Provisional Mortality Statistics

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Provisional deaths data for measuring changes in patterns of mortality

Reference period
Jan - Nov 2022

Key statistics

  • In 2022, there were 174,717 deaths that occurred by 30 November and were registered by 31 January 2023, which is 22,886 (15.1%) more than the historical average.
  • The age-standardised death rate (SDR) for November 2022 was 40.8 deaths per 100,000 people, above the baseline average (40.0).
  • There were 871 deaths due to COVID-19 in December, close to double the 441 that occurred from the virus in November (see article).

Baseline comparisons

Throughout this report, counts of deaths are compared to an average number of deaths for previous years. In this report, data for 2021 is compared to an average number of deaths recorded over the 5 years from 2015-2019 as was the case in previous publications. Data for 2022 is compared to a baseline comprising the years 2017-2019 and 2021. 2020 is not included in the baseline for 2022 data because it included periods where numbers of deaths were significantly lower than expected.  Counts of deaths for 2015-2021 are included in the baseline datacubes of the data downloads section of this report. 

These average or baseline counts serve as a proxy for the expected number of deaths, so comparisons against baseline counts can provide an indication of whether mortality is higher or lower than expected in a given year. The minimum and maximum counts are also included to provide an indication of the range of previous counts. Minimums and maximums for any given week can be from any of the years included in the baseline.

While this publication can provide an indication of where counts of deaths are above or below expectations, it does not provide official estimates of excess mortality. Using the number of deaths from the previous years as the predictor for the expected number of deaths does not take into account changes in population size and age-structures of that population, as well as expected improvements in mortality rates over time. Age-standardised death rates can be accessed via the data downloads tab in this publication. 

COVID-19 mortality

The ABS publishes two regular reports that provide preliminary information on mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic, Provisional Mortality Statistics and COVID-19 Deaths in Australia articles. These reports provide information on different time periods and serve different purposes.

Provisional Mortality Statistics focus on monitoring patterns of mortality (by all-causes and specified leading causes of death) and highlight any changes potentially associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Data must be sufficiently complete to detect such changes, and as such these reports are only released once the majority of deaths that occurred in a particular period have been registered and reported.   

COVID-19 Mortality in Australia articles focus on all COVID-19 deaths registered and reported up until a specified time. These articles include important information about COVID-19 deaths, including demographic details, comorbidities and consequences of the disease. While it is recognised data will be incomplete, it can still indicate emerging trends or changes among these deaths. The most recent article on COVID-19 mortality covering deaths that occurred and were registered up until 31 January 2023 can be accessed through the articles link on this page. 

Australian deaths by week

All-cause deaths

Tracking the number of deaths against historical averages for similar time periods provides an initial indication of when a change in the pattern of mortality may occur. This is of particular relevance because of the many potential public health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Note: There is a change in the way this graph is presented. Previously, the number of COVID-19 infections were reported alongside deaths. With changes in the way infections are detected (i.e. the use of both Rapid Antigen Tests (RAT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests) and reported the graph was no longer considered robust for measuring the pattern of mortality against infection rates. Instead, the number of overall deaths and the number of overall deaths without COVID-19 as an underlying cause of death are presented. This provides an indication of how COVID-19 has contributed to the pattern of mortality over time. 

For all deaths:

  • In 2022, there were 174,717 deaths that occurred by 30 November and were registered by 31 January 2023. This is 22,886 deaths (15.1%) more than the baseline average.
  • In November there were 14,483 deaths, 1,432 (11.0%) above the historical average. 
  • 12,708 of the deaths occurring in November 2022 were doctor certified and 1,775 were coroner referred.
  • The age-standardised death rate (SDR) for November 2022 was 40.8 deaths per 100,000 people, above the baseline average of 40.0.
  • September and October were the only months where the SDR for 2022 was lower than the baseline average.  

Deaths are presented by counts only. Counts of death do not account for changes in population. See data downloads for weekly and monthly age-standardised death rate calculations. 

  1. Data is by occurrence.
  2. Data is provisional and subject to change.
  3. Weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday as per the ISO week date system. Refer to 'Weekly comparisons' on the methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.
  4. The baseline includes deaths from 2015-19 (for 2021) and from 2017-19 and 2021 (for 2022).

Mortality by selected causes of death

Cause-specific mortality

The following analysis is based only on doctor certified deaths (i.e. coroner referred deaths are not included). Any changes in patterns of coroner referral could affect counts of doctor certified deaths. Some conditions have higher coroner referral rates (ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases and to a lesser extent, respiratory diseases and diabetes) so counts for those conditions would be more likely to be affected by such changes.


  • Between January and November 2022 there have been 8,824 deaths due to COVID-19 that were certified by a doctor. 435 of these deaths occurred in November, 204 (88.3%) more than in October.
  • As the pandemic has progressed the number of people dying 'with' COVID-19 has increased. In November 123 people died with COVID-19 as a contributing factor to their death. (ie. COVID-19 was certified on the death certificate but it was not the underlying cause of death).

Other causes of death

  • Deaths due to dementia including Alzheimer's disease were 11.7% above the baseline average in November, and 15.0% above the baseline average for the year to November.
  • The age-standardised death rate for deaths due to dementia was 3.2 per 100,000 people in November. This compares to a baseline average rate of 3.1.
  • Deaths due to diabetes were 22.0% above the baseline average in November, and were 19.0% higher than the average for the year to November.
  • The age-standardised death rate for deaths due to diabetes was 1.2 per 100,000 people in November. This compares to a baseline average rate of 1.1.
  • While the number of deaths due to cancer was 3.5% above the baseline average in November, the age standardised rate of 11.6 per 100,000 people was below the baseline average rate of 12.2.
  • Deaths due to cerebrovascular disease were 8.7% lower when compared to the average count in November. 
  • Deaths due to respiratory diseases were 5.7% higher than the baseline average in November, with deaths due to chronic lower respiratory diseases being 8.9% higher than average but deaths due to influenza and pneumonia being 8.9% below average.

Doctor certified deaths by cause, November 2022
   NovemberNovember baseline averageJan -Nov 2022Jan - Nov baseline average
Respiratory diseases1,1041,04413,20113,129
 Chronic lower respiratory diseases6485957,3687,141
 Influenza and pneumonia1751922,4162,843
Ischaemic heart disease1,0971,11613,77513,441
Cerebrovascular diseases6737378,5598,767

a. Only doctor certified deaths are included.
b. Data is by date of occurrence.
c. Weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday as per the ISO week date system. Refer to the section 'Weekly comparisons' in the methodology for more information.
d. The baseline includes deaths from 2017-19 and 2021 (for 2022) and from 2015-19 (for 2021).

Timeliness and completeness of data

Each death registration in the national mortality dataset has 3 dates:

  • The date on which the death occurred.
  • The date on which the death was registered with the jurisdictional Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages (RBDM).
  • The date on which the death was lodged with the ABS.

When looking to measure change over time, the completeness of data for the most recent period is important. When data is received each month by the ABS, the lag between the date of death and the date of registration means that approximately 40-50% of reported registrations are of deaths that occurred in the month being reported. The remainder are deaths that occurred in earlier months.

For deaths which are doctor certified, approximately 95% of registrations are received after a second month of reporting, while for coroner certified deaths, the proportion of registrations reported after a second month is lower (approximately 78%). This is because it takes longer for coroners to certify deaths due to the complexity of investigations.

As coroner referred deaths make up a smaller proportion of all deaths (approximately 11-14%) their inclusion in all-cause data only reduces the overall completeness by around 2%. This should be considered when making comparisons with historical counts, noting also that the level of completeness will be higher for the start of any given month than the end of that month. 

This pattern of registration and reporting is highlighted in the table below, which also shows the slight variation in reporting timelines by cause of death. 

Estimated completeness of death registrations received by the ABS (a)(b)(c)
Cause of death

Total proportion reported at the end of the month the death occurred (%)

Total proportion reported at the end of the month after the death occurred (%)

Total proportion reported at the end of two months after the death occurred (%)

All cause - doctor and coroner certified43.192.897.2
All cause - doctor certified only45.794.998.4
All cause - coroner certified only24.777.888.4
Ischaemic heart disease (I20 – I25)45.294.998.4
Cerebrovascular diseases (I60 – I69)
Respiratory diseases (J00 – J99)45.895.598.7
Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40 – J47)45.494.398.2
Influenza and pneumonia (J09 – J18)45.795.598.9
Cancer (C00 – C97, D45, D46, D47.1, D47.3 – D47.5)46.995.498.6
Diabetes (E10 – E14)43.993.097.3
Dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (F01, F03, G30)46.295.498.8

a. Percentages are based on the date registrations were received by the ABS for deaths that occurred in 2017-2019 and 2021.
b. Only doctor certified deaths are included for cause-specific data.
c. Data is provisional and subject to change.

The graphs below show how numbers of deaths for each period have increased over time as additional registrations that occurred in previous months are reported to the ABS. Due to these increases, data for the most recently reported periods should be treated with caution.

Data downloads

Provisional Mortality Statistics, Jan - Nov 2022

Data files

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 3303.0.55.004

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