Latest release

Gender indicators

Key economic and social indicators measuring equality between males and females, including gender pay gap and life expectancy

The content presented in these indicators may not be the most recent data available. Indicators will be updated as soon as possible following a relevant data release. Links on indicator cards will take users to the latest release information.

Key indicators

Gender pay gap

Gender pay gap indicator notes

Gender pay gap

  • The gender pay gap in this release is expressed as the difference between male and female earnings as a percentage of male earnings.
  • Analysing the gender pay gap is complex, and there is no single gender pay gap measure that can provide a definitive view of earning differentials, or explain the causes.
  • There are many factors that contribute to earning differentials, such as difference in the industry and occupational composition, hours worked, employment arrangements, qualifications and experience. Where a pay gap exists, it does not necessarily indicate that a female is paid less than a male for doing the same job.
  • A combination of measures should be used to obtain a broad understanding of the complexities of gender pay gap comparisons. For example:
    • Weekly and hourly earnings - to reflect total earnings received (weekly) as well as earnings for a comparable time period (which removes the compositional factors related to full-time part-time status and hours worked)
    • Median (the midpoint) and average (mean) earnings - while averages are often used, medians can provide a more representative measure of the earnings of average employees. 
  • The indicator presented here is based on Full-Time Adult Average Weekly Ordinary Time Earnings (excluding earnings salary sacrificed), sourced from the six-monthly Average Weekly Earnings (AWE) survey. AWE provides a long time series of mean (average) weekly earnings for males and females, including by industry, sector, and state/territory of work.

  • The Employee Earnings and Hours (EEH) survey is another important source for analysing the gender pay gap. EEH provides detailed compositional earnings data relevant to understand male and female earnings, most importantly allowing comparisons of weekly and hourly and mean and median earnings. EEH includes information by age, occupation, industry, sector, state/territory of work, type of employment and pay-setting method.

  • In future updates of Gender Indicators, a broader set of gender pay gap indicators will be presented, for example using hourly and median data from EEH.

  1. Unlike the Average Weekly Ordinary Time earnings series, the cash series is inclusive of earnings salary sacrificed. The Average Weekly Ordinary Time earnings cash series is an alternative average earnings series that can also be used to inform the gender pay gap.

Source: Average Weekly Earnings, Australia

Work

Work indicator notes

Employment to population ratio

  • Seasonally adjusted estimates i.e., effects of normal seasonal variation have been removed.
  • Employed persons 15 years and over as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over.

More information available in Labour Force, Australia Methodology.

Participation in the labour force

  • Seasonally adjusted estimates i.e., effects of normal seasonal variation have been removed.
  • For any group, the labour force (employed plus unemployed people), expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over in the same group.

More information available in Labour Force, Australia Methodology

Weekly hours worked

  • Usual number of hours worked a week in all jobs, for persons 15 years and over.
  • Original estimates used i.e., effects of normal seasonal variation have not been removed.

More information available in Labour Force, Australia Methodology.

Participation in the labour force of people with disability

  • The number of males/females with disability aged 15-64 years and in the labour force (employed persons plus unemployed persons), living in households, expressed as a percentage of the total male/female population in this group.
  • In the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, a person has a disability if they report they have a limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities.

More information available in Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia Methodology.

People with disability who are employed

  • The number of males/females with disability aged 15-64 years who reported that they had worked in a job, business or farm during the reference week (the full week prior to the date of interview); or that they had a job in the reference week, but were not at work, expressed as a proportion of the total male/female population in this group.

  • In the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, a person has a disability if they report they have a limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities.

More information available in Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia Methodology.

Median superannuation balance

  • For people ages 65 years and over.
  • Superannuation account balance in 2019-20 dollars, adjusted using changes in the Consumer Price Index.

More information available in Household Income and Wealth, Australia Methodology.

Education

Education indicator notes

Fully engaged in work and/or study

  • Includes persons aged 15-74 years who are working full-time, studying full-time, or both working and studying.          

More information available in Education and Work, Australia Methodology.

Attainment of a non-school qualification

  • Persons 15-74 years who have been awarded for educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education (e.g. Postgraduate Degree level, Master Degree level, Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate level, Bachelor Degree level, Advanced Diploma and Diploma level, and Certificates I, II, III and IV levels).

More information available in Education and Work, Australia Methodology.

Attainment of a bachelor degree or above

  • Persons aged 15-74 years who have completed a bachelor degree or above, such as a graduate certificate, graduate diploma, or other post graduate degree.

More information available in Education and Work, Australia Methodology.

Persons with disability who attained a bachelor degree or above

  • Persons with disability living in households. In the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, a person has a disability if they report they have a limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities.
  • Includes persons aged 15-74 years who attained a bachelor degree or above, such as a graduate certificate, graduate diploma, or other post graduate degree.

More information available in Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia Methodology.

Persons with disability who attained Year 12 or equivalent

  • Persons with disability living in households. In the Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, a person has a disability if they report they have a limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least six months and restricts everyday activities.
  • Includes persons aged 15-74 years who attained Year 12 or equivalent such as overseas qualifications comparable to the Australian Year 12 level of schooling, and other terms used to describe the final year of schooling in Australia, e.g. 'Year 13', '6th Form', 'high school certificate' and 'matriculation'.

More information available in Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia Methodology.

Full-time starting salary in science and mathematics

  • Median starting salary for persons in full-time employment who have completed their undergraduate qualifications in science and mathematics.
  • Data published in table 7 of the 2021 Graduate Outcomes Survey, National Report, found on the Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching website, funded by the Australian Government Department of Education, Skills and Employment.
  1. All persons aged 15-74 with a non-school qualification.

Source: Education and Work, Australia, 2021, Customised data

(a) All persons aged 15-74 years.

Source: Education and Work, Australia

  1. All persons aged 15-74 years.

 Source: Education and Work, Australia, 2021

  1. All persons aged 15-74 years with a non-school qualification.

Source: Education and Work, Australia, 2021, Customised data

Health

Health indicator notes

Life expectancy at birth

  • Life expectancy at birth estimates represent the average number of years that a newborn baby could expect to live, assuming current age-specific death rates are experienced through his/her lifetime.

More information available in Life Tables Methodology.

Prevalence of 12-month anxiety disorders

  • Persons aged 16-85 who met criteria for diagnosis of a lifetime anxiety mental disorder and had sufficient symptoms of that disorder in the 12 months prior to the survey interview.
  • Anxiety disorders include: Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, Social Phobia, Generalised Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

More information available in National Study of Mental Health and Wellbeing Methodology

Prevalence of 12-month substance use disorders

  • Persons aged 16-85 who met criteria for diagnosis of a lifetime substance use mental disorder and had sufficient symptoms of that disorder in the 12 months prior to the survey interview.
  • Substance use disorders include: Alcohol Harmful Use, Alcohol Dependence and Drug Use Disorders.

More information available in National Study of Mental Health and Wellbeing Methodology.

Prevalence of asthma

  • Includes persons of all ages who currently have asthma which has lasted, or is expected to last, for 6 months or more.
  • Data has been sourced from the ABS National Health Survey.

More information is available in the ABS Asthma publication.

Prevalence of heart, stroke and vascular disease

  • Heart, stroke and vascular disease encompasses a range of circulatory conditions including: Ischaemic heart disease (angina, heart attack and other ischaemic heart diseases); Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases); Oedema; Heart failure; Diseases of the arteries, arterioles and capillaries.
  • Includes persons of all ages who reported they had angina, heart attack, other ischaemic heart diseases, stroke and other cerebrovascular diseases or heart failure but that these conditions were not current at the time of interview.
  • Data has been sourced from the ABS National Health Survey.

More information is available in the ABS Health Conditions Prevalence publication

Current daily smokers

  • Current daily smokers aged 18 years and over.
  • A current daily smoker status refers to the frequency of smoking of tobacco, including manufactured (packet) cigarettes, roll-your-own cigarettes, cigars and pipes. A current daily smoker was a respondent who regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, cigars or pipes per day. Smoker status analysis excludes chewing tobacco and smoking of non-tobacco products. It also excludes e-cigarettes (and similar vaping devices) which are addressed separately.
  • Data has been sourced from the Australian Bureau of Statistics Microdata: Smoker Status dataset (National Health Survey).          

More information available in the ABS Smoking publication.

Met 2014 physical activity guidelines

  • Physical activity refers to a combination of exercise and workplace activity. Exercise includes walking for transport, walking for fitness, sport or recreation, moderate exercise and/or vigorous exercise undertaken in the last week. Workplace activity is physical activity undertaken in the workplace which includes moderate and/or vigorous activity undertaken on a typical workday.
  • The 2014 physical activity guidelines are based on the Australia’s Australian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines (2014) and assessed against the respective age group for National Health Survey data.
  • The 2014 Guidelines recommend that adults (18-64 years) should be active most days of the week, accumulate 150 to 300 minutes moderate intensity physical activity or 75 to 150 minutes of vigorous intensity physical activity (or an equivalent combination each week), and do muscle strengthening activities on at least two days each week.
  • Data has been sourced from the ABS National Health Survey.

More information available in the ABS Physical Activity publication.

Exceeded Australian Adult Alcohol Guideline 2020

  • The Australian Adult Alcohol Guideline 2020 is based on Guideline 1 of the Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol.
  • Includes persons aged 18 years and over who either consumed more than 10 standard drinks per week, or more than 4 standard drinks on a single day at least 12 or more times in the last 12 months.
  • Data has been sourced from the ABS National Health Survey.

More information available in the ABS Alcohol Consumption publication.

Leading cause of death

  • Administrative data provided by state and territory Registries of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, supplemented with data from the National Coronial Information System.
  • ABS code and compile administrative data into aggregate statistics, using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).

The Causes of Death, Australia Methodology contains more information on specific issues related to interpreting time-series and 2020 data.

Mortality rate

  • Mortality rate is the age-standardised death rate from all-causes of death.
  • Number of deaths in the reference year per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid-year).
  • The direct age standardisation method has been applied in order to compare estimates over time.

The Causes of Death, Australia Methodology contains more information on specific issues related to interpreting time-series and 2020 data.

Suicide rate

  • Number of deaths by suicide in the reference year per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid-year).
  • The direct age standardisation method has been applied in order to compare estimates over time.

The Causes of Death, Australia Methodology contains more information on specific issues related to interpreting time-series and 2020 data.

  1. See the Data quality section of the Causes of death, Australia, 2020 Methodology for further information on specific issues related to interpreting time-series and 2020 data.
  2. Age-standardised death rate. Death rate per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid year). See the glossary and the Mortality tabulations section in Causes of death, Australia, 2020 Methodology for further information.
  3. Includes deaths registered in that year.
  4. Victorian coroner-referred deaths for 2017-2019 have been measured on registration year to enable more accurate time-series analysis. Care needs to be taken when interpreting data derived from Victorian coroner-referred deaths. See Technical note: Victorian additional registrations and time series adjustments in Causes of death, Australia, 2019, for detailed information on this issue.

Source: Causes of Death, Australia

  1. All causes of death data from 2006 onward are subject to a revisions process - once data for a reference year are 'final', they are no longer revised. Affected data in this table are: 2011-2017 (final), 2018 (revised), 2019 and 2020 (preliminary). See the Data quality section of the methodology in Causes of death, Australia, 2020 and Causes of Death Revisions, 2017 Final Data (Technical Note) and 2018 Revised Data (Technical Note) in Causes of Death, Australia, 2019 (cat. no. 3303.0).
  2. Age-standardised death rate. Death rate per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid year). See the glossary and the Mortality tabulations and methodologies section in Causes of death, Australia, 2020 for further information.
  3. The data presented for intentional self-harm includes ICD-10 codes X60-X84 and Y87.0. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to intentional self-harm. See the Deaths due to intentional self-harm (suicide) section of the methodology in Causes of death, Australia, 2020.
  4. See the Data quality section of the Causes of death, Australia, 2020 methodology for further information on specific issues related to interpreting time-series and 2020 data.
  5. Care needs to be taken when interpreting data derived from Victorian coroner-referred deaths including suicide. See Technical note: Victorian additional registrations and time series adjustments in Causes of death, Australia, 2019, for detailed information on this issue.
  6. Changes in coding processes have been applied to 2020 data. See the Classifications and Mortality coding sections of the methodology in Causes of death, Australia, 2020 for further information.

Source: Causes of Death, Australia

Crime

Crime indicator notes

Victims of sexual assault

  • Number of persons, all ages, as recorded by police for the reference period 2021.
  • Sexual assault, for the purposes of the Recorded Crime - Victims collection, is defined as physical contact, or intent of contact, of a sexual nature directed toward another person where that person does not give consent, gives consent as a result of intimidation or deception, or consent is proscribed (i.e. the person is legally deemed incapable of giving consent because of youth, temporary/permanent (mental) incapacity or there is a familial relationship).

More information available in Recorded Crime - Victims Methodology.

Experienced sexual violence since the age of 15

  • Persons aged 18 years and over who experienced the occurrence, attempt or threat of sexual assault since the age of 15.

More information available in Personal Safety, Australia Methodology

Experienced partner emotional abuse since the age of 15

  • Persons aged 18 years and over who experienced emotional abuse by a current and/or previous partner since the age of 15.
  • Emotional abuse is characterised by certain behaviours or actions that are aimed at preventing or controlling their behaviour, causing them emotional harm or fear. These behaviours are characterised in nature by their intent to manipulate, control, isolate or intimidate the person they are aimed at. They are generally repeated behaviours and include psychological, social, economic and verbal abuse.

More information available in Personal Safety, Australia Methodology.

Experienced sexual harassment in their lifetime

  • Lifetime experiences from persons aged 18 years and over who experienced sexual harassment.
  • Sexual harassment is considered to have occurred when a person has experienced or been subjected to behaviours which made them feel uncomfortable, and were offensive due to their sexual nature.

More information available in Personal Safety, Australia Methodology.

a. Rate per 100,000 persons

Source: Recorded Crime - Victims

  1. Persons aged 18 years and over who experienced the occurrence, attempt or threat of physical assault since the age of 15.
  2. People may have experienced violence by more than one perpetrator type; therefore components may not sum to the total.
  3. Includes current partner, previous partner (lived with), boyfriend/girlfriend or date and ex-boyfriend/girlfriend.

Source: Personal Safety, Australia, 2016

Work-life balance

Work-life balance indicator notes

Parental leave taken by primary carer in the non-public sector

  • Primary carer's leave refers to leave taken by a the primary carer (being the person who most meets the child's needs, including feeding, dressing, bathing and otherwise supervising the child).
  • Non-public sector includes employers with 100 or more employees.

More information available in Australia’s Gender Equality Score Card produced by the Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA). 

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