See below for information on selected Census items included in this product. For information on other Census items please see the Glossary, the Census of Population and Housing home page and the Census Dictionary.
Records whether a person has Australian citizenship and was born overseas.
Commuting to work
Commuting distance provides a measurement of the distance travelled between a person's Mesh Block of Place of Usual Residence and Mesh Block of Place of Work. An assumption in the calculation of this data is that a person has followed the shortest path with no stops when commuting to work. Component data for Commuting to Work (i.e. distance by age and sex, and by industry) is only available at ASGS levels, and not at LGA level. LGA regions will only display whole Average and Median Commuting distance. Detailed information on how the commuting distances were calculated can be found on the Understanding the Census and Census Data page.
Structure type of private dwellings. Other Dwellings include caravan, cabin or houseboat, improvised home, tent, sleepers out, and house or flat attached to a shop or office etc.
Equivalised total household income
The 'modified OECD' equivalence scale is used. Equivalised total household income can be viewed as an indicator of the economic resources available to a standardised household.
Classified in terms of the relationships that exist between a single family reference person and each other member of that family. Different types of families are distinguished (in the following order of preference) based on the presence or absence of:
- couple relationships
- parent-child relationships
- child dependency relationships or other blood relationships
The family type is derived from people enumerated in the household who usually reside there and who share a familial relationship. Partners and dependent children usually present but temporarily absent are also included in this derivation. Boarders and other non-family members are excluded.
Field of study
Describes the field of study of a person's highest completed non-school qualification for persons aged 15 years and over who stated that they had completed a qualification.
Highest year of school completed
Highest level of primary or secondary schooling completed for people aged 15 years and over. Data is coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001.
Population rates are presented as a rate per 10,000 of the total population. That is, the number of homeless persons per 10,000 persons based on their place of enumeration in the Census, excluding people at sea or in migratory or offshore regions and overseas visitors. Caution should be taken when interpreting data for smaller regions (i.e. regions with fewer than 10,000 persons). The homelessness rate includes persons:
- living in improvised dwellings, tents or sleeping out
- in supported accommodation for the homeless
- staying temporarily with other households
- living in boarding houses
- in other temporary lodgings
- living in 'severely' crowded dwellings
Further details can be found in the publication Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness (cat no. 2049.0).
Index of Household Advantage and Disadvantage (IHAD) - Experimental
The IHAD summarises information about the economic and social conditions of people within households, including both relative advantage and disadvantage measures. IHAD complements the area level Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) rankings by allowing the relationship between area level disadvantage and household level disadvantage to be explored. The index is based on information from the 2016 Census of Population and Housing. IHAD data has been presented as quartiles (four groups). Households are ordered from the lowest to the highest index value, with the lowest 25% of households assigned to quartile 1, the next lowest 25% of households to quartile 2 and so on, up to the highest 25% of households which are given a quartile number of 4. This means that households are divided into four equal sized groups, with quartile 1 representing the most disadvantage households and quartile 4 representing the most advantaged households. In practice these groups won’t each contain exactly 25% of households as it depends on the distribution of the IHAD scores. Note that the groups will have an approximately equal number of households, not an approximately equal number of persons. For further information see Experimental Index of Household Advantage and Disadvantage.
Industry of employment
Applicable to all employed people aged 15 years and over. Industry is coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006. The industry code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census night.
Two occupation questions are used in the Census. The first of these asks for occupation title, while the second asks for the main tasks usually performed by the person in their occupation. Collecting both occupation title and task information ensures more accurate coding of occupations for employed people aged 15 years and over. Occupations are coded using the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO). The Occupation code assigned is based on the main job held during the week prior to Census Night.
Describes the level of a person's highest completed non-school qualification (e.g. bachelor degree, diploma) for persons aged 15 years and over. The full classification for levels of education and fields of study, together with an explanation of the conceptual basis of the classification, can be found in the publication Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001.
Occupation of employed persons
Applicable to persons aged 15 years and over.
Country of birth is the basis for determining if a person was born overseas. The Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC) was used to classify responses for birthplace of individuals. People are classified as Overseas-born on the Census of Population and Housing if it was stated:
- they were born in a country other than Australia
- they were born at sea
- their response was classified 'Inadequately described'
- their response was classified 'Not elsewhere classified.
For the 2016 Census, the definition of Australia includes the states and territories and the other territories of Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Jervis Bay Territory and Norfolk Island. In 2011 and previous Censuses, Norfolk Island was not included in the definition of geographic Australia.
The Australian Standard Classification of Religious Groups (ASCRG), 2016 was used to classify responses for a person's religious affiliation. Answering this Census question is optional.
Rent and mortgage payments
Includes site fees if the dwelling is a caravan, or manufactured home in a caravan park, or a manufactured home estate.
Social marital status & registered marital status
Applicable to persons aged 15 years and over. If registered marital status is not stated it is imputed. All persons aged 15 years and over, who are usually resident and present in the household on Census night and who are not in a couple relationship are identified as 'Not married'.
Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)
SEIFA is an ABS product that ranks areas in Australia according to relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage. The indexes are based on information from the five-yearly Census of Population and Housing. SEIFA 2016 consists of four indexes which are a summary of a different subset of Census variables focused on a different aspect of socio-economic advantage and disadvantage.
- The Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage (IRSD).
- The Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD).
- The Index of Education and Occupation (IEO).
- The Index of Economic Resources (IER).
Deciles divide a distribution into ten equal groups. In the case of SEIFA, the State deciles data compares the region with all the other regions in that State or Territory. The Australian deciles data compare every region across Australia. The distribution of scores is divided into ten equal groups with the:
- lowest scoring 10% of areas are given a decile number of 1
- second-lowest 10% of areas are given a decile number of 2 and so on
- highest 10% of areas which are given a decile number of 10
For further information see Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia.
Speaks language other than English
These data identify the language spoken at home for people who were born overseas, and are coded using the Australian Standard Classification of Languages (ASCL). Only one language is coded for each person.
Applicable to classifiable occupied private dwellings i.e. excludes non-classifiable households such as visitors only. 'Rented' includes rent-free, 'Owned with a mortgage' includes being purchased under shared equity scheme and 'Other tenure type' includes being occupied under a life tenure scheme.
Year of arrival in Australia
Applicable to those born overseas who will be in Australia for more than one year. The year 2016 refers to the period from 1st January 2016 to 9th August 2016 only. The data shown exclude persons who did not state their country of birth and persons born in Australia (includes Other Territories).
Youth engagement in work or study
Relates to persons aged 15-19 years and whether the person was working or attending a school or any other educational institution.
Data for 'Other - Fully engaged' includes:
- employed full time, type of study not stated
- study part time, employed away from work
- study part time/full time status not stated, employed away from work
- employed part time, Study part time/full time status not stated