This publication presents results from an Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) survey of a sample of businesses mainly engaged in film and video production, post-production, distribution and exhibition and a census of businesses mainly engaged in broadcasting, channel provision and digital game development. This collection was funded by Screen Australia and was conducted in respect of the 2021–22 financial year. This is the eighth time the ABS has conducted some form of this collection, and the first time that film and video distribution and film exhibition businesses have been included. Previous statistics were released for the 2015–16, 2011–12, 2006–07, 2002–03, 1999–2000, 1996–97 and 1993–94 financial years.
Film, Television and Digital Games, Australia methodology
A sample of 1,252 businesses was selected for the 2021–22 Film, Television and Digital Games Survey. Each business was asked to provide data sourced primarily from financial statements, mainly by online questionnaires. Businesses were also asked to supply key details of their operations by state and territory, enabling production of the state and territory estimates. Additionally for this survey, businesses were asked to provide selected measures of production activity, such as the number and type of productions and hours for which they were responsible.
The period covered by the collection was, in general, the 12 months ended 30 June 2022. Where businesses were unable to supply information on this basis, an accounting period for which data can be provided was used for data other than those relating to employment. Such businesses have made a substantial contribution to some of the estimates presented in this publication. As a result, some estimates reflect trading conditions that prevailed in periods outside the twelve months ended June in the relevant year.
Although financial estimates related to the full 12 months, employment estimates related to the last pay period ending in June 2022. As a result, estimates of wages and salaries per employee may have been affected by fluctuations in employment during the reference period.
Financial data incorporated all business units in scope of the survey that were in operation at any time during the year. They also included any temporarily inactive units, i.e. those which were in the development stage or were not in operation, but still existed and held or acquired assets and liabilities and/or incurred some non-operating expenses (e.g. depreciation, administration costs).
The businesses that contribute to the statistics in this publication are classified:
- by industry, in accordance with the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 edition and supplemented by population groups defined for use in this collection
- by state and territory
- by whether a business has produced drama or documentary content in the survey reference period.
See below for further details on scope and coverage.
Structure of output populations
The following hierarchy shows the structure of the populations contributing to the Film, Television and Digital Games estimates; each level is the sum of its components.
- Film and video production and post-production businesses
- Film and video production businesses
- Film and video post-production businesses
- Broadcasters and channel providers
- Public broadcasters (not separately published)
- Commercial broadcasters and channel providers
- Commercial free-to-air broadcasters
- Subscription broadcasters and channel providers
- Film and video distribution businesses
- Film exhibition businesses
- Digital game development businesses
Film and video production and post-production businesses are further split to describe businesses based on their reported activities:
- Drama and documentary production and post-production businesses
- Other production and post-production businesses
Public broadcasters contribute to film, television and video production data in Tables 2.1 to 2.3 in the data cube. Film, television and video production data includes production costs, broadcast hours, productions and average cost per hour/production. Public broadcasters do not contribute to any other financial or employment estimates.
Scope of sample survey of film and video production, post-production, distribution and exhibition businesses
The scope of the film and video production, post-production, distribution and exhibition businesses component of the survey included all employing and significant non-employing businesses classified on the ABS Business Register (ABSBR) to the following classes of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 edition:
- ANZSIC class 5511 Motion picture and video production.
- ANZSIC class 5514 Post-production services and other motion picture and video activities.
- ANZSIC class 5512 Motion picture and video distribution.
- ANZSIC class 5513 Motion picture exhibition.
For ANZSIC class 5511 Motion picture and video production, the scope included Australian businesses mainly engaged in producing films, videos and television programs or commercials. These productions are recorded and stored on a variety of analogue or digital visual media. These businesses are referred to as Film and video production businesses throughout this publication.
For ANZSIC class 5514 Post-production services and other motion picture and video activities, the scope included Australian businesses mainly engaged in providing post-production services and other motion picture and video activities, including specialised film or video post-production services such as editing, film/tape transfers, titling, subtitling, credits, closed captioning and computer-produced graphics, animation and special effects, as well as developing and processing motion picture film. These businesses are referred to as Film and video post-production businesses throughout this publication.
For ANZSIC class 5512 Motion picture and video distribution, the scope included Australian businesses mainly engaged in acquiring the distribution rights and distributing motion pictures, videos and television programs. These products are distributed to a range of broadcasters and exhibitors such as film exhibition theatres, television broadcasters and subscription video on demand businesses. This class is new for the 2021–22 survey, with aim to provide a more holistic flow of finances for the film, television and video industry.
For ANZSIC class 5513 Motion picture exhibition, the scope included Australian businesses mainly engaged in screening motion pictures using a variety of visual media. Included in this class are businesses screening productions at festivals and other similar events. This class is new for the 2021–22 survey, with aim to provide a more holistic flow of finances for the film, television and video industry.
For the purposes of this survey, significant non-employing businesses were defined as all non-employing businesses with an estimated annual turnover that exceeded a threshold level. This turnover threshold was selected so that the contribution of significant non-employing businesses, combined with all employing businesses, made up at least 97.5% of the total estimated annual turnover for all businesses classified to each ANZSIC class respectively.
Scope of census survey of broadcasters and channel providers
The scope of the census of broadcasters and channel providers was based on a subset of all businesses classified, on the ABSBR, to the following classes of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 edition:
- ANZSIC class 5621 Free-to-air television broadcasting
- ANZSIC class 5622 Cable and other subscription broadcasting
For ANZSIC class 5621 Free-to-air television broadcasting, the scope included Australian businesses mainly engaged in the free-to-air television broadcasting of visual content, in the form of electronic images together with sound, through broadcasting studios and facilities. These units may also produce or transmit visual programming to affiliated television stations, which in turn broadcast the programs on a pre-determined schedule. Transmissions are made available without cost to the viewer. Businesses classified to this class on the ABSBR were matched to external industry lists of television broadcast licence holders to ensure complete coverage of businesses was achieved. These businesses also capture associated broadcaster video on demand (BVOD) activity. With the exclusion of Public Broadcasters, these businesses are referred to as Commercial free-to-air broadcasters throughout this publication.
For ANZSIC class 5622 Cable and other subscription broadcasting, the scope included Australian businesses mainly engaged in broadcasting television programs on a subscription or fee basis (such as subscription cable or satellite television broadcasting). The scope also included businesses primarily engaged in the activity of the provision of television channels to subscription broadcasters. Businesses classified to this ANZSIC class on the ABSBR were matched to external lists of television broadcast licence holders and subscription television channel content providers to ensure complete coverage of businesses was achieved. This scope was also supplemented by businesses primarily engaged in broadcasting over the internet, predominately classified to ANZSIC class 5700 (Internet publishing and broadcasting). These businesses are referred to as Subscription broadcasters and channel providers throughout this publication.
It should be noted that the scope for these businesses excludes any businesses engaged in broadcasting as secondary activity as well as community broadcasters.
Scope of census of digital game development businesses
The census of digital game development businesses included all Australian businesses that generated income predominantly from the development of digital games for a range of formats including consoles, personal computers, mobile phones and virtual reality.
These units were primarily identified using an external listing of digital game development businesses provided by industry associations and supplementary research. The population covers a range of ANZSIC classes as there is no specific ANZSIC class for digital game development. In scope units have been found to be predominantly coded to ANZSIC class 7000 (Computer system design and related services). Digital game development businesses had to be identifiable on the ABSBR to be surveyed.
In scope businesses will generally have the capability and staff to develop a digital game from start to finish, but may outsource particular components of a project to other businesses with more technical expertise (e.g. to animation studios). Conversely, these units may also provide game development services to other game development businesses, rather than developing full game titles on their own. These businesses are referred to as Digital game development businesses throughout this publication.
It should be noted that the scope does not include businesses that provide support services to game development businesses, such as animation or sound studios, or businesses that primarily develop gaming machines (i.e. poker machines) or primarily provide education or training. Businesses that primarily provide software development services, develop board games or interactive DVD games are also excluded from the scope.
Businesses contributing to the estimates in this release were sourced from the ABSBR.
The ABS uses an economic statistics units model on the ABSBR to describe the characteristics of businesses and the structural relationships between related businesses. Within large and diverse business groups, the units model is used to define reporting units that can provide data to the ABS at suitable levels of detail.
In mid 2002, the ABS commenced sourcing its register information from the Australian Business Register (ABR) and at that time changed its business register to a two population model. The two populations comprise what is called the Profiled population and the Non-profiled population. The main distinction between businesses in the two populations relates to the complexity of the business structure and the degree of intervention required to reflect the business structure for statistical purposes.
The majority of businesses included on the ABSBR are in the Non-Profiled Population. Most of these businesses are understood to have simple structures. For these businesses, the ABS is able to use the Australian Business Number (ABN) as the basis for a statistical unit. One ABN equates to one statistical unit.
For a small number of businesses, the ABN unit is not suitable for ABS economic statistics purposes and the ABS maintains its own units structure through direct contact with businesses. These businesses constitute the Profiled Population. This population consists typically of large or complex groups of businesses. The statistical units model below caters for such businesses:
- Enterprise group: This is a unit covering all the operations in Australia of one or more legal entities under common ownership and/or control. It covers all the operations in Australia of legal entities which are related in terms of the current Corporations Law (as amended by the Corporations Legislation Amendment Act 1991), including legal entities such as companies, trusts and partnerships. Majority ownership is not required for control to be exercised.
- Enterprise: The enterprise is an institutional unit comprising (a) a single legal entity or business entity, or (b) more than one legal entity or business entity within the same enterprise group and in the same institutional sub-sector (i.e. they are all classified to a single SISCA sub-sector).
- Type of activity unit (TAU): The TAU is comprised of one or more business entities, sub-entities or branches of a business entity within an enterprise group that can report production and employment data for similar economic activities. When a minimum set of data items is available, a TAU is created which covers all the operations within an industry subdivision (and the TAU is classified to the relevant subdivision of the ANZSIC). Where a business cannot supply adequate data for each industry, a TAU is formed which contains activity in more than one industry subdivision.
The ANZSIC based industry statistics presented in this publication were compiled differently from activity statistics. Each ABN unit or TAU on the ABSBR has been classified (by the ATO and the ABS respectively) to its single predominant industry class, irrespective of any diversity of activities undertaken.
Some businesses engage, to a significant extent, in activities which are normally carried out by different industries. Where a business makes a significant economic contribution to industries classified to different ANZSIC subdivisions, the ABS includes the business in the Profiled Population, and 'splits' the TAU's reported data between the industries involved. Significance is determined using total income.
A TAU's reported data are split if the inclusion of data relating to the secondary activity, in the statistics of the industry of the primary activity, distorts (by overstating or understating) either the primary or secondary industry statistics at the ANZSIC subdivision level by:
- 3% or more, where the industries of the primary and secondary activities are in the same ANZSIC Division.
- 2% or more, where the industries of the primary and secondary activities are in different ANZSIC Divisions.
The ABS attempts to maintain a current understanding of the structure of the large, complex and diverse business groups that form the Profiled Population on the ABSBR, through direct contact with those businesses. Resultant changes in their structures on the ABSBR can affect:
- The availability of such businesses (or units within them) for inclusion in the annual economic collections.
- The delineation of the units, within those groups, for which data are to be reported.
The ABS attempts to obtain data for those businesses selected for direct collection and which ceased operation during the year, but it is not possible to obtain data for all such businesses.
Improvements to coverage
Data in this release were adjusted to allow for lags in processing new businesses to the ABSBR, and the omission of some businesses from the register. The majority of businesses affected, and to which the adjustments applied, were small in size.
Adjustments were made to include new businesses in the estimates for the period in which they commenced operation, rather than when they were processed to the ABSBR.
For more information on these adjustments, please refer to the ABS publication Information Paper: Improvements to ABS Economic Statistics, 1997.
Comparison with other ABS statistics
Australian Industry publishes annual industry data for the Australian economy at the ANZSIC subdivision level. There are important differences between the statistics published in the Australian Industry and Film, Television and Digital Games publications, and users should exercise caution when making comparisons between the two sets of estimates.
Australian Industry presents annual summary statistics at the ANZSIC division and subdivision level. It shows the relative performance of each industry division and subdivision, and allows patterns of change or growth to be analysed across particular segments of the Australian economy.
Film, Television and Digital Games supplements Australian Industry statistics with a detailed examination of the structure, performance and activity of businesses engaged in the activities of film and video production, post-production, distribution and exhibition, broadcasting, channel provision and digital game development. As such, the collection is not designed to monitor change accurately over time.
These surveys use different industry coding practices. Australian Industry classifies businesses using the ANZSIC on the ABSBR, whereas Film, Television and Digital Games makes some adjustments, see Scope for more details.
Businesses were also coded as Digital game development businesses on the basis of detailed financial data reported in the collection. As there is no unique ANZSIC category for digital game development services, a list of digital game development businesses was initially manually compiled by the ABS (see above). Adjustments were then made to remove the contributions of businesses that were found to be incorrectly coded as Digital game development businesses.
Other differences in results relate to further scope variations between the two collections. Non-employing units below the threshold are excluded from the scope of Film, Television and Digital Games but are included in the scope of Australian Industry.
While comparisons are made in this publication between 2021–22 and 2015–16, the reader should bear in mind that the collections were not designed to support accurate estimates of change, and exercise caution when comparing 2021–22 results to the 2015–16 results for several reasons, as described below.
Changes in methodology
Users should exercise caution when comparing results to the previous survey in 2015–16. For the 2021–22 survey a number of data items were expanded or grouped together to reflect the changing nature of the industry, and some items may not be directly comparable. For example, a new category called other platforms was added for digital game development in 2021–22 to capture virtual and augmented reality games.
Gender and sex categories in employment data
For the first time, the 2021–22 Film, Television and Digital Games Survey asked for employment data across three gender categories: male, female and another gender. The purpose of this change was to allow businesses to complete the employment questions when the male and female gender categories did not accurately describe the persons working for the business.
Businesses are expected to have extracted employment data from existing administration systems which limited the quality of the gender data obtained. For example, some systems may only enable gender to be stored in binary categories, some businesses may record sex rather than gender and some may not store sex or gender at all. Due to these limitations, the employment estimates for the another gender category were not considered to be of sufficient quality to publish.
Employment at end June 2022 by gender is output in male and female categories only. These estimates include the data collected in the another gender category. As noted, the estimates collected in this category were not able to be published, so the data was split equally between male and female categories. For example, where there was a value of 1 in another gender, the male category was increased by 0.5 and the female category was increased by 0.5. Due to rounding, in some cases this may result in the sum of male and female categories being more than total persons.
The 2015–16 Film, Television and Digital Games Survey asked for employment data across binary sex categories only: male and female. Employment at end June 2016 by sex is output in male and female categories with no adjustments. Male and female categories are used for both 2015–16 and 2021–22 estimates even though the 2015–16 categories represent sex and the 2021–22 categories represent gender. The 2015–16 sex categories are not equivalent to the 2021–22 gender categories and comparisons should be made with caution.
Effects of rounding
Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between totals and the sums of the component items.
Proportions, ratios and other calculated figures shown in this publication have been calculated using unrounded estimates and may be different from, but are more accurate than, calculations based on the rounded estimates.
A range of further information is available, as described below.
ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated; without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
The statistics presented in this publication were compiled from data collected from a sample of Australian businesses primarily engaged in film and video production, post-production, distribution, exhibition and a census of Australian businesses primarily engaged in providing television broadcasting services, subscription channel provision and digital games development. The collection was conducted as part of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) business survey program for the 2021–22 reference year. The data were collected under the authority of the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 provides for the ATO to pass information to the Australian Statistician for the purposes of the Census and Statistics Act 1905.
Please refer to ABS Institutional Environment for more information about the institutional environment of the ABS, including its legislative obligations, financing and governance arrangements and mechanisms for scrutiny of ABS operations.
For more information about the institutional environment of the ATO, please refer to Part 4 Management and accountability in the Commissioner of Taxation Annual Report 2021–22.
The main purpose of this collection is to measure the income and expenses, size and structure and production activity of businesses in the film, television and digital game development industries in Australia during the 2021–22 financial year.
Statistics of particular interest include:
- the number of broadcast hours of television produced
- the number of film, video and commercials produced
- production costs
- sources of income
- items of expenditure
- industry value added (IVA)
- employment data
- state/territory data.
Government policy in this area has two aims: industry development (economic), and social/cultural objectives (e.g. the development of local product). The economic data in this collection enable governments and policy analysts to track the progress of industry development initiatives and to evaluate the performance of core funded agencies, with cultural industries being subsidised by Commonwealth and State governments in various ways (e.g. tax incentives, direct grants).
For the 2021–22 reference period, questionnaires were despatched by ABS in September 2022. The estimates are scheduled for release in June 2023, almost twelve months after the end of the reference period.
The ABS aims to produce high quality data from its industry collections while minimising the reporting burden on businesses. To achieve this, extensive effort is put into survey and questionnaire design, collection procedures and processing. Estimates were produced using number raised estimation methodology with a sample of 997 production, post-production, distribution and exhibition businesses, and a census of 56 commercial free-to-air, subscription and public television broadcasters and subscription television channel content providers and 199 digital games developers. Note that the business counts published in this publication are not the same as the number of businesses surveyed due to businesses ceasing trading during the financial year or having been deemed as out of scope.
Two types of error can occur in estimates that are based on a sample survey: sampling error and non-sampling error.
Data for this publication was obtained using different selection methods obtained from a randomly selected, stratified sample of film and video production, post-production, distribution and exhibition businesses and also a census of two other populations: broadcasters and channel providers, and digital game development businesses. Consequently, estimates for film and video production, post-production, distribution and exhibition businesses are subject to sampling variability, that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been produced if the data had been obtained from all businesses in the population.
Sampling error occurs when a sample, rather than the entire population, is surveyed. It reflects the difference between estimates based on a sample and those that would have been obtained had a census been conducted. One measure of this difference is the standard error. There are about two chances in three that a sample estimate will differ by less than one standard error from the figure that would have been obtained if all businesses had been included in the survey, and about nineteen chances in twenty that the difference will be less than two standard errors.
Estimates related to the broadcasters and channel providers population and digital game development businesses population were based on a census of these businesses, and hence are not subject to sampling error.
Another measure of sampling error is the relative standard error (RSE), which is obtained by expressing the standard error as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. The relative standard error is a useful measure in that it provides an immediate indication of the sampling error in percentage terms, and this avoids the need to refer also to the size of the estimate. Selected data item RSEs at the population level are shown in the table below.
To illustrate, an estimate of total income for film and video production businesses was $4,575.3m. The RSE was estimated to be 5.5%, giving a standard error of approximately $251.6m. Therefore, there are two chances in three that, if all units had been included in the survey, a figure in the range of $4,323.7m to $4,826.9m would have been obtained, and 19 chances in 20 (i.e. a confidence interval of 95%) that the figure would have been in the range of $4,072.0m to $5,078.6m.
The size of the RSE may be a misleading indicator of the reliability of the estimates for (a) operating profit before tax, (b) operating profit margin and (c) industry value added. It is possible for an estimate to legitimately include positive and negative values, reflecting the financial performance of individual businesses. In this case, the aggregated estimate can be small relative to the contribution of individual businesses, resulting in a standard error which is large relative to the estimate.
|Film and video production businesses||8.4||5.5||5.9||13.6|
|Film and video post-production businesses||6.4||4.3||5.0||4.7|
|Film and video distribution businesses||2.7||1.4||1.3||2.6|
|Film exhibition businesses||1.9||1.6||1.5||2.1|
The sampling variability for estimates at the state/territory level was generally higher than for Australian level aggregates. Survey estimates for states/territories should therefore be viewed with more caution than national estimates.
Non-sampling error arises from inaccuracies in collecting, recording and processing the data. Every effort was made to minimise reporting error, by the careful design of questionnaires, intensive training of survey analysts and efficient data processing procedures. The imprecision due to non-sampling variability cannot be quantified and should not be confused with sampling variability, which is measured by the standard error.
Differences in accounting policy and practices across businesses and industries can also lead to some inconsistencies in the data provided to compile the estimates. Although much of the accounting process is subject to standards, there remains a great deal of flexibility available to individual businesses in the accounting policies and practices they adopt.
The above limitations are not meant to imply that analysis based on these data should be avoided, only that the limitations should be considered when interpreting the data. This publication presents a wide range of data that can be used to analyse business and industry performance. It is important that any analysis be based upon the range of data presented rather than focusing on one variable.
Non-sampling error also occurs when information cannot be obtained from all businesses selected in the survey. There was an 76.9% response rate from all businesses that were surveyed and found to be operating during the reference period. Data were imputed for the remaining 23.1% of operating businesses. Imputed responses contributed 9.8% to overall total income, varying by population.
The ABS has been conducting collections of film and video production and post-production businesses periodically since 1993–94, television broadcasters since 1996–97 and digital games developers since 2006–07. While the ABS seeks to maximise consistency and comparability over time by minimising changes to the collections, sound collection practice requires ongoing development to maintain the integrity of the data, a collection's relevance to the changing needs of users, and the efficiency of the collection. Additionally, given the irregular frequency of these collections, they are not primarily designed to monitor change over time.
Caution should be used when referencing historical data. Changes made to these collections over time include changes in scope, concepts, data item definitions and classifications. For further information see Changes in methodology.
The estimates from the Film, Television and Digital Games Survey are only available as original series and are not seasonally or trend adjusted.
Although financial estimates in this release relate to the full twelve months, employment estimates relate to the last pay period ending in June 2022. As such, estimates of values per person employed can be affected by any fluctuations in employment during the reference period. This is particularly relevant when assessing film and video production and post-production estimates owing to fluctuations in employment caused by the project-based nature of film and video production activities.
Further information about terminology and other technical aspects associated with these statistics can be found in other sections of methodology above, and the Glossary.
Active members of loyalty clubs
Number of cinema loyalty club members based in Australia who have an active membership at 30 June 2022.
Fees paid to television broadcasters from businesses with which they are affiliated.
Amortisation of programs or productions
The diminution in the value of productions and program rights over time (generally several years) occurring when productions or program rights are treated as capitalised expenses. The amortisation charge is expensed through the financial statements of the business and excludes program rights expensed during the financial year.
Visual editing services such as 2D and 3D animation. Includes animation services provided during post production on partly or completely animated productions, such as feature films, television programs and other productions.
Animation, computer generated imagery and visual effects technicians
Office-based production staff working primarily on special effects such as animation and computer generated imagery. Excludes visual effects technicians working on-set.
Airtime for completed first release programs, including time allocated for advertisements. Excludes program re-runs and the production time for commercials, program promotions and online content related to television productions.
Broadcast video on demand (BVOD)
Online streaming services offered by free-to-air broadcasters.
Broadcaster and channel providers
Broadcasters and channel providers operating on a profit-making basis and receiving the majority of their income from subscription fees for access to content or a set of channels containing pre-packaged programs ready for broadcasting, or for the sale of airtime. Also includes broadcasters who receive public funding for their operations. For more information see Scope.
Businesses at end June
The number of businesses operating at the end of June of the given year. For the purposes of this survey, the term 'businesses' includes non-profit organisations. It is possible for a business to operate in multiple states and territories. This will mean the state businesses counts will not add up to the Australia total.
Capitalised wages and salaries
Capitalised payment of wages and salaries and 'on-costs' paid to employees for work done by own employees in creating, manufacturing, constructing, installing or repairing assets including intellectual property, or in developing computer software in-house for use by the business or for rental or lease, including wages paid to own employees to project manage the development of the asset. 'On-costs' include employee entitlements such as superannuation, fringe benefits tax and workers' compensation.
All members with on-screen activity in a production including actors, on-screen presenters, extras, stand-ins and stunt performers.
Persons employed on a non-permanent basis, including persons on fixed term contracts with employee entitlements.
Television drama made specifically for children under the age of 14 (see Drama for more information).
Number of cinema sites and cinema screens operated at 30 June 2022. Includes drive-in theatres and outdoor cinemas.
Activities related to the camera in filming: film stock, film speed, framing, camera movement and lighting.
Commercial free-to-air broadcasters
Commercial free-to-air television broadcasters licensed with the Australian Communications and Media Authority to broadcast. These businesses operate on a profit-making basis and generate the majority of their income from the sale of airtime. For more information see Scope.
Commercials and program promotions
Media produced to advertise a product or service to the general public. Includes station and program promotions, which may take the form of interstitials. Also includes community service announcements.
Persons who develop and write computer software as part of the game development process.
Dedicated gaming platforms such as the Sony PlayStation or Microsoft Xbox. Also includes handheld consoles such as Nintendo Switch and Valve Steam Deck.
Media produced to meet a specific need for a corporate client, including media produced for targeted marketing and training purposes. Excludes commercials made for the general public (see Commercials and program promotions).
On-set production support staff.
Depreciation and amortisation expenses
Depreciation and amortisation allowed on tangible and intangible assets. Includes, for lessees only, depreciation/amortisation in respect of finance leases. Includes depreciation in respect of some operating leases.
Digital game development businesses
Businesses that generate income predominantly from the development of digital games for a range of formats (multi-platform, consoles, handheld consoles, PC and Mac, mobile phones and virtual and augmented reality). For more information see Scope.
Digital game development services
All aspects of digital game development and production (e.g. concept and art design, animation, audio, programming etc.), online game development services and post-production, digital and visual effects (PDV) work on digital games.
Digital game development services income
Income from the provision of digital game development or production services to other businesses. Includes PDV work on digital games.
Interactive software products made for the consumer entertainment market, involving a gameplay feature. Excludes products primarily designed for the purposes of training or advertising (these should be treated as other software applications).
Digital platforms for release of film, television and video productions including video on demand, streaming services, social media, websites and other online platforms.
Fees received by directors of films which are predetermined prior to the commencement of the film. This income can be a combination of fees, commissions or profit sharing.
Films or programs that provide a creative treatment of actuality other than news, current affairs, sports coverage, magazines, infotainment or light entertainment programs. Includes short documentaries. Excludes dramatised documentaries (included in Drama) and documentaries made specifically for children (included in Other children’s programs).
Programs that have a fully or partially scripted screenplay in which the dramatic elements of character, theme and plot are introduced and developed to form a narrative structure. Includes programs in which actors deliver improvised dialogue based on a scripted outline. Also includes animated drama and dramatised documentaries. Note that Situation and sketch comedy (see definition below) is a subcategory of drama.
Drama and documentary production and post-production businesses
Film and video production or post-production businesses that derived or incurred income or production expenses in the survey reference period related to drama or documentary productions.
Media produced primarily for educational purposes. Includes media produced for schools, tertiary and other educational institutions, as well as for the general public.
Employment at end June
Number of persons working for businesses during the last pay period ending in June of the given year. Includes working proprietors and partners, employees absent on paid or prepaid leave, employees on workers' compensation who continue to be paid through the payroll, and contract workers paid through the payroll. Excludes non-salaried directors and volunteers.
End-to-end digital game development income
Income earned from the end-to-end development and production of digital games during the reference period. Includes sales revenue (including pre-sales and advances from publishers and parent companies), unit sales, subscription and revenue from in-game purchasing and advertising, government funding received for the production of digital games and investment contributions from the public or private sector. Excludes development or production services provided to other businesses.
Executive producers' fees, producers' fees, line production
Executive producers' fees, producers' fees and income from line production as production services to other businesses.
Executive producers, producers, line producers
Staff who spend the majority of their time in the role of executive producer, producer or line producer on the set of productions.
Films that are 60 minutes in length or longer, excluding documentaries (included in Film documentaries) and telemovies (included in Other television programs).
Film and video distribution businesses
Businesses mainly engaged in acquiring the distribution rights and distributing motion pictures, videos and television programs. For more information see Scope.
Film and video post-production businesses
Businesses mainly engaged in the provision of post-production services and other motion picture and video activities (including specialised motion picture or video post-production services). For more information see Scope.
Film and video production businesses
Businesses mainly engaged in producing motion pictures, videos, television programs and/or commercials and program promotions. For more information see Scope.
Film and video productions
Film and video productions other than television programs made primarily for broadcast on television. Excludes commercials and program promotions.
All documentaries excluding those made specifically for television. See Documentaries.
Film exhibition businesses
Businesses mainly engaged in screening motion pictures using a variety of visual media. For more information see Scope.
Film, television and video production services
Production services including executive producers' fees, producers' fees, line producer fees, directors' fees, cinematography, rental of facilities and equipment with crew and other production services.
Staff primarily working on the layout, concept and design of a game. This may include writing scripts, specifications or creating storyboards for digital games.
General business operations
Staff who spend the majority of their time working on general business operations. Includes managers and administrators, IT support staff, human resources and payroll staff, legal and clerical staff.
Greater capital city
Greater capital city statistical areas are geographic areas that are designed to represent the functional extent of each of the eight state and territory capital cities.
Gross income from the sale of airtime
Income from the sale of airtime or 'space' on television for the broadcasting of advertisers' commercials or sponsors' messages. Includes advertising sales revenue from subscription television channels.
Distribution income earned from the sale of DVD's, Bluerays and other such physical mediums. Also includes Transactional video on demand on a pay-per-view basis.
Industry value added (IVA)
IVA is an estimate of the difference between the market value of the output of an industry and the purchases of materials and expenses incurred in the production of that output. For the purposes of this collection, all businesses are considered to be market producers.
For market producers, the derivation of IVA is as follows:
- Sales and service income
- Funding from government for operational costs
- Capital work done for own use
- Change in inventories
- Purchases of goods and materials
- Other intermediate input expenses
However, it should be noted that IVA is a measure of economic activity and is not equivalent to operating profit before tax (OPBT). Wage and salary expenses, and most other labour costs, are not subtracted from the IVA calculation, and neither are a number of lesser expenses. On the income side, OPBT includes total income, whereas IVA only includes the sales and service income items mentioned above and government funding for operational costs.
Includes interest paid on loans from banks, finance companies, partners, and related or unrelated businesses, in respect of finance leases and some operating leases. Also includes interest equivalents such as hedging costs and expenses associated with discounted bills. Excludes bank charges other than interest, and capital repayments.
Light entertainment and variety
This item includes infotainment, lifestyle shows, panel shows, variety shows, game shows and reality television. It excludes programming made specifically for children (see Other children’s programs).
Software that enables functionality of a digital game, but does not function as a game on its own. Includes game engines.
Mobile and web platforms
Games developed for mobile and web platforms such as iOS and Flash.
Titles developed simultaneously for more than one of the following platforms: console, PC and Mac, mobile and web platforms, other platforms (includes virtual and augmented reality). Note that such titles are excluded from the individual categories for which they are developed.
News and current affairs
Programs reporting on current or recent happenings, including film coverage of international, national and local events, reports on weather and essential services. Also includes sports news bulletins and programs that interpret events through interviews or discussion with acknowledged experts.
Office-based production staff
Production staff who are primarily based in the office. This includes animation, computer generated imagery and visual effects technicians, game designers, computer programmers, development staff, post-production staff and production managers. It excludes non-production staff.
On-set production staff
Staff who primarily work on the set of productions, such as cast and crew. Includes actors and on-screen presenters, extras, stand-ins, stunt performers and on-set support staff etc.
Operating profit before tax (OPBT)
Profit before extraordinary items are brought to account and prior to the deduction of income tax and appropriations to owners (e.g. dividends paid), i.e. total income less total expenses plus change in inventories.
Operating profit margin (OPM)
The percentage of sales and service income available as operating profit before tax (OPBT), i.e. (OPBT divided by sales and service income) multiplied by 100.
Other children's programs
Television programs made specifically for children under the age of 14, excluding drama programs (included in Children’s drama).
Other labour costs
All other staff related costs (including employer contributions into superannuation, workers' compensation premiums/costs, fringe benefits tax and payroll tax), excluding wages and salaries. See entry for Wages and salaries.
Other production and post-production businesses
Film and video production or post-production businesses without income or production expenses in the survey reference period related to drama or documentary productions.
Payments for other services
Payments made to related and unrelated businesses and self-employed contractors for selected services not separately itemised.
PC and Mac
Games developed for personal computer formats. Includes massively multi-player online role-playing games played on personal computers.
Persons employed on a permanent basis who usually work 35 hours or more per week.
Persons employed on a permanent basis who usually work less than 35 hours per week.
Post-production, digital and visual effects services for film, television and video
Includes computer generated special effects services, animation services and the rental of PDV facilities and/or equipment with crew.
Post-production, digital and visual effects services income
Income earned from the provision of post-production, digital and visual effects (PDV) services to other businesses. These include visual editing, sound editing, duplication, transferring, film laboratory and other PDV services.
Expenses incurred by a business for film, television, video or digital game production during the reference period including amounts that have been capitalised. Includes all production costs, associated with development, pre-production, shoot and post-production costs. Excludes costs associated with projects for which a business provided freelance production or post-production services to another business responsible for undertaking the production.
All income received during the reference period from production activity. Includes government funding received for production of film, television and video, investment contributions from the public or private sector, license fees received as financing for a production, sales revenue (including advances and pre-sales), minimum guarantee payments and fees received from agencies or clients for the production of commercials and/or other video. Excludes royalties income or income derived from program format rights and income associated with projects for which the business provided freelance production or post-production services to another business responsible for undertaking the production.
Production income and royalties
Includes production income and royalties income related to film, television and video productions.
Production services income
Income earned from the provision of production services to other businesses. Includes executive producers' fees, producers' fees, line production, directors' fees, cinematography, rental of facilities and/or equipment with crew and other production services.
Film, video and digital game projects either underway or completed during the survey reference period. Excludes projects that did not progress past the development stage.
Program rights expensed
Program rights purchased via a licence arrangement from the copyright owner, for a specified period and/or number of screenings. Programs that are licensed for a single screening, such as series and game shows, are treated as current expenses.
Television broadcasters that operate on a 'not-for-profit' basis and whose main source of income is from government funding.
Comprises purchases of materials, components, containers and packaging materials for manufacture or construction, electricity and water and purchases of finished goods for resale. Excludes delivery charges separately invoiced or itemised by suppliers and capitalised purchases.
Rent, leasing and hiring expenses
Payments for the rent, leasing and hiring of land, dwellings, other buildings and structures, motor vehicles, plant, machinery and other equipment (including telecommunication equipment). Includes operating lease payments not captured under interest expenses or depreciation; excludes finance lease payments.
Rent, leasing and hiring income
Income derived from the ownership of land, dwellings, buildings and other structures, motor vehicles, plant, machinery and other equipment. Excludes royalties from mineral leases, income from finance leases and payments received under hire purchase arrangements and rental of facilities and/or equipment with crew.
Rental of facilities and/or equipment with crew (income)
Income received from other businesses for renting facilities or equipment that come with crew. Excludes the income from renting facilities or equipment without crew.
Rest of Australia
All geographical areas that don't lie within the Greater capital city statistical areas (see Greater capital city)
Payments made for the use of rights or intellectual property of another business or individual. Includes payments under licensing arrangements, payments for the use of patents and copyrights, including music and literary rights and payments for the use of program format rights. Excludes program rights expensed and expensed computer software license fees.
Income earned by a business for the use of rights or intellectual property that it owns, including feature films, television programs and digital games. This includes payments under licensing arrangements, payments for the use of patents and copyrights and income derived from program format rights. It excludes licence fees received as financing for a production, which are considered to be production income.
Directors of incorporated businesses are directors who received a wage or salary during the reference period. Salaried directors are considered to be employees of the business.
Selected broadcasting expenses
Selected broadcasting related expenses including broadcasting licence fees, affiliation fees, payments to other businesses for the provision of television channels, commissions paid to advertising agencies or brokers for the sale of airtime and transmission expenses.
Films that are shorter than 60 minutes in length, excluding documentaries (included in Documentaries) and telemovies (included in Television programs). Note that this item includes short features, defined as 45-55 minutes in length.
Short form online content
Short, episodic content of around 3-15 minutes created for online consumption and forming part of a web series.
Situation and sketch comedy
A subcategory of drama (see Drama for more information). Includes both situation comedy programs and programs comprised entirely of sketches that are short self-contained stories. Excludes stand-up comedy programs (included in Light entertainment). Also excludes comedy sketches featured incidentally in other types of programs.
The process of arranging a film's soundtrack to decide its final order and content. During this process pre-recorded sound can also be manipulated or changed to be more suitable for the final product.
Special Purpose Vehicles (SPV)
A Special Purpose Vehicle is a business created specifically to capture activities related to a single production (e.g. feature film or television series).
Live or delayed broadcasts of competitive sport (excluding replays) and sports preview, summary and talk shows (in which replays of events are incidental). Excludes sports news bulletins (included in News and current affairs).
Subscription broadcasters and channel providers
Television broadcasters operating on a profit-making basis and receiving the majority of their income from subscription fees, and businesses primarily engaged in providing subscription television broadcasters with access to a channel or set of channels containing pre-packaged programs ready for broadcasting. Some of these businesses are also involved in producing television content. For more information see Scope.
Fees paid by viewers to subscription television broadcasters for access to a set of channels. Includes subscriber revenue from the provision of subscription television channels.
Subscription Video on Demand (SVOD)
A content model where customers pay a fee and are then provided with access to a selection of movies, television programs and other audio-visual content streamed over the internet to certain internet connected devices.
Documentaries made specifically for television. See Documentaries.
Productions made primarily for broadcast on television.
The sum of all expense components.
The sum of all income components.
Total labour costs
Comprises wages and salaries (including salary sacrificed earnings paid on behalf of employees and employee share based payments and stock options), employer contributions into superannuation, workers' compensation premiums/costs, fringe benefits tax and payroll tax. Excludes capitalised wages and salaries.
The process of cutting and arranging a film to decide its final order, content and presentation. Includes animation, visual effects, subtitling and other types of visual editing.
The process of adding visual effects to a production.
Wages and salaries
The gross wages and salaries (excluding capitalised wages and salaries) of all employees of the business. The item includes severance, termination and redundancy payments, salaries and fees of directors and executives, retainers and commissions of persons who received a retainer, bonuses, and annual and other types of leave. Provision expenses for employee entitlements (e.g. provisions for annual leave and leave bonus, long service leave, sick leave, and severance, termination and redundancy payments) are also included, as are salary sacrificed earnings and remuneration of employees in the form of share based payments and stock options.
Payments related to self-employed persons such as consultants, contractors and persons paid solely by commission without a retainer are excluded. The drawings of working proprietors and partners are also excluded.
Working proprietors and partners
A working proprietor of an unincorporated business operates his or her own business (sole proprietorship) while a partner, along with one or more other partners, operates a partnership.
|$b||billion (thousand million) dollars|
|ABN||Australian Business Number|
|ABR||Australia Business Register|
|ABS||Australian Bureau of Statistics|
|ABSBR||Australian Bureau of Statistics Business Register|
|ACMA||Australian Communications and Media Authority|
|AIFRS||Australian International Financial Reporting Standards|
|ANZSIC||Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification|
|ATO||Australian Tax Office|
|BAS||Business Activity Statement|
|BVOD||broadcaster video on demand|
|IVA||industry value added|
|OPBT||operating profit before tax|
|OPM||operating profit margin|
|PDV||post-production, digital and visual effects|
|RSE||relative standard errors|
|SPV||special purpose vehicle|
|TAU||type of activity unit|