6226.0 - Participation, Job Search and Mobility, Australia, Feb 2019 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 08/07/2019   
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GLOSSARY

Actively looking for work

Persons who were taking active steps to find work. Active steps comprise:

  • Wrote, phoned or applied in person to an employer for work
  • Answered an advertisement for a job on the Internet, in a newspaper or on noticeboards
  • Had an interview with an employer
  • Contacted friends or relatives
  • Took steps to purchase or start up own business
  • Advertised or tendered for work
  • Registered with a jobactive Australia provider
  • Registered with other employment agency.

Age of youngest child

Age of the youngest child, 15 years and under, in the household.

Available to start work

Refers to employed or unemployed persons who were available to start work or more hours either in the reference week, or in the four weeks subsequent to the interview.

Available to start work within four weeks

Persons who were available to start work within four weeks or, for persons with children aged 12 years and under, could start work within four weeks if suitable child care was available.

Change in work

Employees were considered to have had some change in work if they had been with their current employer for one year or more at February 2019 and reported that, in the 12 months to February 2019, they had:

  • been promoted;
  • transferred to a different position;
  • changed usual hours worked; or
  • changed occupation.

Contributing family workers

Persons who work without pay in an economic enterprise operated by a relative.

Did not want to work

Persons who were not classified as employed or unemployed who answered 'no' when asked if they would like a job.

Discouraged job seekers

Persons with marginal attachment to the labour force who did not have a job to go to. or return to, wanted to work and were available to start work within the next four weeks but whose main reason for not actively looking for work was that they believed they would not find a job for any of the following reasons:

  • considered to be too young or too old by employers;
  • believes ill health or disability discourages employers;
  • lacked necessary schooling, training, skills or experience;
  • difficulties because of language or ethnic background;
  • no jobs in their locality or line of work;
  • no jobs in suitable hours; and
  • no jobs at all.

Duration of current period of insufficient work

For full-time workers who worked fewer than 35 hours in the reference week due to economic reasons, refers to the number of weeks they have been working fewer than 35 hours a week.

For part-time workers who would prefer to work more hours, refers to the number of weeks they have wanted to work more hours.

As periods of insufficient work are recorded in full weeks and rounded down, this results in a slight understatement of duration.

Duration of current period of unemployment

The period of time from when an unemployed person began looking for work until the end of the reference week; or the period of time since an unemployed person last worked in any job for two weeks or more until the end of the reference week; whichever was the shorter period. Brief periods of work (of less than two weeks) since the person began looking for work are disregarded.

Duration of looking for work before current job

The number of weeks or years that employed persons were looking for work before being offered their current job or starting their own business. For employed persons who had worked before, it includes any time they were looking for work before leaving their previous employer.

Economic reasons

Economic reasons for full-time workers having worked fewer than 35 hours in the reference week are:

  • there was no work or not enough work available, e.g. due to material shortages; or
  • they were stood down.

Employed persons

Persons aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:

  • worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind, in a job or business or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or
  • worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or
  • were employees who had a job but were not at work and were:
      • away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week;
      • away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week;
      • away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement;
      • on strike or locked out;
      • on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job; or
  • were employers or own account workers who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.

Employees

An employed person who does not operate their own incorporated or unincorporated enterprise. An employee works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages, salary, on a commission basis (with or without a retainer), tips, piece-rates, or payment in kind.

Family

Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering; and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.

Family reasons for not actively looking for work

Includes ill health of someone other than themselves, caring for children and other family considerations.

First job ever held lasting two weeks or more

Refers to employees (excluding Owner Managers of Incorporated Enterprises (OMIES)) who had never worked for two weeks or more before starting their current job.

Full-time preference

Persons who preferred to work 35 hours or more a week.

Full-time or part-time status of last job

The perception of persons of whether they worked full-time or part-time in their last job.

Full-time workers

Employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and others who, although usually working fewer than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week.

Future starters

Persons waiting to start, within four weeks of the end of the reference week, a new job that they have already obtained (and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then). Under International Labour Organisation (ILO) guidelines, these persons do not have to be actively looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

Had a job to go or return to

Persons who were waiting to start a job, but would not be starting within four weeks. Also includes persons who had a job but, up to the end of the reference week, had been away from work without pay for four weeks or longer and had not been actively looking for work.

Had worked before

Refers to employees (excluding OMIEs) who had worked before and were either out of work or changed their employer before starting their current job.

Industry

An industry is a group of businesses or organisations that undertake similar economic activities to produce goods and/or services. In this publication, industry refers to ANZSIC Division as classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (Revision 2.0) (cat. no. 1292.0).

Intention to enter the labour force in the next 12 months

The intention of persons to work or look for work in the 12 months following the interview.

Interstate

Refers to whether persons were prepared to move to another state or territory if offered a suitable job.

Intrastate

Refers to whether persons were prepared to move to another part of their state or territory if offered a suitable job.

Job

Any paid employment, full-time or part-time, lasting two weeks or more.

Job starters

Employed persons who started their current job in the previous 12 months.

Labour force

The civilian population is split into two mutually exclusive groups: the labour force (employed and unemployed persons) and persons not in the labour force. The definitions conform closely to the international standard definitions adopted by the International Conferences of Labour Statisticians.

Left a job

Persons who are classified as voluntarily ceasing their last job.

Level of highest educational attainment

Level of highest educational attainment identifies the highest achievement a person has attained in any area of study. It is not a measurement of the relative importance of different fields of study but a ranking of qualifications and other educational attainments regardless of the particular area of study or the type of institution in which the study was undertaken. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0) Level of education classification.

Level of highest non-school qualification


A person's level of highest non-school qualification is the highest qualification a person has attained in any area of formal study other than school study. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0) Level of education classification.

Long-term underemployed

Persons whose duration of current period of insufficient work is 12 months or more.

Long-term unemployed

Persons whose duration of current period of unemployment is 12 months or more.

Looking for work with more hours

Looked for work with more hours at some time during the four weeks up to the end of the reference week.

Lost a job

Persons who have worked for two weeks or more in the past two years and who left that job involuntarily.

Main activity when not in the labour force

The main activity of persons who are not in the labour force since they last worked or looked for work (or in the last 12 months if they haven't worked in the last year).

Main difficulty in finding work

The self reported main difficulty in finding work experienced during the current period of unemployment.

Main job

The job in which most hours are usually worked.

Marginal attachment to the labour force

Persons who were not in the labour force in the reference week, wanted to work and:

  • were actively looking for work but did not meet the availability criterion to be classified as unemployed; or
  • were not actively looking for work but were available to start work within four weeks; or
  • were waiting to start a new job already obtained and persons who had been away from work without pay for four weeks or longer and had not been actively looking for work.

The criteria for determining those in the labour force are based on activity (i.e. working or looking for work) and availability to start work during the reference week. The criteria associated with marginal attachment to the labour force, in particular the concepts of wanting to work and reasons for not actively looking for work, are more subjective. Hence, the measurement against these criteria is affected by the respondent’s own interpretation of the concepts used. An individual respondent’s interpretation may be affected by their work aspirations, as well as family, economic and other commitments.

For more information see article Understanding the Australian Labour Force Using ABS Statistics in Labour Force, Australia (6202.0).

Non-economic reasons

Non-economic reasons for full-time workers having worked fewer than 35 hours in the reference week include:

  • Annual leave, holidays, flextime, or long service leave
  • Own illness, injury or sick leave
  • Standard work arrangements or shift work
  • Personal reasons, studying, caring for sick or injured family members
  • Maternity, paternity or parental leave
  • Bad weather or plant breakdown
  • On strike, locked out, or industrial dispute
  • End of seasonal work.

Not available to start work

Refers to persons who were not available to start work with more hours either in the reference week, or in the four weeks following the interview.

Not fully employed

Persons who are not fully employed comprise part-time workers who would prefer to work more hours, and full-time workers who worked part-time hours in the reference week for economic reasons.

Number of offers of employment

The number of separate offers of employment received during the current period of unemployment.

Occupation

An occupation is a collection of jobs that are sufficiently similar in their title and tasks, skill level and skill specialisation which are grouped together for the purposes of classification. In this publication, occupation refers to Major Group and Sub-Major Group as defined by ANZSCO - Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, 2013, Version 1.2 (cat. no. 1220.0).

Owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs)

Persons who work in their own incorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity which is registered as a separate legal entity to its members or owners (also known as a limited liability company). These persons are sometimes classified as employees. They can work alone or in a business with employees.

Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises (OMUEs)

Persons who operate their own unincorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity in which the owner and the business are legally inseparable, so that the owner is liable for any business debts that are incurred. Includes those engaged independently in a trade or profession. They can work alone or in a business with employees.

Part-time preference

Persons who preferred to work one to 34 hours a week.

Part-time workers

Employed persons who usually worked fewer than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work during the reference week.

Personal reasons for not actively looking for work1

Persons with personal reasons for not actively looking for work Include:

  • Own short-term illness or injury
  • Own long-term health condition or disability
  • Attending an educational institution
  • Had no need or want to work
  • Fully occupied with voluntary work
  • Problems with access to transport
  • Moved house or holidays.

Persons not in the labour force

Persons not in the labour force can be divided into those who are marginally attached to the labour force, and those who are not. Persons who are marginally attached to the labour force satisfy some, but not all, of the criteria required to be classified as unemployed.

Persons not in the labour force are considered to be marginally attached to the labour force if they:

  • wanted to work and were actively looking for work (but, unlike unemployed persons, were not available to start work in the reference week); or
  • wanted to work and were not actively looking for work but were available to start work within four weeks.
  • were waiting to start a new job already obtained and persons who had been away from work without pay for four weeks or longer and had not been actively looking for work.

Persons not in the labour force are not marginally attached to the labour force if they:
  • did not want to work; or
  • wanted to work but were not actively looking for work and were not available to start work within four weeks.

Preferred number of hours

The number of hours unemployed persons would like to work each week.

Preferred number of extra hours

The number of extra hours a week an underemployed worker would have preferred to work.

Preferred total number of hours

The total number of hours per week an underemployed worker would prefer to work.

Reasons for turning down job offers1

Classifies reasons for turning down job offers in current period of unemployment according to the following categories:

  • Unsuitable Job Conditions
    • Unsatisfactory pay or conditions
    • Not in locality or line of work
    • Hours unsuitable
    • Unwilling to move state or city
    • Too far to travel
  • Personal reasons
    • Own short-term illness or injury
    • Own long-term health condition or disability
    • Pregnancy
    • Welfare or pension payments may be affected
    • Returned to study
  • Family reasons
    • Childcare
    • Caring for an ill or elderly person or family member
  • Other
    • Waiting to start another job or starting a new business
    • Other reasons
    • Did not know.
Skill level of occupation

An occupation is a collection of jobs that are sufficiently similar in their title and tasks, skill level and skill specialisation which are grouped together for the purposes of classification. In this publication, skill level of occupation refers to the skill levels defined for each occupation in the ANZSCO - Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, 2013, Version 1.2 (cat. no. 1220.0).

Status of Employment

Classifies employed persons according to the following categories on the basis of their current job:

  • Employees
    • with paid leave entitlements
    • without paid leave entitlements
  • Owner managers of incorporated enterprises
    • with employees
    • without employees
  • Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises
    • with employees
    • without employees
  • Contributing family workers.

Stood down

Persons who are in a situation where an employer is unable to provide useful work for its employees, for a particular period of time, for circumstances beyond its control.

Suitable job

A suitable job is:

  • any job for which the person is qualified (if applicable), is capable of performing and which provides adequate job conditions (including pay, hours, travel to work, etc.).
  • a job that would be accepted by the person irrespective of whether a move was required.

Time since last job

The elapsed time since ceasing the last job.

Underemployed workers

Underemployed workers are employed persons who would prefer, and are available for, more hours of work than they currently have. They comprise:

  • part-time workers who would prefer to work more hours and were available to start work with more hours, either in the reference week or in the four weeks subsequent to the survey; and
  • full-time workers who worked part-time hours in the reference week for economic reasons (such as being stood down or insufficient work being available). It is assumed that these persons would prefer to work full time in the reference week and would have been available to do so.

Unemployed

Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed during the reference week, and:

  • had actively looked for full-time or part-time work at any time in the four weeks up to the end of the reference week and were available for work in the reference week; or
  • were waiting to start a new job within four weeks from the end of the reference week, and could have started in the reference week if the job had been available then.

Usual number of hours

The number of hours usually worked in a week.

Wanted to work

Persons not in the labour force who were not actively looking for work who answered 'yes' or 'maybe' when asked if they would like a job, as well as those persons not in the labour force who were actively looking. It is assumed those persons actively looking want a job.

With paid leave entitlements

The entitlement of employees to either paid holiday leave or paid sick leave (or both) in their current job. Persons employed in their own business or who were contributing family workers were not asked questions about paid leave entitlements.

Without paid leave entitlements

Employees who were not entitled to, or did not know whether they were entitled to, paid holiday leave and paid sick leave in their current job.

End Note: 1. Reasons provided by respondents in this item are not mutually exclusive categories.