Latest release

Data by region methodology

Reference period
2015-20
Released
23/06/2021
Next release Unknown
First release

Overview

This release of Data by region presents various data for 2015-2020 and Census of Population and Housing data for 2011 and 2016.

To access the Data by region map interface, refer to Data by region. The interface enables users to search for and explore data within regions across Australia.

Geographical Coverage

Data is available for:

  • Australia
  • States and Territories
  • Greater Capital City Statistical Areas
  • Statistical Areas 2, 3 and 4
  • Indigenous Locations, Indigenous Areas, and Indigenous Regions
  • Remoteness Areas
  • Local Government Areas

For more information, see the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website, Australian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas,  Australian Statistical Geography Standard: Volume 2 – Indigenous StructureAustralian Statistical Geography Standard, Volume 3 - Non-ABS Structures, and Australian Statistical Geography Standard: Volume 5 - Remoteness Structure.

Data for 'Other Territories' has been included for some but not all of the data sets included in Data by region, dependent on its availability in the source datasets. In some cases Other Territories contribute to the totals for States and Australia but are not presented separately (due to availability). For this reason, summing data at lower geographic levels to State or Australia totals may result in figures that don't align to the published values.

Source

Data is sourced from a wide variety of collections, both ABS and non-ABS. When analysing these statistics, care needs to be taken as time periods, definitions, methodologies, scope, and coverage can differ across collections.

Collection method

Data presented in this product are sourced from administrative datasets, the Census of Population and Housing, and various ABS surveys.

Updated data series

Care should be taken in comparing data within previous and current releases of Data by region as:

  • some data have been revised
  • releases prior to June 2021 may use earlier editions of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) Non ABS Structures
  • releases prior to 2011 are based on the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC)

Updates to this latest release are summarised in the following table.

Download
 
Data SeriesChange
Regional internal and overseas migration estimates2020 data added, 2019 data revised in line with revisions to the source data
Estimated resident population - total and population density2020 data added, 2019 data revised in line with revisions to the source data
Births and deaths2019 data added, 2015-2018 data revised in line with revisions to the source data
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoplesNew items (unpaid work and dwelling internet connection) added from 2011 and 2016 Census; new geographies added (RA, IREG, IARE, ILOC), data updated to 2020 LGA boundaries
Counts of Australian businesses, entries and exits2020 data added, new items added for turnover size by number of business entries, exits, and total, prior year data revised in line with revisions to the source data
Building approvals2020 data added, 2017-2019 data revised in line with revisions to the source data
Personal insolvencies2020 data added, 2015-2019 data revised in line with changes to the Australian Financial Security Authority (AFSA) data collection method and revisions to the source data for business and non-business related personal insolvencies. Selected causes of personal insolvencies data have not been updated due to data collection method changes.
Motor vehicle census2020 data added, minor revisions to 2015-2019 data, 
Selected Government pensions and allowances2020 data added for Department of Veteran's Affairs pensions and allowances,
Personal income in Australia2018 data added
Jobs in Australia2018 data added, 2015-2017 data revised, data updated to 2020 LGA boundaries
Solar installations2020 data added. Replaced accumulated total installations data items with annual installations data items
Land areaNew geographies added (RA, IREG, IARE, ILOC), data updated to 2020 LGA boundaries
Children enrolled in a preschool program, children attending a preschool programData updated to 2020 LGA boundaries

How the data is processed

Accuracy

For further information on the accuracy of data items see Concepts, sources and methods.

Geographical correspondences

The use of geographical correspondences enables data to be converted from one type of geographical region to another. Correspondences are usually provided as conversion factors based on relative population distributions and/or land area shares.

The application of correspondences allows:

  • the source data to be more easily compared with standard ABS output
  • the source data to be output for other standard ABS geographical areas such as Statistical Areas 2-4 and Local Government Areas (LGA)
  • extra flexibility, in that data can be provided for a variety of geographies of interest to data users

Limitations

In applying the correspondences it is assumed that the particular characteristics of any data item are uniformly distributed across the region. Therefore, data produced by correspondences may not truly reflect the distribution of the characteristics of the population.

In some cases, where the same region is split across two or more new regions and there are no other contributing regions, distinct numerical estimates will be derived but rates or averages will be identical for each new region (as these will be equivalent to the original rate or average of the contributing regions).

Some official postcodes (such as Post Office boxes, etc.) do not correspond to residential areas but may still have been reported under the current home address field in certain administrative data series. Data for these and other 'invalid' postcodes - such as those due to incorrect reporting or processing errors - are included in state and territory totals or for Australia where the state or territory was not known.

In addition to these limitations please note:

  • conversion factors are usually based on total population only but have been applied across all data items in a series.
  • figures produced by correspondences have been rounded. Therefore, there may be small differences between the sum of the component items and the totals shown.

While care was taken in producing the correspondences the ABS cannot guarantee the accuracy of data produced by correspondences. ASGS correspondences can be found via the Statistical Geography page of the ABS website.

How the data is released

Data by region can be accessed as:

  • data cubes, presented in a time series spreadsheet format for each themed category as listed below
  • interactive map, where the interface enables users to search for and explore data within regions across Australia, refer to: Data by region
  • ABS.Stat, where users are able to create customised data tables

Data can be found across the following categories:

  • Population & people
  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples
  • Economy & industry
  • Income (including government allowances)
  • Education & employment
  • Health & disability
  • Family & community
  • Persons born overseas
  • Land & environment

There is a standard set of data items for each geography level, depending on the availability of statistics. For data items where data is either not available, not available for publication, nil, rounded to zero, or a null cell for a particular region, the data item may not be displayed in the interactive map page for that region.

Confidentialisation of data

Some data values have been randomly adjusted or suppressed to avoid the release of confidential data. In some cases small cells have been randomly altered to zero. Care should be taken when interpreting cells with small numbers or zeros.

Concepts, sources and methods

While information on the data and concepts are included below and in the accompanying glossary, users should note that the information listed here is not exhaustive. More detailed information about the data can be obtained by referring to the relevant data source listed for each dataset.

Income data comparisons

Care should be taken in comparing income data from different sources. Some of the differences between the personal income data sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and income data sourced from the Census of Population and Housing are highlighted in the table below:

Download
 
DifferencePersonal Income (ATO)Census of Population and Housing
PopulationIndividuals with income reported to the ATO (approximately 13 million records per year), either through a personal income tax form, or through a PAYG statement.All persons aged 15 years and above (approximately 20 million records)
Method of reportingReporting in a personal income tax return, often with a group certificate or other supporting evidence of income, where required by ATO. Reporting is in more detail, showing different sources, and dollar values.Self reported income is reported in ranges on a Census form
Missing incomeSome income is not reported to the ATO. People who earn less than the tax free threshold or receive payments that are not assessable (such as some Government benefits and allowances) may not report to the ATO.No missing income - the Census form asks people to include all income when answering income questions.

Agricultural commodities

Agricultural commodities data is estimates obtained from the Agricultural Census. Data from both 2011 and 2016 Censuses are presented. The scope of the 2016 Agricultural Census was all businesses undertaking agricultural activity recorded on the ABS Business Register above a minimum size cut off of $40,000. For the 2011 Agricultural Census, the cut-off was $5,000; 2011 data in Data by region was re-derived using the $40,000 threshold. The measure of size was based on the ABS' Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations or, if this was not available, a derived value based on Business Activity Statement turnover.

Variability and standard error

Since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, there are estimated data components. The estimates are subject to sampling variability; that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been produced if all businesses had provided data. One measure of the likely difference is given by the standard error which indicates the extent to which an estimate might vary by chance because only a sample was taken or had responded. There are about two chances in three that a 'sample' estimate will differ by less than one standard error from the figure that would have been obtained if all businesses had responded, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two standard error. In agricultural data, sampling variability of the estimates is measured by the relative standard error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the standard error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. In Data by region, agriculture data with an RSE greater than 50% are not presented.

For further information see Agricultural Commodities, Australia.

Births and deaths

Data is sourced from the Births, Australia and Deaths, Australia publications.

Building approvals

Data for building approvals are compiled from:

  • permits issued by local government authorities and other principal certifying authorities
  • contracts let or day labour work authorised by Commonwealth, state, semi-government and local government authorities
  • major building activity in areas not subject to normal administrative approval (e.g. building on remote mine sites)

Coverage includes:

  • all residential building approvals valued at $10,000 or more
  • all approved non-residential building jobs valued at $50,000 or more

For further information see Building Approvals, Australia.

Census data

See below for information on selected Census items included in this product. For information on other Census items please see the Glossary, the Census of Population and Housing home page and the Census Dictionary.

Australian citizenship

Records whether a person has Australian citizenship and was born overseas.

Commuting to work

Commuting distance provides a measurement of the distance travelled between a person's Mesh Block of Place of Usual Residence and Mesh Block of Place of Work. An assumption in the calculation of this data is that a person has followed the shortest path with no stops when commuting to work.  Component data for Commuting to Work (i.e. distance by age and sex, and by industry) is only available at ASGS levels, and not at LGA level. LGA regions will only display whole Average and Median Commuting distance. Detailed information on how the commuting distances were calculated can be found on the Understanding the Census and Census Data page.

Dwelling structure

Structure type of private dwellings. Other Dwellings include caravan, cabin or houseboat, improvised home, tent, sleepers out, and house or flat attached to a shop or office etc.

Equivalised total household income

The 'modified OECD' equivalence scale is used. Equivalised total household income can be viewed as an indicator of the economic resources available to a standardised household.

Families

Classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. Different types of families are distinguished (in the following order of preference) based on the presence or absence of:

  • couple relationships
  • parent-child relationships
  • child dependency relationships or other blood relationships

The family type is derived from people enumerated in the household who usually reside there and who share a familial relationship. Partners and dependent children usually present but temporarily absent are also included in this derivation. Boarders and other non-family members are excluded.

Field of study

Describes the field of study of a person's highest completed non-school qualification for persons aged 15 years and over who stated that they had completed a qualification.

Highest year of school completed

Highest level of primary or secondary schooling completed for people aged 15 years and over. Data is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001.

Homelessness

Population rates are presented as a rate per 10,000 of the total population. That is, the number of homeless persons per 10,000 persons based on their place of enumeration in the Census, excluding people at sea or in migratory or offshore regions and overseas visitors. Caution should be taken when interpreting data for smaller regions (i.e. regions with fewer than 10,000 persons). The homelessness rate includes persons:

  • living in improvised dwellings, tents or sleeping out
  • in supported accommodation for the homeless
  • staying temporarily with other households
  • living in boarding houses
  • in other temporary lodgings
  • living in 'severely' crowded dwellings

Further details can be found in the publication Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness (cat no. 2049.0).

Index of Household Advantage and Disadvantage (IHAD) - Experimental

The IHAD summarises information about the economic and social conditions of people within households, including both relative advantage and disadvantage measures. IHAD complements the area level Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) rankings by allowing the relationship between area level disadvantage and household level disadvantage to be explored. The index is based on information from the 2016 Census of Population and Housing. IHAD data has been presented as quartiles (four groups). Households are ordered from the lowest to the highest index value, with the lowest 25% of households assigned to quartile 1, the next lowest 25% of households to quartile 2 and so on, up to the highest 25% of households which are given a quartile number of 4. This means that households are divided into four equal sized groups, with quartile 1 representing the most disadvantage households and quartile 4 representing the most advantaged households. In practice these groups won’t each contain exactly 25% of households as it depends on the distribution of the IHAD scores. Note that the groups will have an approximately equal number of households, not an approximately equal number of persons. For further information see Experimental Index of Household Advantage and Disadvantage.

Industry of employment

Applicable to all employed people aged 15 years and over. Industry is coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006. The industry code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census night.

Labour force

Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations for employed people aged 15 years and over. Occupations are coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.

Non-school qualifications

Describes the level of a person's highest completed non-school qualification (e.g. bachelor degree, diploma) for persons aged 15 years and over. The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001.

Occupation of employed persons

Applicable to persons aged 15 years and over.

Overseas born

Country of birth is the basis for determining if a person was born overseas. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals. People are classified as Overseas-born on the Census of Population and Housing if it was stated:

  • they were born in a country other than Australia
  • they were born at sea
  • their response was classified 'Inadequately described'
  • their response was classified 'Not elsewhere classified.

For the 2016 Census, the definition of Australia includes the states and territories and the other territories of Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Jervis Bay Territory and Norfolk Island. In 2011 and previous Censuses, Norfolk Island was not included in the definition of geographic Australia.

Religious affiliation

The Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG), 2016 was used to classify responses for a person's religious affiliation. Answering this Census question is optional.

Rent and mortgage payments

Includes site fees if the dwelling is a caravan, or manufactured home in a caravan park, or a manufactured home estate.

Social marital status & registered marital status

Applicable to persons aged 15 years and over. If registered marital status is not stated it is imputed. All persons aged 15 years and over, who are usually resident and present in the household on Census night and who are not in a couple relationship are identified as 'Not married'. 

Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)

SEIFA is an ABS product that ranks areas in Australia according to relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage. The indexes are based on information from the five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. SEIFA 2016 consists of four indexes which are a summary of a different subset of Census variables focused on a different aspect of socio-economic advantage and disadvantage.

  • The Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD).
  • The Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD).
  • The Index of Education and Occupation (IEO).
  • The Index of Economic Resources (IER).

Deciles divide a distribution into ten equal groups. In the case of SEIFA, the State deciles data compares the region with all the other regions in that State or Territory. The Australian deciles data compare every region across Australia. The distribution of scores is divided into ten equal groups with the:

  • lowest scoring 10% of areas are given a decile number of 1
  • second-lowest 10% of areas are given a decile number of 2 and so on
  • highest 10% of areas which are given a decile number of 10

For further information see Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia.

Speaks language other than English

These data identify the language spoken at home for people who were born overseas, and are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL). Only one language is coded for each person.

Tenure type

Applicable to classifiable occupied private dwellings i.e. excludes non-classifiable households such as visitors only. 'Rented' includes rent-free, 'Owned with a mortgage' includes being purchased under shared equity scheme and 'Other tenure type' includes being occupied under a life tenure scheme.

Year of arrival in Australia

Applicable to those born overseas who will be in Australia for more than one year. The year 2016 refers to the period from 1st January 2016 to 9th August 2016 only. The data shown exclude persons who did not state their country of birth and persons born in Australia (includes Other Territories).

Youth engagement in work or study

Relates to persons aged 15-19 years and whether the person was working or attending a school or any other educational institution.
Data for 'Other - Fully engaged' includes:

  • employed full time, type of study not stated
  • study part time, employed away from work
  • study part time/full time status not stated, employed away from work
  • employed part time, Study part time/full time status not stated

Counts of businesses, entries and exits

Counts of Australian Businesses including Entries and Exits (CABEE) presents counts of actively trading businesses in the Australian economy, as at June 30 for the past five years. The data used to produce these counts are extracted from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register (ABSBR). The ABSBR is populated using administrative data from ABN registrations recorded in the Australian Business Register (ABR), and business data from the Australian Tax Office (ATO). Data on the structures of large and complex businesses are also collected (profiled) by ABS.

Counts of businesses include only actively trading businesses in the Australian market sector. Actively trading businesses are:

  • Type of Activity Unit (TAUs) from the profiled population.
  • ABNs from the non-profiled population that are actively remitting Goods and Services Tax (GST).

Businesses are considered to be engaging in productive activity where they have a Goods and Services Tax (GST) role and are actively remitting GST through Business Activity Statements (BAS). A business may still be counted as actively trading at the end of the financial year even if it has ceased operating if the associated ABN has not been cancelled and the business has remitted GST within the last five quarters (or three years for annual remitters).

Exclusions

Standard institutional sector classification of Australia (SISCA) is based on the System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA08) institutional sector classification. Entities classified to the following categories of SISCA are excluded:

  • 2110 Reserve Bank of Australia
  • 3000 General Government
  • 5000 Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households
  • 6000 Rest of the World

Type of legal organisation (TOLO) indicates whether a business is part of the private or public sector, and the type of ownership structure it has. Entities classified to the following TOLO categories are excluded:

  • 26 Other Unincorporated Entities
  • 33 Foreign Government

Each business has been classified to a single ANZSIC 2006 industry class. The industry class allocated is the activity which provides the main source of industry value added (sales of goods and services, wages and salaries or number of employees as a proxy), which is generally based on a description provided by the business.

Entities classified to the following 4 digit ANZSIC classes are excluded:

  • 6210 Central Banking
  • 7711 Police Services
  • 7713 Fire Protection and Other Emergency Services
  • 9540 Religious Services
  • 9551 Business and Professional Associations
  • 9552 Labour Association Services
  • 9559 Other Interest Group Services n.e.c.
  • 9601 Private Households Employing Staff
  • 9602 Undifferentiated Goods-Producing Activities of Private Households for Own Use
  • 9603 Undifferentiated Service-Producing Activities of Private Households for Own Use

Multi-location businesses

Businesses can operate in more than one geographical location and be represented by a single ABN/TAU. These are referred to as multi-location businesses. Multi-location businesses are attributed to one geographical classification to prevent double counting of businesses. The individual locations of businesses with multiple sites are not available in CABEE. The issues of geocoding multi-location businesses are more pronounced in counts at smaller geographies, as multi-location businesses will only be attributed to a single SA2/LGA. As such, it cannot be assumed that business counts at each geographical level reflect all business operations within that geography.

Confidentiality

The data published have been confidentialised so as not to reveal the identity of any businesses. The confidentiality process randomly adjusts data in such a way that the sum of components will not always be equal to total counts.

Time series

CABEE contains snapshots of counts of actively trading businesses at regular points in time. While data presented in CABEE were produced on a broadly similar conceptual basis to data presented in previous releases, users seeking to analyse change over time should be aware that there may have been methodological, classificatory, definitional, administrative and content changes between the different releases of CABEE.

For further information see Counts of Australian Businesses, including Entries and Exits.

Disability and Carers

The disability and carers data are modelled estimates based on random effects logistic regression models fitted to data from the 2015 and 2018 Surveys of Disability, Ageing and Carers, 2016 Australian Census of Population and Housing, 2015 and 2018 Estimated Resident Population, and aggregated administrative data, such as from the Department of Social Services.

This data presents modelled count and percentage of persons living in private dwelling, with the following disability and carer characteristics:

  • Persons with a disability
  • Persons with a profound or severe core activity limitation
  • Persons with a moderate or mild core activity limitation
  • Persons who are carers
  • Persons aged 15 or over who are primary carers
  • Persons who are non-primary carers

These modelled estimates were originally produced as part of the ABS response to the COVID-19 pandemic in order to determine the location and size of vulnerable populations across Australia. Data has been produced for Statistical Area Level 2 regions and Local Government Areas. For further information see Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of findings.

Early childhood - enrolment and attendance in preschool programs

Statistics on children aged 4 or 5 years who, as at 1 July in the collection year, were enrolled and attending preschool programs across Australia. Data is sourced from the National Early Childhood Education and Care Collection. The Collection is derived from administrative data provided by state and territory and Australian government departments and the Catholic Education Office of the Archdiocese of Canberra and Goulburn.

For the purposes of the collection, a preschool program is defined as a structured, play based learning program, delivered by a degree qualified teacher, aimed primarily at children in the year or two before they commence full-time schooling. This is irrespective of the type of institution that provides it or whether it is government funded or privately provided. To be considered as enrolled, the child must have attended the preschool program for at least one hour during the reference period, or be absent due to illness or extended holiday leave and expected to return. Data is presented as counts by place of usual residence of the children.

Care needs to be taken when interpreting Queensland child counts as there may be some duplication of children across different provider types. This is due to the inclusion of child aggregate data from some service providers. Where the finer regional details of enrolments are not stated or unknown, these are included in the State/Territory totals but not shown separately elsewhere.

Further information on these statistics can be found in Preschool Education, Australia and Microdata: Preschool Education, Australia.

Estimated resident population

Estimated resident population (ERP) as at 30 June in a Census year is calculated by adjusting Census counts of Australian usual residents to include Australian residents temporarily overseas and account for people missed or counted twice in the Census (based on the Post Enumeration Survey), and removing any births, deaths and migration movements that happened between 30 June and Census night. 

At the national and state levels, ERP is updated from the Census base every three months by taking the population estimate at the start of the quarter and adding the components of population change: natural increase (births minus deaths), net overseas migration and (in the case of state populations) net interstate migration.  For Statistical Areas Level 2 (SA2s) and Local Government Areas (LGAs), population estimates are updated from the Census base annually as at 30 June, by taking the estimate at the start of the financial year and adding natural increase and net overseas and internal (moves between and within the states) migration. The components for these sub-state areas are calculated by breaking down state-level component estimates, ensuring consistency between the state and sub-state population and component data.

For further information see Regional Population.

Gifts/donations reported by taxpayers

This data is sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and relate to gifts or donations reported by taxpayers for the financial year.

Gross capital gains

This data is sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO). Capital gains cover the sale of assets such as:

  • land
  • units in a unit trust and other investment properties
  • company shares
  • licenses
  • rights
  • options and leases
  • various collectables (paintings, antiques, coins, jewellery and similar) with an original market value of over $500
  • personal use assets such as boats, furniture and electrical goods with an original value of over $10,000

Capital gains are not part of the existing ABS investment income, other income or total income framework, but are presented here as supplementary information of interest. Additional information on this topic is available from Capital Gains and Exemptions.

Gross value of agricultural production

The value of agricultural production estimates are derived by the multiplication of price and quantity of individual agricultural commodities. Remaining commodity data (livestock disposals and livestock products excluding eggs) are obtained from other ABS collections with some information from non-ABS sources.

Price information refers to the average unit value of a given commodity realised in the market place. More specifically, price information for livestock slaughtering and wool is obtained from ABS collections. Price information for other commodities is obtained from non-ABS sources, including marketing authorities and industry sources.

The estimates of gross value are subject to sampling error. (See above for a discussion of sampling error in Agriculture data). In Data by region, agriculture data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.

Further information on value of agricultural production can be obtained in the ABS publication Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia.

Health

The health data is modelled estimates based on random effects logistic regression models fitted to data from the 2011-12 and 2014-15 National Health Survey (NHS), 2011 Australian Census of Population and Housing, 2012 and 2015 Estimated Resident Population (ERP), and aggregated administrative data such as from the Department of Social Services. This data presents the modelled count and percentage of persons living in private dwellings, with the following health characteristics.

  • Males and females aged 18 years and over who were current smokers.
  • Persons aged 18 years and over with high or very high psychological distress, based on the Kessler 10 (K10) scale.
  • Persons aged 15 years and over, with fair or poor self-assessed health.
  • Persons aged 18 years and over who had high blood pressure (measured systolic/diastolic blood pressure was equal to or greater than 140/90 mmHg).

These modelled estimates were originally produced as a consultancy for the Public Health Information Development Unit (PHIDU), applying ABS methods and quality standards. Data has been produced for Statistical Area Level 3 regions.

Higher Education Loan Program (HELP) repayments

This data is sourced from the Australian Taxation Office and are a count of taxpayers who have made repayments on their HELP debt in the financial year.

For the compulsory HELP repayments to be made, taxpayers must be earning above the minimum repayment income threshold. Further information on repayment income thresholds for other years, and repayment rates can be found on the ATO website.

Internal and overseas migration

Internal migration is the movement of people between and within Australia's states and territories and is estimated using administrative data. The main source of data used to do this is Medicare change of address information provided to the ABS by the Department of Human Services. The Medicare data used is coded directly to the ASGS and aggregated to the SA2 and LGA levels. Interstate moves are constrained to published estimates of interstate migration.

Overseas migration including arrivals and departures are prepared by breaking down state/territory level net overseas migration (NOM) arrivals and departures into sub-state areas, using information from the most recent Census. For the purposes of NOM, a person is regarded as a usual resident if they have been (or expect to be) residing in Australia for a period of 12 months or more. This 12-month period does not have to be continuous and is measured over a 16-month period. It includes all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families.

For further information see Regional Population.

Jobs in Australia

The Jobs in Australia statistics are sourced from the Linked Employer Employee Dataset (LEED). using Australian Tax Office (ATO) administrative data linked to ABS Business Longitudinal Analytical Data Environment (BLADE). The LEED includes data for all persons who either submitted an individual tax return (ITR) or individuals who had a payment summary issued by an employer and then remitted to the ATO. Employees who did not submit a tax return and have not provided their Tax File Number to their employer will not appear in the LEED. Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises (OMUEs) who did not submit an ITR are also excluded.

Jobs in Australia job counts differ from the filled job estimates from other sources such as the Australian Labour Account and the Labour Force Australia. The Jobs in Australia data provide insights into all jobs held throughout the year, while the Labour Account data provide the number of filled jobs at a point-in-time each quarter (and annually for the financial year reference period), and Labour Force Survey data measure the number of people employed each month. 

Number of employee jobs refer to jobs for which the occupant received remuneration in wages, salary, payment in kind, or piece rates. This excludes self-employment jobs held by owner managers of unincorporated enterprises.

The sum of the individual components will not necessarily add up to the total number of employee jobs as the total includes jobs where the industry was unknown or missing.

Regions with small numbers should be interpreted with caution as random adjustment has been applied to this data. Prior year data included in this release of Data by region may differ slightly from previous releases due to the introduction of a revised confidentiality approach.

For further information see Jobs in Australia.

Land area

Based upon the boundaries in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard 2016 and 2018 Local Government Areas. The area of these regions were calculated on the Albers Projection using ABS standard Geographic Information Systems software using the digital boundaries of the regions.

Mean household net worth - experimental

The mean household net worth data is modelled estimates based on a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) method using a gamma distribution and log link function, fitted to data from the 2015-16 Survey of Income and Housing, 2016 Australian Census of Population and Housing, 2016 Estimated Resident Population, and various administrative data.

This data presents experimental modelled estimates for mean household net worth for small areas. Net worth refers to economic resources in the form of the balance of assets and liabilities held by members of a household. Net worth is calculated as the difference between the stock of household assets and the stock of household liabilities. The ABS recommends that these experimental small area estimates be used for comparison between small areas only, as opposed to using the figures as estimates of mean household net worth amounts.

These experimental modelled estimates were originally published as part of the ABS response to the COVID-19 pandemic in order to determine the location and size of vulnerable populations across Australia. Data has been produced for SA2, SA3, SA4 and LGA boundaries. For further information see Household Income and Wealth, Australia, 2015-16.

Motor vehicle census

The Motor vehicle census includes all vehicles registered with a state, territory or other government motor vehicle registry for unrestricted use on public roads as at 31 January, with the following exceptions:

  • recreational vehicles such as trail bikes and sand dune buggies intended for off-road use in most states (in Victoria and Queensland these vehicles must be registered and are included in the statistics)
  • consular vehicles
  • vehicles registered by the defence forces

It includes vehicles registered at the date of the census, or that had registration expire less than one month before that date. Motor vehicle census data is presented by region of owner, and based on the postcode of the owner.

The Australia total includes records that could not be allocated to a state or territory. Therefore aggregated state and territory totals will not equal the Australia total.

The sum of the individual components of vehicles will not necessarily add up to total registered motor vehicles as the total includes vehicles where the year of manufacture was not stated or invalid.

A geographic correspondence has been used in order to present the postcode data on ASGS boundaries. Aggregated lower levels of the ASGS (SA2, SA3, LGA, etc.) within a state will not equal the state totals, due to the nature of corresponding data from postcodes. See Geographical correspondences for further information.

Random adjustments have been applied to this data and therefore data does not match source published data.

Note that not all state and territory motor vehicle registration authorities currently identify hybrids separately. For 2019, where possible the data for hybrid and electric vehicles were investigated to improve the quality of coding for these vehicle types. This has resulted in some variations to electric vehicle data when compared to previous years. This improvement is noted in the microdata publication (9309.0.55.003) -> Summary -> Survey Methodology -> Data Quality,

Further information can be found in Motor Vehicle Census, Australia.

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey

Some data in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples theme comes from the 2018-19 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS).

The 2018–19 NATSIHS was conducted between July 2018 and April 2019.

  • It collected information from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of all ages in non-remote and remote areas of Australia, including discrete Indigenous communities.
  • Funding for the survey was provided by the Australian Government Departments of Health and Prime Minister and Cabinet.
  • Previous surveys have been conducted in 2012–13 and 2004–05. Some health data was also collected in the 2014–15, 2008 and 2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Surveys (NATSISS).
  • It collected information on a number of topics for the first time, including mental health conditions, medications, consumption of sugar sweetened and diet drinks, experiences of harm and a hearing test.

For information on NATSIHS items in this product, please see the Glossary of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey. Information about guidelines and measures used to assess specific lifestyle and related factors that impact on health is included in the Appendix - assessing health risk factors.

National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey

Some data in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples theme comes from the 2014-15 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS).

The NATSISS was most recently conducted from September 2014 to June 2015 with a sample of 11,178 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in private dwellings across Australia in remote and non-remote areas in all states and territories of Australia. This included discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The NATSISS provides broad, self-reported information across key areas of social interest for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, primarily at the national level and by remoteness.

In the 2014-15 NATSISS, funding was received from the Commonwealth Department of Health to enable the continued collection of data on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 0–14 years. Funding was also received from the Department of the Prime Minster and Cabinet to enable the collection of new information relating to 'community strength and leadership'.

For information on NATSISS items in this product, please see the Glossary of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey.

Patent and trademark applicants

The numbers of patents and trademarks relates to applicants. They are a yearly aggregate of applicants at 31 December for the reference year. ABS has suppressed data for regions in certain circumstances to prevent the identification of individuals.

The patent and trademark applicants data is collected by IP Australia. Data produced by IP Australia can be sourced at data.gov.au. The SA3 level data have been created and published by the Office of the Chief Economist, based on postcode (of applicant) data provided by IP Australia. ABS has aggregated the SA3 data to create details for the SA4, GCCSA, state, territory and Australia geographic levels. As such, the SA4, GCCSA, state or territory and Australia totals of applicants are not official aggregates provided by IP Australia or the Office of the Chief Economist.

Personal income

Personal income tax data is supplied by the ATO to the ABS under the Taxation Administration Act 1953, which requires that such data is only used for the purpose of administering the Census and Statistics Act 1905. Any discussion of data limitations or weaknesses is in the context of using the data for statistical purposes, and is not related to the ability of the data to support the ATO's core operational requirements. Legislative requirements to ensure privacy and secrecy of this data have been adhered to. In accordance with the Census and Statistics Act 1905, results have been confidentialised to ensure that they are not likely to enable identification of a particular person or organisation.

The data is collated by the ATO from individual tax returns and employer payment summaries that have been lodged, with lodgements captured for a 16 month period after each financial year. The data Includes employee, own unincorporated business, investment, superannuation and annuities, other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) - and total income from these component sources. See glossary for how these items have been defined or Personal Income in Australia for more information on these income types and the line items from the tax form used to calculate them.

Coverage

For the purposes of providing statistical measures for the entire population, the ATO database has some limits to its coverage. Persons who receive an income below certain levels are not necessarily required to lodge a tax return, and some income can be exempt and therefore does not need to be reported in tax returns. As a result, Government pensions, benefits or allowances are excluded from the other income or total income. The ATO data should be regarded as an indicative but not complete picture of all individual income earned in Australia.

The Gini coefficients shown in this publication are subject to under-coverage for certain income groups and are calculated from gross personal income rather than equivalised disposable income. They can be regarded as indicative but not definitive and are not directly comparable to apparently similar ABS information at state/territory level, as per Household Income and Wealth, Australia.

Definitions

Non-lodgers have being included in the Employee income data. The ABS defines non-lodgers as individuals that have a payment summary issued by an employer but have not lodged an income tax return within the 16 month period after each financial year. Note that as the sources of income other than employee income cannot be captured for the non-lodger population, they have been excluded from the estimates of total income.

The total number of individuals in receipt of income from at least one source should not be confused with the sum of the individuals in each income category, since people can have more than one source of income in any given year.

Net income from a specific source may be positive or negative. For example, an individual may have positive income from employee income but have negative net investment income. The number of individuals for each income source includes all persons with either positive or negative net income from that source.

Main source of earners is presented as a proportion of the population in that region. If a region is particularly reliant on one source, it may be susceptible to policy or economic changes that affect that income type - hence the inclusion. Where persons receive exactly the same amount across multiple sources of income, they have been excluded from the derivation of this indicator. Persons with nil total income have also been excluded. The non-lodger population has also been excluded from this calculation as the sources of income other than employee income cannot be captured.

Further information on these statistics can be found in Personal Income in Australia.

Personal insolvencies

Counts of business-related and non-business-related personal insolvencies by region are provided for reference year ended 30 June.

Data is provided by the Australian Financial Security Authority (AFSA) from their extensive personal insolvency collection. Unless an individual declares their situation to be directly related to a proprietary interest in a business, all other insolvencies (even those for which details are not stated) are classified as Non-business related.

A confidentialisation process has been applied to these data. Official statistics and more information can be found on the AFSA website.

Private health

Private health data is sourced from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) and relates to taxpayers who report having private health insurance within the financial year. A full estimate of how many adults in Australia have private health insurance can be obtained from the ABS National Health Survey - see Health Service Usage and Health Related Actions, Australia.

Protected land areas

Refers to areas of land dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biodiversity. Sourced from the Collaborative Australian Protected Areas Database (CAPAD), Commonwealth of Australia, maintained and updated by the Department of Agriculture, Water, and the Environment (DAWE).

The Department has especially converted CAPAD data (for Reported, Gazetted Areas) into ABS Statistical Geographies - such as Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2) and Local Government Areas (LGA) - to match the geographic preferences of the ABS Data by Region dataset. Where there is no Gazetted Area for a record, the GIS (Geographic Information System) Area (based on current spatial data and an Albers Equal Area Projection for Australia) has been sourced to enable geographic conversions

The process of splitting CAPAD into geographic regions can generate many small areas. Slivers of land - with an area less than 1 hectare and which are less than 2 per cent of the unsplit protected area - have been removed. Therefore there is a small difference between area totals for States when compared with LGA or SA2 regions. Also, the numbers of Protected Land Areas (PLAs) should be considered as indicative only.

Data is presented for:

  • number of Protected Land Areas (PLAs) by selected types (for example, Nature Reserves, Indigenous Protected Areas);
  • area of PLAs (hectares); and PLAs (hectares) as a percentage of total regional land area.

Other data, for example relating to PLA types, land governance arrangements and marine regions, are readily available from DAWE. For more information please refer to Department of Agriculture, Water, and the Environment CAPAD.

Residential property prices

Data refers to median price and transfer counts of established houses and attached dwellings for year ended 30 June of each reference year. Data are not presented prior to 2017 for regions where the geographical boundary changed from ASGS 2011 to ASGS 2016.

All Australian residential property sales data is now supplied to the ABS by CoreLogic RP Data. This dataset is a combination of residential property sales data obtained from State and Territory Land Titles Office or Office of the Valuer General (VG) in each capital city (collectively referred to as VGs) and real estate agents data provided to CoreLogic RP Data. The ABS applies classifications to the dataset provided by CoreLogic RP Data to create the residential property sales dataset, from which these statistics are produced. Caution should be taken when interpreting data for regions where there are a small number of transfers.

Dwellings in scope include:

  • ordinary detached houses
  • a house with an office
  • a house with a flat
  • rural residential houses (within a capital city and not part of a farming business)
  • semi-detached, row and terrace houses
  • townhouses
  • flats, units and apartments

For further information see Residential Property Price Indexes: Eight Capital Cities.

Selected government pensions and allowances

All government pensions and allowances refer to a point in time (i.e. the number of persons who received payment as at the pay period closest to 30 June each year) and therefore do not represent all the customers in receipt of payments during the entire financial year. Unless otherwise specified, data is sourced from the Department of Social Services Demographic Data available on data.gov.au.

Where a person could not be allocated to a region within a state or territory, they have been included in the totals for the states and territories. Where a person could not be allocated to a state or territory, they have been included in the total for Australia. For privacy reasons, all administrative data from non-ABS sources has been confidentialised before being supplied to the ABS. The cells suppressed or altered through confidentialisation within Data by region may differ to other publications that contain this data.

Some payments are described in further detail below; for other items see the Glossary. More information about specific payments can be accessed from the Department of Social Services and the Department of Veterans' Affairs, or from data.gov.au.

Age Pension

Age Pension age depends on the individual's date of birth. please see Age Requirements for more information. The majority of Age Pensions are paid by Centrelink. Age pensioners who also receive a Disability Pension from the Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) have the choice of having their Age Pension paid by either the DVA or Centrelink and there are two separate data items, Age Pension and Age Pension (DVA). The Centrelink Age Pension Data is provided by DSS and includes overseas pension recipients in the Australian total.

Disability Support Pension

Designed to give people an adequate means of support if they are unable to work for at least 15 hours per week at or above the relevant minimum wage, independent of a program or support. Includes overseas pension recipients and persons whose address could not be coded to a specific region in the total for Australia.

Family Tax Benefit

Around 75% of all families with at least one dependent child aged under 16 years are eligible to receive Family Tax Benefit (FTB). Family Tax Benefit Part A can be paid to a parent, guardian or an approved care organisation to help with the costs of raising children. There are eligibility requirements involving the age and educational status of the child, residency, and income. Family Tax Benefit Part B is an extra payment for single parents and families with one main income to help with the costs of raising children. Part B is limited to families where the primary earner has an adjusted taxable income of $100,000 or less per financial year (from June 2015, previously was $150,000 or less). There are also additional eligibility requirements.

Approximately three-quarters of FTB customers receive both Part A and Part B. Data presented in regard to Family Tax Benefit refer only to fortnightly instalment customers were paid directly by Centrelink. The information excludes an additional 10% (approximately) who are paid by a lump sum which is claimable at the end of a financial year. The Family Tax Benefit data for the latest year are preliminary only. Users should refrain from making direct comparisons with data from earlier years in past issues of Data by region.

Solar installations

Small-scale solar panel installations and solar water heater installations data have been sourced from the Clean Energy Regulator (CER). The Clean Energy Regulator administers the Small-Scale Renewable Energy Scheme (SRES) as part of the federal governments Renewable Energy Target (RET). The SRES is governed by the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 and the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Regulations 2001.

Installation counts include new, upgraded, and replacement installations, and includes stand-alone (off-grid) installations. The data only represent installations that have passed the CERs auditing process and relevant standards, and have had Small-scale Technology Certificates (STCs) validly created under the SRES. The data do not include installations that have resulted in failed STC creation, or are pending STC creation. Installations under the SRES may include residential and commercial systems, and include installations of no more than 100 kilowatts in panel array capacity.

CER data is based on the postcode of the installation. A geographic correspondence has been applied by ABS to create data on ASGS and LGA boundaries. See Geographical correspondences for further information.

Tourist accommodation

The number of tourist accommodation establishments are derived from the quarterly Survey of Tourist Accommodation (STA). The STA is a mail-out collection that completely enumerates all in-scope accommodation establishments within Australia, which includes:

  • hotels
  • resorts
  • motels
  • private hotels
  • guest houses
  • serviced apartments with 15 or more rooms or units

Further information can be found in Tourist Accommodation, Australia.

Water use on Australian farms

Sourced from Agricultural Census data. Data was collected from agricultural businesses on the ABS Business Register undertaking agricultural activity above a minimum size cut off of $40,000. The estimates are based on responses to the Agricultural Census and since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, the estimates are subject to sampling variability. That is, estimates may differ from figures that would be produced if all businesses had provided data. In Data by region, Water Use data with a relative standard error (RSE) greater than 50% are not presented.

Area of agricultural land (ha) and Area irrigated (ha) may not correspond entirely to the region the data is assigned to. In some circumstances a farm may be across more than one region; the agricultural land and area irrigated will be typically assigned to the region where the address of the farm is located.

For further information see Water Use on Australian Farms.

List of data items

A list of data items presented in Data by region is available in the Data downloads section. Each data item includes the geographies and years available.

For further information see the relevant sections above in Concepts, sources and methods. For specific terms see the Glossary section.

Data for all data items and regions can be found in ABS.Stat where you are able to view the data, build your own tables, and export the results. These data are also found in Excel files in the Downloads section.

Data downloads

Population and People, ASGS and LGA, 2011, 2015-2020

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, ASGS, LGA, ILOC, IARE, IREG and RA, 2011, 2015, 2016, 2019

Economy and Industry, ASGS and LGA, 2011, 2015-2020

Income (including Government Allowances), ASGS and LGA, 2011, 2015-2020

Education and Employment, ASGS and LGA, 2011, 2015-2019

Health and Disability, ASGS and LGA, 2011, 2015-2018

Family and Community, ASGS and LGA, 2011, 2015-2018

Persons Born Overseas, ASGS and LGA, 2011, 2016

Land and Environment, ASGS, LGA, ILOC, IARE, IREG and RA, 2011, 2015-2020

Data Item List

All data cubes

Past releases

Past releases of this product can be found through the Past releases page of Data by region

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 1410.0

Glossary

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Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples

People who identified their origin as being Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander.

The ABS Standard Indigenous Question is based upon the Commonwealth working definition but does not include the third element of the Commonwealth definition, namely that ‘an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is a person who is accepted as such by the community in which he or she lives’. Collecting information on the basis of community acceptance is often impractical in a survey or administrative data collection setting and can lead to inaccuracies. For these reasons, it is not included in the ABS Standard. The definition of Indigenous Status is therefore operationalised as whether or not a person identifies as being of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin.

The term 'origin', when used in the context of the operational definition, is considered to relate to a person's Australian Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent and for some, but not all, their cultural identity.

Accommodation and Food Services

The Accommodation and Food Services industry is engaged in providing short-term accommodation for visitors, in providing food and beverage services, such as the preparation and serving of meals and the serving of alcoholic beverages for consumption by customers, both on and off-site.

Administrative and Support Services

The Administrative and Support Services industry engages in performing routine support activities for the day-to-day operations of other businesses or organisations. This includes office administration, hiring and placing personnel for others, preparing documents, taking orders for clients by telephone, providing credit reporting and collection services, and arranging travel and travel tours.

Age Pension

Age pension is a payment for persons who have reached Age Pension age and qualify to receive the Age Pension. Age Pension age depends on the individual's date of birth. For more information see Methodology.

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing

The Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing industry is engaged in growing crops, raising animals, growing and harvesting timber, and harvesting fish or other animals from farms or their natural habitats.

Alcohol Consumption Risk Level

A risk level assessed using the 2009 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for the consumption of alcohol.

Annuities

Annuities are guaranteed regular and recurring receipts, generally from an insurance company, the right to which was purchased with a lump sum or regular contributions at some point in the past.

Articulated Trucks

Motor vehicles constructed primarily for load carrying, consisting of a prime mover having no significant load carrying area, but with a turntable device which can be linked to one or more trailers.

Arts and Recreation Services

The Arts and Recreation Services industry engages in the preservation and exhibition of objects and sites of historical, cultural or educational interest; the production of original artistic works and/or participation in live performances, events, or exhibits intended for public viewing; and the operation of facilities or the provision of services that enable patrons to participate in sporting or recreational activities, or to pursue amusement interests.

Assets

An entity of a financial or non-financial nature, owned by the household or its members, and from which economic benefits may be derived by holding or use over a period of time.

Attached Dwellings

Dwellings which share a structural component with one or more other buildings. This may include walls, ceiling, floor or roofing. For example, flats, units and apartments and semi-detached, row and terrace houses.

Attendance

A child is considered to be attending a preschool program if the child was enrolled and present for at least one hour during the reference period. Children who did not attend a preschool program during the reference period (e.g. children who were absent due to illness or extended holiday leave) are not considered to have attended a preschool program.

Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register

The Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register is a register of all Australian businesses and contains identifying and classificatory data for each business. Information to populate the register is largely sourced from the Australian Business Register.

Australian Business Number

An Australian Business Number is a unique business entity identifier introduced in July 2000 by the Australian government as part of a major tax reform which included the introduction and administration of the Goods and Services Tax.

Australian Statistical Geography Standard

The Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) is used by the ABS for the collection and dissemination of geographically classified statistics. The ASGS replaced the Australian Standard Geographic Classification from July 2011. All data in Data by region is presented on ASGS 2016 boundaries.

Births

All births that occurred and were registered in Australia, including births to mothers who usually lived overseas.

Building

A building is a rigid, fixed and permanent structure which has a roof. Its intended purpose is primarily to house people, plant, machinery, vehicles, goods or livestock.

Business Counts

A business for this purpose is defined as a legal entity engaged in productive activity and/or other forms of activity in the market sector. Business counts derived from the ABSBR exclude some entities, such as those without an active Australian Business Number, those without an active Goods and Services Tax (GST) role, those no longer actively remitting GST, and those not operating in the market sector.

Business Entry

A business which has newly registered for an Australian Business Number (ABN) and which has a GST role allocated.

Business Exit

A business for which the ABN or GST role has been cancelled and/or which has ceased to remit GST for at least five consecutive quarters.

Buses

Motor vehicles constructed for the carriage of passengers. Included are all motor vehicles with 10 or more seats, including the driver's seat.

Business Related Insolvency

Business related insolvencies occur where an individual's situation is directly related to his or her proprietary interest in a business.

Campervans

Self-propelled motor vehicles containing an area primarily used for accommodation. Included are motor homes and powered caravans.

Capital Gains

Capital gains is the profit that results from the sale of a capital asset, where the sales price exceeds the purchase price and attracts capital gains tax. Conversely, a capital loss can arise if proceeds from a sale are less than the original purchase price.

Carer

A person who provides any informal assistance (help or supervision) to people with disability or older people (aged 65 years and over). Carers can be split into two groups:

  • Primary carer - a person aged 15 years and over who provides the most informal assistance to a person with disability for the core activities of mobility, self-care and communication.
  • Other carer - a person of any age who provides unpaid care with one or more of the core activity tasks but is not the main provider of informal care (i.e. not a primary carer); or a person who only provides assistance with non-core activities.

Carer Payment

Carer Payment is for people who are unable to support themselves through participation in the workforce while caring for someone with a disability, severe medical condition, or who is frail and aged.

Clerical and Administrative Support Workers

Clerical and Administrative Support Workers provide support to Managers, Professionals and organisations by organising, storing, manipulating and retrieving information.

Commonwealth Rent Assistance

Commonwealth Rent Assistance is a non-taxable income supplement payable to eligible people who rent in the private rental market or community housing. Pensioners, allowance recipients and those receiving more than the base rate of Family Tax Benefit Part A may be eligible for Rent Assistance.

Community and Personal Services Workers

Community and Personal Services Workers assist Health Professionals in the provision of patient care, provide information and support on a range of social welfare matters, and provide other services in the areas of aged care and child care, education support, hospitality, defence, policing and emergency services, security, travel and tourism, fitness, sports and personal services.

Construction

The Construction industry is engaged in the construction of buildings and other structures, additions, alterations, reconstruction, installation and maintenance and repairs of buildings and other structures.

Core Activity Need for Assistance

The Core Activity Need for Assistance variable has been developed to measure the number of people with a profound or severe disability. As with the ABS Surveys of Disability, Ageing and Carers, the Census of Population and Housing defines the profound or severe disability population as: 'Those people needing help or assistance in one or more of the three core activity areas of self-care, mobility and communication, because of a long-term health condition (lasting six months or more), a disability (lasting six months or more), or old age'.

Count of All Children in Family

The number of dependent and non-dependent children in the family. It includes up to three children who were temporarily absent from the household on Census night. Applicable to families with children in family households.

Deaths

Deaths that occurred and were registered in Australia, including deaths of persons whose place of usual residence was overseas.

Debtors

Persons with Business related or Non-business related insolvency.

Disability

A person has a disability if they have an impairment which restricts their everyday activities and has lasted, or is expected to last, for at least six months. A person with a disability is classified by whether they have:

  • a specific limitation with any core activities (mobility, communication and self-care)
  • a specific restriction when participating in schooling or employment activities, or
  • no specific limitation with core activities or restriction with schooling or employment activities.

A person has a specific limitation with a core activity if they need help from another person, have difficulty or use an aid or other equipment to perform at least one selected task. The level of limitation for each core activity is based on the amount of help a person needs with a selected task:

  • profound — unable to do or always needs help with a core activity task
  • severe — sometimes needs help or has difficulty with a core activity task
  • moderate — does not need help but has difficulty with a core activity task
  • mild — does not need help and has no difficulty, but uses aids or equipment or has other limitations with a core activity task

A person's overall level of core activity limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in any of these activities. For example, if a person has a profound limitation with a communication task and a moderate limitation with a self-care task, the person is categorised as having a profound disability.

A person has a schooling restriction if, because of their disability, they:

  • are not attending school/undertaking further study
  • need time off school or study
  • attend special classes or a special school
  • have other related difficulties.

A person has an employment restriction if, because of their disability, they:

  • are restricted in the type of job they could do
  • are restricted in the number of hours they can work
  • have difficulty finding suitable work
  • need time off work
  • are permanently unable to work.

A person with a ‘schooling/employment restriction only' is someone who reported no limitations with any of the core activities but reported having difficulty with schooling and/or employment activities.

Disability Support Pension

Disability Support Pension is a payment that provides income support for people who have a permanent physical, intellectual or psychiatric impairment. For more information see Methodology.

Dividends

Dividends may be the main source of income for people who run their own incorporated business. They can be either:

  • 'franked' which are shares of company profit paid or credited by an Australian resident public company from profits on which Australian company tax has been paid
  • 'unfranked' which are those shares of company profit paid by an Australian resident company from profits on which Australian company tax has not been paid

Dwelling

A dwelling is a self-contained suite of rooms, including cooking and bathing facilities and intended for long-term residential use. A dwelling may comprise part of a building or the whole of a building. Regardless of whether they are self-contained or not, units within buildings offering institutional care (e.g. hospital) or temporary accommodation (e.g. motels, hostels and holiday apartments) are not defined as dwelling units. Such rooms are included in non-residential building approvals. Dwellings can be created in one of four ways: through new work to create a residential building; through alteration/addition work to an existing residential building; through either new or alteration/addition work on non-residential building or through conversion of a non-residential building to a residential building.

Dwelling Internet Connection 

For the 2016 Census, records whether any member of the household accesses the internet from the dwelling. This includes accessing the internet through a desktop/laptop computer, mobile or smart phone, tablet, music or video player, gaming console, smart TV or any other devices . It also includes accessing through any type of connection for example ADSL, fibre, cable, wireless, satellite and mobile broadband (3G/4G). Please note, in the 2011 Census, the question asked, 'Can the Internet be accessed at this dwelling?'. If there was more than one type of internet connection in the dwelling, respondents were asked to report the most frequently used type.

Education and Training

The Education and Training industry engages in the provision and support of education and training, except in the training of animals (e.g. dog obedience, horse training).

Electricity, Gas Water and Waste Services

Electricity, Gas Water and Waste Services industry is engaged in the provision of electricity; gas through mains systems; water, drainage; and sewerage services. Also includes units mainly engaged in the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste materials; remediation of contaminated materials (including land); and materials recovery activities.

Employed

All people aged 15 years and over who met one of the following criteria during the reference week:

  • Worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind, in a job or business or on a farm (employees and owner managers of incorporated or unincorporated enterprises).
  • Worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (contributing family workers).
  • Were owner managers who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.
  • Were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
    • away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; or
    • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week; or
    • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement; or
    • on strike or locked out; or
    • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job.

Employee Income

Employee income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:

  • Total income from wage and salary (before tax and application of Medicare levy) as shown on the 'PAYG payment summary - individual non-business'.
  • Allowances, earnings, tips, director's fees, etc.
  • Employer lump sum payments (adjusted to gross value).
  • Employment termination payments.
  • Attributed personal services income.
  • Employee share schemes.
  • Reportable fringe benefits (gross value not adjusted).
  • Reportable employer superannuation contributions (superannuation contributions (within concessional cap limits) from pre-tax income, usually made under salary sacrifice agreements).
  • Exempt foreign employment income.
  • Other net foreign employment income

English Proficiency

Classifies a person's self-assessed proficiency in spoken English for persons who speak a language other than English at home.

Enrolment

A child is considered to be enrolled if they are formally enrolled or registered in the preschool program and either:

  • attended the preschool program for at least one hour during the reference period
  • were absent during the reference period due to illness or extended holiday leave, but were expected to return

A child is not considered to be enrolled if they were absent during the reference period and not expected to return to the preschool program.

Establishments

Establishments are hotels, motels and private resorts, guest houses and serviced apartments with 15 or more rooms - which provide predominantly short-term, non-residential accommodation.

Estimated Resident Population

Estimated Resident Population is the official measure of the population of Australia, based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality or citizenship, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months and excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months.

Equivalised Total Household Income

Equivalised total household income is household income adjusted by the application of an equivalence scale to facilitate comparison of income levels between households of differing size and composition, reflecting that a larger household would normally need more income than a smaller household to achieve the same standard of living. For a lone person household it is equal to household income. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the household income that would be needed by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic wellbeing.

Ex-smoker

A person who reported at the time of interview that they did not currently smoke but had either: 

  • regularly smoked daily
  • smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, or
  • smoked pipes, cigars or other tobacco products at least 20 times in their lifetime.

Family

A family is defined by the ABS as two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household.

Family Tax Benefit

Family Tax Benefit can be paid to a parent, guardian or an approved care organisation to assist in the cost of raising children. For more information see Methodology.

Financial Assets

An asset whose value arises not from its physical existence (as would a building, piece of land, or capital equipment) but from a contractual relationship. Financial assets are mostly financial claims (with the exception of shares and value of own unincorporated business). Financial claims entitle the owner to receive a payment, or a series of payments, from an institutional unit to which the owner has provided funds. Examples include accounts held with financial institutions (including offset accounts), ownership of an incorporated business, shares, debentures and bonds, trusts, superannuation funds, and loans to other persons.

Financial and Insurance Services

The Financial and Insurance Services industry engages in financial transactions involving the creation, liquidation, or change of ownership of financial assets, and/or in facilitating financial transactions.

Fuel

Type of fuel used in motor vehicles as reported to the registering authority and includes petrol, diesel, LPG/other gases, dual fuel and electric vehicles.

Gini Coefficient

The Gini coefficient is a single statistic that lies between 0 and 1 and is a summary indicator of the degree of inequality in income, where values closer to 1 represent greater inequality. For more information see Methodology.

Government Pensions and Allowances

Income support payments from government to persons under social security and related government programs. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick persons, families and children, veterans or their survivors, and study allowances for students.

Greater Capital City Statistical Area

Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSA) are geographical areas that are designed to represent the functional extent of each of the eight state and territory capital cities. Within each state and territory, the area not defined as being part of the greater capital city is represented by a Rest of State region. There are 16 GCCSA regions covering the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. These consist of 8 regions representing each of the Australian State and Territory capital cities, and 8 regions covering the rest of each State and the Northern Territory. The ACT only has one GCCSA region for the entire Territory. The category of Other Territories in GCCSA includes the Other Territories of Jervis Bay, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Norfolk Island.

Gross Capital Gains

Total current year capital gains as reported by taxpayers for the financial year. Capital gains is the profit that results from the sale of a capital asset, where the sales price exceeds the purchase price and attracts capital gains tax. Conversely, a capital loss can arise if proceeds from a sale are less than the original purchase price.

Gross Income

Income from all sources, whether monetary or in kind, before income tax, the Medicare levy, the Medicare levy surcharge, and the temporary budget repair levy are deducted.

Health Care and Social Assistance

The Health Care and Social Assistance industry provides human health care and social assistance.

Heavy Rigid Trucks

Rigid trucks of gross vehicle mass greater than 4.5 tonnes.

Homelands/Traditional Country

An area of land with which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have ancestral and/or cultural links.

House

A detached building primarily used for long term residential purposes consisting of one dwelling unit. Includes detached residences associated with a non-residential building, and kit and transportable homes.

Household

A household is defined as one or more persons, at least one of whom is at least 15 years of age, usually resident in the same private dwelling.

Household Net Worth

Net worth (or wealth) refers to economic resources in the form of the balance of assets and liabilities held by members of a household.

Households

The type of household within a dwelling. Family households can contain non-family members (unrelated persons and visitors). A maximum of three families can be coded to a household. Lone person households can contain visitors.

Housing Suitability

Measure of housing utilisation based on a comparison of the number of bedrooms in occupied private dwellings with a series of household demographics, such as the number of usual residents, their relationship to each other, age and sex. It can be used to identify if a dwelling is either under or over utilised. The criteria are based on the Canadian National Occupancy Standard.

Housing Stress

Compares the rent and mortgage payments of households against the total household income, and determines whether the household is spending less than, or equal to or greater than 30 percent of their income. Applicable to occupied private dwellings.

Income Share

Income share held by the top 1%, 5% and 10% of all earners has been presented in this publication. The aggregate income of the units in each percentile is divided by the overall aggregate income of the entire population to derive income shares.

Income Support Supplement

An income support pension paid to: eligible war widows and widowers under the Veterans' Entitlements Act 1986, and persons receiving wholly dependent partners' compensation under the Military Rehabilitation and Compensation Act 2004.

Individual Tax Return

The annual tax return submitted by individuals to the Australian Taxation Office.

Information Media and Telecommunications

The Information Media and Telecommunications industry engages in:

  • creating, enhancing and storing information products in media that allows their dissemination
  • transmitting information products using analogue and digital signals (via electronic, wireless, optical and other means)
  • providing transmission services and/or operating the infrastructure to enable the transmission and storage of information and information products

Investment Income

Investment income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:

  • Gross interest.
  • Dividends unfranked amount.
  • Dividends franked amount.
  • Dividends franking credit.
  • Distribution from trusts less net capital gains, foreign income and franked distributions- non-primary production.
  • Franked distributions from trusts - non-primary production.
  • Australian franking credits from a New Zealand company.
  • Net foreign rent.
  • Net rent.

Labour Force

For any group, people who were employed or unemployed, as defined.

Labourers

Labourers perform a variety of routine and repetitive physical tasks using hand and power tools, and machines either as an individual or as part of a team assisting more skilled workers such as Trades Workers, and Machinery Operators and Drivers.

Lifetime risk (alcohol consumption)

Refers to the lifetime risk guideline from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines 2009 Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol. A person is considered to have exceeded the guideline if they consumed more than two standard drinks per day on average in the last week.

Light Commercial Vehicles

Vehicles primarily constructed for the carriage of goods, and which are less than or equal to 3.5 tonnes gross vehicle mass. Included are utilities, panel vans, cab chassis and forward-control load carrying vehicles (whether four-wheel drive or not).

Light Rigid Trucks

Rigid trucks of gross vehicle mass greater than 3.5 tonnes and less than or equal to 4.5 tonnes.

Local Government Area

Local Government Areas (LGAs) are spatial units which represent the geographical areas of incorporated local government councils. Each LGA has an official status which is indicated by the LGA type: (A) NSW LGA (excluding Cities), (AC) Aboriginal Council, (B) Borough, (C) City, (CGC) Community Government Council, (DC) District Council, (IC) Island Council, (M) Municipality/Municipal Council, (S) Shire, (RC) Rural City, (RegC) Regional Council and (T) Town. The major areas of Australia not administered by incorporated bodies are the northern parts of South Australia, most of the Northern Territory and all of the Australian Capital Territory and the Other Territories. LGA boundaries can change from year to year.

Long-term Health Condition

An illness, injury or disability which has lasted at least six months, or which the person expects to last for six months or more.

  • Asthma is classified as current if the person reported at the time of interview they were having symptoms or treatment. To be current, symptoms of asthma or treatment for asthma must have occurred in the last 12 months.
  • Asthma, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes), sight and hearing problems are assumed to be long-term.
  • Heart attack, angina, heart failure and stroke are assumed to be both current and long-term.

Machinery Operators and Drivers

Machinery Operators and Drivers operate machines, plant, vehicles and other equipment to perform a range of agricultural, manufacturing and construction functions, move materials, and transport passengers and freight.

Main Source of Income

The income source from which the most income is received. For more information see Methodology.

Managers

Managers plan, organise, direct, control, coordinate and review the operations of government, commercial, agricultural, industrial, non-profit and other organisations, and departments.

Manufacturing

The Manufacturing industry is engaged in the physical or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products (except Agriculture and Construction).

Median

For any distribution, the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it.

Median Age

That age which divides the units in a group into two equal parts, one half having ages above the median and the other half having ages below the median.

Median Income

That level of income which divides the units in a group into two equal parts, one half having incomes above the median and the other half having incomes below the median.

Median Price

The midpoint of dwelling values in the reference period. Half of all properties bought/sold in the period did so at a price below the median, the other half had a price above the median.

Method of Travel to Work

Derived from the question about how the person got to work on the day of the Census.

Mining

The Mining industry extracts naturally occurring mineral solids, such as coal and ores; liquid minerals, such as crude petroleum; and gases, such as natural gas. The term mining is used in the broad sense to include underground or open cut mining; dredging; quarrying; well operations or evaporation pans; recovery from ore dumps or tailings as well as beneficiation activities (i.e. preparing, including crushing, screening, washing and floatation) and other preparation work customarily performed at the mine site, or as part of mining activity.

Motorcycles

Two and three wheeled motor vehicles constructed primarily for the carriage of one or two persons. Included are two and three wheeled mopeds, scooters, motor tricycles and motorcycles with sidecars.

Never smoked

A person who at the time of interview reported they had: 

  • never regularly smoked daily,
  • smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, and
  • smoked pipes, cigars or other tobacco products less than 20 times in their lifetime.

Newstart Allowance

Newstart Allowance is a payment for people who are looking for work and allows them to participate in activities designed to increase their chances of finding work. Persons must be aged 22 to 64 years to qualify.

Non-Business Related Insolvency

Unless an individual declares their situation to be directly related to a proprietary interest in a business, all other insolvencies, even those for which details are not stated, are classified as non-business related. Some changes to the collection method for this data affect the causes of insolvency items.  For more information see Methodology.

Non-Freight Carrying Trucks

Specialist motor vehicles or motor vehicles fitted with special purpose equipment, and having little or no goods carrying capacity (e.g. ambulances, cherry pickers, fire trucks and tow trucks).

Non-Residential Building

A non-residential building is primarily intended for purposes other than long-term residential purposes.

Other Income

Other income (excluding Government pensions and allowances) includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:

  • Foreign entities - transfer or trust income.
  • Foreign investment fund and/or foreign life assurance policy income.
  • Controlled foreign company income.
  • Net foreign pension/annuity income.
  • Other net foreign source income; and other income.

Other Services

The Other Services industry includes a broad range of personal services; civic, religious, profession and other interest group services; selected repair and maintenance activities; and private households employing staff.

Own Unincorporated Business Income

Own unincorporated business income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:

  • Distributions from partnerships and trusts (including any franked distributions) for primary production activities.
  • Distributions from partnerships (including any franked distributions) for non-primary production activities, less foreign income.
  • Net personal services income.
  • Net income (or loss) from business.

Parenting Payment

Parenting Payment is a payment for persons who are primary carers of children.

Passenger Vehicles

Motor vehicles constructed primarily for the carriage of persons and containing up to nine seats (including the driver's seat). Included are cars, station wagons, four-wheel drive passenger vehicles and forward-control passenger vehicles. Excluded are campervans.

Patent Application

A document filed with IP Australia, disclosing and claiming an invention and requesting the right to exclude others from commercially exploiting it.

Patent Applicant

A person who has submitted an application to IP Australia for a Patent.

Percentiles

When all persons in the population are ranked from the lowest to the highest on the basis of some characteristic such as their income, they can then be divided into equal sized groups. Division into 100 groups gives percentiles. The highest value of the characteristic in the twentieth percentile is denoted P20. The median or the top of the 50th percentile is denoted P50. P20, and P80 denote the highest values in the 20th, and 80th percentiles. Ratios of values at the top of selected percentiles, such as P80/P20, are often called percentile ratios.

Percentile Ratios

Percentile ratios summarise the relative distance between two points in a distribution. To illustrate the full spread of the income distribution, the percentile ratio needs to refer to points near the extremes of the distribution, for example, the P80/P20 ratio. The P80/P50 and P50/P20 ratios focus on comparing the ends of the income distribution with the midpoint.

Personal Insolvency

Refer to Business related insolvency and Non-business related insolvency in this Glossary.

Population Density

The population density for a region is calculated by dividing Estimated Resident Population data by the Land Area to obtain the number of persons per square kilometre.

Public Administration and Safety

The Public Administration and Safety industry engages in central, state, or local government legislative, executive, and judicial activities; in providing physical, social, economic and general public safety and security services; and in enforcing regulations. This industry includes military defence, government representation and international government organisations.

Preschool Program

A preschool program is defined as a structured, play based learning program, delivered by a degree qualified teacher primarily aimed at children in the year before they commence full-time schooling. This is irrespective of the type of institution that provides it or whether it is government funded or privately provided.

Private Dwellings

Houses, flats, home units, garages, tents and other structures used as a private places of residence.

Private Sector Houses

A house is a detached building primarily used for long term residential purposes. It consists of one dwelling unit. Building ownership is classified as either public or private sector and is based on the sector of intended owner of the completed building at the time of approval.

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

The Professional, Scientific and Technical Services industry engages in providing professional, scientific and technical services, applying common processes where labour inputs are integral to the production or service delivery. This industry specialises and sells its expertise. Services in this industry include scientific research, architecture, engineering, computer systems design, law, accountancy, advertising, market research, management and other consultancy, veterinary science and professional photography.

Professionals

Professionals perform analytical, conceptual and creative tasks through the application of theoretical knowledge and experience in the fields of arts, media, business, design, engineering, the physical and life sciences, transport, education, health, information and communication technology, the law, social sciences and social welfare.

Protected Land Areas

Protected Land areas are areas of land especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity.

Quartiles

Quartiles are groupings that result from ranking all persons who lodged tax returns in ascending order according to total income, and then dividing them into four equal groups, each comprising 25% of the reference population. In this publication Australia's quartile ranges are used to compare the income distributions of regions to Australia.

Registered Marital Status

Registered Marital Status records a person's formal registered marital status.

Relative Root Mean Square Error

The errors associated with the modelled estimates for small areas fall into four categories. Sampling error, non-sampling error, modelling error, and prediction error. The relative root mean square error (RRMSE) provides an indication of the deviation of the modelled estimate from the true value. The RRMSE is primarily a measure of prediction error, but in its calculation it also inherits some aspects of modelling and sampling error.

Relative Standard Error

The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of sampling variability which is obtained by expressing the standard error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. For example, if the estimate is 0.5 and the standard error is 0.05, then the relative standard error will be 10%. The relative standard error is a useful measure in that it provides an immediate indication of the percentage of errors likely to have occurred due to sampling and thus avoids the need to refer also to the size of the estimate.

Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services

The Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services industry engages in renting, hiring, or otherwise allowing the use of tangible and intangible assets (except copyrights), and providing related services.

Residential Building

Buildings primarily used for long-term residential purposes. Residential buildings are categoried as houses or other residential buildings.

Rest of State

Under the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS), Rest of State is any area not defined as being part of the Greater Capital City Statistical Areas (GCCSAs). In the case of Australian Capital Territory, there is no Rest of State balance.

Retail Trade

The Retail Trade industry is engaged in the purchase and/or on-selling, the commission based buying, and the commission-based selling, of goods, without significant transformation, to the general public. The Retail Trade industry also purchases and on sells goods to the general public using non-traditional means, including the internet.

Sales Workers

Sales Workers sell goods, services and property, and provide sales support in areas such as operating cash registers and displaying and demonstrating goods.

Self Assessed Health Status

A person's general assessment of their health as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor.

Service Pension

A service pension can be paid to war veterans on the grounds of age or invalidity, and to eligible partners, widows and widowers.

Shares

A share is a contract between the issuing company and the owner of the share which gives the latter an interest in the management of the corporation and the right to participate in profits. The "value of shares" excludes the value of shares held by individuals in their own incorporated business. Such shares are included in "value of own incorporated business".

Small-Scale Solar Panel System

A residential or commercial installation that generates electricity from solar energy, is no more than 100kW in capacity and has met the appropriate regulations.

Social Marital Status

Social marital status records a person's relationship status based on their current living arrangements - where a couple relationship exists in the household and the type of relationship is identified.

Solar Water Heater

A system that is installed, has met the appropriate regulations and is capable of generating hot water from the sun.

State/Territory

States and Territories are geographic areas and political entities with fixed boundaries. States and Territories consist of one or more Statistical Area Level 4. In aggregate, they cover Australia without gaps or overlaps.

Statistical Area Level 2

Statistical Areas Level 2 are a medium-sized general purpose areas. SA2s aim to represent a community that interacts together socially and economically. Most are designed to have a population of between 3,000 and 25,000 people.

Statistical Area Level 3

Statistical Areas Level 3 (SA3) are geographical areas built from whole SA2s. SA3s are designed to provide a regional breakdown of Australia. They generally have a population of between 30,000 and 130,000 people. In the major cities, they represent the area serviced by a major transport and commercial hub. In regional areas, they represent the area serviced by regional cities that have a population over 20,000 people. In outer regional and remote areas, they represent areas which are widely recognised as having a distinct identity and have similar social and economic characteristics.

Statistical Area Level 4

Statistical Areas Level 4 are geographical areas built from whole SA3s. The SA4 regions have been designed for the output of a variety of regional data, including data from the 2016 Census of Population and Housing. SA4s tend to have populations of between 100,000 to 300,000 people. In metropolitan areas, SA4s tend to have larger populations (300,000 – 500,000 people).

Superannuation

A long-term savings arrangement which operates primarily to provide income for retirement.

Superannuation and Annuities Income

Superannuation and annuity income includes the following data items on the individual income tax return:

  • Australian annuities and superannuation income streams.
  • Australian annuities and superannuation income streams - lump sum in arrears.
  • Australian superannuation lump sum payments.
  • Bonuses from life insurance companies and friendly societies.

Standardised death rate

Expressed per 1,000 or 100,000 persons, the standardised death rate enables the comparison of death rates between populations with different age structures by relating them to a standard population.

Technicians and Trade Workers

Technicians and trade workers perform a variety of skilled tasks, applying broad or in-depth technical, trade or industry specific knowledge, often in support of scientific, engineering, building and manufacturing activities.

Tenure Type

Whether a household rents or owns the dwelling in which they were enumerated on Census night, or whether the household occupies it under another arrangement.

Total Fertility Rate

Sum of age-specific fertility rates (live births at each age of mother per 1,000 females of the estimated resident population of that age) divided by 1,000. It represents the number of children a female would bear during her lifetime if she experienced current age-specific fertility rates at each age of her reproductive life.

Total Income

Total income is the sum of all income derived from employee income, own unincorporated business, superannuation and annuities, investment and other income (excluding Government pensions, benefits or allowances).

Total Personal Income (Weekly)

Indicates the total income that the person usually receives each week for all employed people aged 15 years and over.

Total Residential Building

Total residential building is comprised of houses and other residential buildings. it does not include dwellings in non-residential building.

Trademark

A trademark can be a letter, number, word, phrase, sound, smell, shape, logo, picture, aspect of packaging or any combination of these, which is used to distinguish goods and services of one trader from those of another.

Trademark Applicant

A person who has submitted an application to IP Australia for a Trademark.

Transfers

The record of sale for established houses and attached dwellings taken from the residential property sales dataset.

Transport, Postal and Warehousing

The Transport, Postal and Warehousing industry is engaged in providing transport of passengers and freight by road, rail, water or air. Other transportation activities such as postal services, pipeline transport, and scenic and sightseeing transport are included in this industry.

Trusts

Any type of managed fund which involves the pooling of investors' money in order for a trustee or professional manager to administer that fund. Examples include listed and unlisted public unit trusts, cash management trusts, property trusts and family trusts used only for investment purposes.

Unemployment

People aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:

  • had actively looked for full time or part time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week; or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.

Unemployment Rate

For any group, the number of unemployed persons expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the same group.

Unpaid Assistance to a Person with a Disability 

Persons aged 15 years and over who in the previous two weeks spent time providing unpaid care, help or assistance to family members or others because of a disability, a long-term health condition or problems related to old age. This includes people who are in receipt of a Carer Allowance or Carer Payment. A long-term illness is one that has lasted or is likely to last for six months or more. The care could have been provided to family members or other people, but excludes care given through an organisation or club. Care provided by recipients of Carer Allowance or Carer Payment is included as unpaid care.

Unpaid Child Care

This consists of time spent in the previous two weeks caring for a child or children aged less than 15 years without being paid. This includes people caring for their own children, whether they usually live with them or not. It also includes people looking after other children, such as grandchildren, the children of other relatives, or the children of friends or neighbours. Care for a child given through an organisation or club is excluded. Respondents were asked to indicate whether care was given for their own child and/or another child.

Usual residence

Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for six months or more in a given reference year i.e. the calendar year around the 30 June reference date.

Value of Building

Statistics on the value of building work approved are derived by aggregating the estimated 'value of building work when completed' as reported on building approval documents provided to local councils or other building approval authorities. Conceptually these value data should exclude the value of land and landscaping but include site preparation costs. These estimates are usually a reliable indicator of the completed value of 'houses'. However, for 'other residential buildings' and 'non-residential buildings', they can differ significantly from the completed value of the building as final costs and contracts have not been established before council approval is sought and gained.

Voluntary Work for an Organisation or Group

This includes help willingly given in the form of time, service or skills, to a club, organisation or association in the previous twelve months. Unpaid work involving the care of a child or a person who has a disability, a long-term illness or problems with old age, where that care was given through a club, organisation or association, is included. Voluntary work excludes unpaid work done through a club, organisation or association in order to qualify for government benefits such as Newstart Allowance, to obtain an educational qualification or due to a community work order. It also excludes any activity which is part of a person's paid employment or working in a family business. Unpaid work in a family business is regarded as employment rather than voluntary work.

Wholesale Trade

The Wholesale Trade industry is engaged in the purchase and on-selling, the commission-based buying, and the commission-based selling of goods, without significant transformation, to businesses.

Working Age Population

The working age population (aged 15-64 years) measure is used to give an estimate of the total number of potential workers within a region.

Youth Allowance

Youth Allowance is a payment for young people who are studying, undertaking training or an Australian Apprenticeship, looking for work, or sick. Persons must be aged 15 to 24 years to qualify.

Abbreviations

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$Dollars
'000Thousand
AArea
ABARESAustralian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences
ABNAustralian Business Number
ABRAustralian Business Register
ABSAustralian Bureau of Statistics
ABSBRAustralian Bureau of Statistics Business Register
ACAboriginal Council
ACTAustralian Capital Territory
ADSLAsymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AFSAAustralian Financial Security Authority
ANZSCOAustralia and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations
ANZSICAustralian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification
ASCEDAustralian Standard Classification of Education
ASCLAustralian Standard Classification of Languages
ASCOAustralian Standard Classification of Occupations
ASCRGAustralian Standard Classification of Religious Groups
ASGCAustralian Standard Geographical Classification
ASGSAustralian Statistical Geography Standard
ATOAustralian Taxation Office
Aust.Australia
BBorough
BASBusiness Activity Statement
BITBusiness Income Tax
CCity
CAPADCollaborative Australian Protected Areas Database
CERClean Energy Regulator
CGCCommunity Government Council
DAWEDepartment of Agriculture, Water and the Environment
DBRData by region
DCDistrict Council
DISERDepartment of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources
DSPDisability Support Pension
DSSDepartment of Social Services
DVADepartment of Veterans' Affairs
ERPEstimated resident population
EVAOEstimated value of agricultural output
exclexcluding
FTBFamily Tax Benefit
GCCSAGreater Capital City Statistical Area
GISGeographic Information System
GSTGoods and Services Tax
hahectare
HELPHigher Education Loan Program
ICIsland Council
IEOIndex of Education and Occupation
IERIndex of Economic Resources
IHADIndex of Household Advantage and Disadvantage
incincluding
IPAIntellectual Property Australia
IRSADIndex of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage
IRSDIndex of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage
ISDNIntegrated Services Digital Network
K10Kessler Psychological Distress Scale-10
kmkilometre
km2square kilometre
LGALocal Government Area
LPGLiquefied Petroleum Gas
LVGLand Valuer General
mmillion
MMunicipality
MLMegalitre
mmHgmillimetre of mercury 
NATSIHSNational Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey
NATSISSNational Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey
no.number
NOMNet Overseas Migration
NRPNational Regional Profile
NSWNew South Wales
NTNorthern Territory
OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OTOther Territories
PAYGPay As You Go
PHIDUPublic Health Information Development Unit
PLAProtected Land Areas
QldQueensland
RCRural City
RegCRegional Council
RETRenewable Energy Target
RIMERegional Internal Migration Estimates
ROMERegional Overseas Migration Estimates
RRMSERelative root mean square error
RSERelative standard error
RTOResidents Temporarily Overseas
SShire
SASouth Australia
SA1Statistical Area Level 1
SA2Statistical Area Level 2
SA3Statistical Area Level 3
SA4Statistical Area Level 4
SACCStandard Australian Classification of Countries
SDACSurvey of Disability, Ageing and Carers
SEStandard error
SEIFASocio-Economic Indexes for Areas
SRESSmall-Scale Renewable Energy Scheme
STASurvey of Tourist Accommodation
STCSmall-scale Technology Certificate
TTown
Tas.Tasmania
Vic.Victoria
WAWestern Australia