.8-0.2-4.60.53.6-0.90.8
    Domestic final demand0.2-0.4-7.44.63.3-0.33.2
    Changes in inventories.  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .-0.1
    Exports of goods and services-0.8-4.2-7.6-4.03.8-11.70.8
    Imports of goods and services-0.6-7.2-12.35.94.9-9.6-0.9
    Statistical discrepancy (E).  ..  ..  ..  ..  ..  .0.1
    Gross domestic product0.4-0.3-7.03.43.1-1.13.1

    . . not applicable
    - nil or rounded to zero

    Revisions to percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20
    Final consumption expenditure
     General government-0.1-0.10.1
     Households-0.1-0.10.2-
     Total final consumption expenditure-0.1-0.10.1-
    Private gross fixed capital formation
     Dwellings-0.70.40.31.0
     Ownership transfer costs --0.40.2
     Non-dwelling construction 0.7-0.20.61.8
     Machinery and equipment ---0.7
     Cultivated biological resources -0.51.53.3-1.9
     Intellectual property products 0.2-0.1--0.1
     Total private gross fixed capital formation -0.10.30.9
    Public gross fixed capital formation
     Public corporations-1.00.40.8-0.8
     General government-0.80.5--0.4
     Total public gross fixed capital formation -0.80.50.1-0.5
    Total gross fixed capital formation-0.20.20.30.6
    Domestic final demand-0.1-0.10.1
    Gross national expenditure--0.20.3
    Exports of goods and services-0.20.2-0.1-0.8
    Imports of goods and services-0.5-0.5-0.6
    Gross domestic product---0.1

    - nil or rounded to zero

    Household final consumption expenditure

    Percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20Sep 20 to Dec 20Through the year, Dec 19 to Dec 20Contribution to growth, Sep 20 to Dec 20
    Food-0.15.6-3.13.8-1.84.4-0.2
    Cigarettes and tobacco-4.1-4.2-3.0-1.1-6.8-14.3-0.1
    Alcoholic beverages1.02.913.1-0.5-1.514.0-
    Clothing and footwear2.1-9.1-18.121.516.45.20.6
    Rent and other dwelling services0.50.40.40.30.41.60.1
    Electricity, gas and other fuel2.0-0.64.44.8-7.50.5-0.2
    Furnishings and household equipment1.31.39.7-0.91.111.30.1
    Health0.5-1.5-20.026.04.33.60.3
    Purchase of vehicles-2.4-2.2-17.815.331.822.20.6
    Operation of vehicles0.6-4.0-25.310.312.8-10.70.5
    Transport services-1.3-14.6-85.750.419.3-78.10.1
    Communications0.32.11.61.30.65.8-
    Recreation and culture0.3-1.8-15.612.59.11.70.9
    Education services0.40.30.40.91.02.60.1
    Hotels, cafes and restaurants0.9-9.9-55.749.817.5-29.80.8
    Insurance and other financial services--0.40.40.70.91.70.1
    Other goods and services0.1-1.0-31.523.311.8-6.50.7
    Total0.3-1.4-12.37.94.3-2.74.3

    - nil or rounded to zero

    Industry gross value added

    Percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20Sep 20 to Dec 20Through the year, Dec 19 to Dec 20Contribution to growth, Sep 20 to Dec 20
    Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing-0.9-3.3-1.9-0.226.820.00.5
    Mining-0.1-0.5--2.1-1.0-3.6-0.1
    Manufacturing1.91.9-9.04.41.2-2.00.1
    Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services--1.5-1.51.1-0.9-2.8-
    Construction-2.6-0.3-7.62.60.3-5.2-
    Wholesale Trade-0.32.1-6.25.13.64.30.1
    Retail Trade0.11.7-4.55.53.76.30.2
    Accommodation and Food Services0.6-7.9-38.542.17.9-13.20.2
    Transport, Postal and Warehousing1.9-4.5-21.34.36.1-16.80.2
    Information Media and Telecommunications0.20.5-8.65.75.22.10.1
    Financial and Insurance Services0.61.10.80.50.42.9-
    Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services2.6-1.9-15.88.47.4-3.80.2
    Professional, Scientific and Technical Services0.51.2-6.12.44.71.90.3
    Administrative and Support Services-0.9-3.7-18.90.79.4-14.00.3
    Public Administration and Safety1.22.30.81.50.85.5-
    Education and Training0.30.20.20.20.20.8-
    Health Care and Social Assistance1.6-0.1-8.19.12.22.40.2
    Arts and Recreation Services-1.2-2.8-23.914.48.4-8.20.1
    Other Services1.2-4.1-17.26.29.9-7.20.2
    Ownership of dwellings0.50.40.40.40.41.7-
    Gross value added at basic prices0.4-0.3-6.33.12.7-1.02.6
    Taxes less subsidies on products-0.60.7-15.57.08.6-1.20.5
    Statistical discrepancy (P). ..  ..  ..  ..  .. .-
    Gross domestic product0.4-0.3-7.03.43.1-1.13.1

    . . not applicable
    - nil or rounded to zero
    a. Excludes ownership of dwellings.

    Revisions to percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20
    Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing2.7-0.4-0.4
    Mining0.3-0.2-0.1-0.4
    Manufacturing0.1-0.20.10.4
    Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services-0.20.3-0.10.1
    Construction-0.10.2-0.4
    Wholesale Trade-0.30.30.20.4
    Retail Trade----0.1
    Accommodation and Food Services-0.2-0.11.1
    Transport, Postal and Warehousing-0.30.30.1-0.4
    Information Media and Telecommunications0.2-0.30.1-0.6
    Financial and Insurance Services--0.1-0.1
    Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services-0.10.1-0.20.7
    Professional, Scientific and Technical Services0.3-0.1-0.1-0.1
    Administrative and Support Services----0.1
    Public Administration and Safety---0.1-
    Education and Training----
    Health Care and Social Assistance----
    Arts and Recreation Services----0.3
    Other Services-0.1-0.1-1.22.1
    Ownership of dwellings----
    Gross value added at basic prices0.1-0.1--
    Taxes less subsidies on products-0.70.80.5-0.5
    Gross domestic product---0.1

    - nil or rounded to zero
    a. Excludes ownership of dwellings.

    Income from GDP

    Seasonally adjusted current prices, percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20Sep 20 to Dec 20Through the year, Dec 19 to Dec 20Contribution to growth, Sep 20 to Dec 20
    Compensation of employees
     Wages and salaries0.90.5-2.42.41.52.00.6
     Employers' social contributions (a)0.80.7-1.82.31.42.70.1
     Total compensation of employees0.90.5-2.32.41.52.00.7
    Gross operating surplus
     Non-financial corporations
      Private non-financial corporations-2.1-2.018.73.8-7.511.7-1.9
      Public non-financial corporations1.72.9-2.73.911.415.80.1
      Total non-financial corporations-2.0-1.817.83.8-6.911.9-1.8
     Financial corporations-1.1-0.91.00.92.10.1
     Total corporations-1.6-1.213.83.3-5.49.8-1.7
     General government1.21.31.41.51.45.7-
     Dwellings owned by persons0.60.9-0.2-0.51.3-
     Total gross operating surplus-1.0-0.610.22.6-4.07.9-1.6
    Gross mixed income0.2-0.622.56.7-12.713.6-1.3
    Total factor income0.1-4.62.9-2.25.3-2.2
    Taxes less subsidies on production and imports-1.21.5-118.652.9727.5-44.26.6
    Statistical discrepancy (I). ..  ..  ..  ..  .. .-0.1
    Gross domestic product-0.20.3-7.54.04.20.64.2

    . . not applicable
    - nil or rounded to zero
    a. Includes contributions to superannuation made by employers and payments of workers' compensation premiums.

    Revisions to percentage changes

     Sep 19 to Dec 19Dec 19 to Mar 20Mar 20 to Jun 20Jun 20 to Sep 20
    Compensation of employees
     Wages and salaries-0.1--0.10.1
     Employers' social contributions (a)-0.1--0.10.2
     Total compensation of employees-0.1--0.1
    Gross operating surplus
     Non-financial corporations
      Private non-financial corporations----
      Public non-financial corporations-3.01.1-1.42.7
      Total non-financial corporations-0.1--0.1-
     Financial corporations-0.1--0.2
     Total corporations-0.1--0.10.1
     General government----
     Dwellings owned by persons-0.1---
     Total gross operating surplus-0.1--0.1
    Gross mixed income0.2-0.30.3-0.1
    Total factor income-0.1--0.1
    Taxes less subsidies on production and imports0.10.1--
    Gross domestic product-0.1--0.10.3

    - nil or rounded to zero
    a. Includes contributions to superannuation made by employers and payments of workers' compensation premiums.

    State final demand

     Percentage change from Sep 20 to Dec 20
    NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACTAust.(a)
    Final consumption expenditure         
     General government1.50.8-1.20.14.42.1-0.3-1.40.8
     Households3.110.42.30.90.32.45.24.24.3
    Gross fixed capital formation         
     Private4.25.14.9-1.51.58.414.14.83.9
     Public2.21.54.16.11.35.7-0.70.82.5
    State final demand2.96.82.00.61.53.34.11.33.3

    - nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
    a. Australia estimates relate to Domestic final demand.

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