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Provisional Mortality Statistics

Provisional deaths data for measuring changes in patterns of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic and recovery period

Reference period
Jan 2020 - Nov 2021
Released
25/02/2022

Key statistics

  • In 2021, 136,800 deaths occurred by 30 November and were registered by 31 January 2022.
  • The number of deaths was 6.2% above the historical average for November but mortality rates remain below average.

COVID-19 Mortality

The ABS publishes two regular reports that provide preliminary information on mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic: the Provisional Mortality Statistics report and articles COVID-19 Deaths in Australia. These reports provide information on different time periods and serve different purposes.

Provisional Mortality Statistics reports focus on monitoring patterns of mortality (by all cause and specified leading causes of death) and highlight any changes potentially associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Data must be sufficiently complete to detect such changes, hence the need to delay reports until the majority of deaths that occurred in a particular period (>95%) have been registered and reported.   

COVID-19 Deaths in Australia reports focus on all COVID-19 deaths registered and reported up until a specified time. These reports include important information about COVID-19 deaths, including demographic details, comorbidities and consequences of the disease. While it is recognised data will be incomplete, it can still indicate emerging trends or changes among these deaths. The most recent article on COVID-19 mortality was released on 15 February and covers deaths that occurred and were registered up until 31 January, 2022.

Measuring ‘excess’ deaths

Excess mortality is an epidemiological concept typically defined as the difference between the observed number of deaths in a specified time period and the expected numbers of deaths in that same time period. Estimates of excess deaths can provide information about the burden of mortality potentially related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including deaths that are directly or indirectly attributed to COVID-19.

Throughout this report, counts of deaths for 2020 and 2021 are compared to an average number of deaths recorded over the previous 5 years (2015-2019). These average or baseline counts serve as a proxy for the expected number of deaths, so comparisons against baseline counts can provide an indication of excess mortality. The minimum and maximum counts from 2015-19 are also included to provide an indication of the range of previous counts. Minimums and maximums for any given week can be from any of the five years from 2015-19. As mortality during 2020 had periods where deaths were significantly lower than expected, 2020 has not been included in the baseline average. 

While data in the body of this report are presented as raw counts of death, mortality rates are presented in the data cubes which can be accessed via the data downloads tab. Mortality rates enable for more accurate comparisons over time by taking account changing population size and age-structures. 

Australian deaths by week, 30 December 2019 to 28 November 2021

All-cause deaths certified by a doctor

Tracking the number of doctor certified deaths against historical averages for similar time periods provides an initial indication of when excess deaths may occur. This is of particular relevance because of the many potential public health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The number of COVID-19 infections by week in Australia is highlighted alongside total deaths. This is to enable insights into patterns of mortality from all causes of death during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially during peak infectious periods. 

For doctor certified deaths:

  • There were 136,800 deaths that occurred between 1 January and 30 November 2021 and were registered by 31 January. 
  • This is 6,949 deaths (5.4%) more than the 2015-19 average and 6,264 deaths (4.8%) more than in 2020.
  • The age-standardised death rate (SDR) for January to November 2021 was 394.3 per 100,000 people. This was higher than that for 2020 (389.2) but lower than the average for 2015-19 (422.7).
  • There were 11,769 deaths in November 2021, 3.8% more than in 2020 and 6.2% more than the average for 2015-19. The November SDR was 33.1, comparable to that in 2020 (33.1) but below the average for 2015-2019 (35.5).
  • There were 235 doctor-certified deaths due to COVID-19 that occurred in November that were registered by 31 January.

Note: This analysis does not include coroner referred deaths. Any changes in patterns of coroner referral could affect counts of doctor certified deaths. Some conditions have higher coroner referral rates (ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases and to a lesser extent, respiratory diseases and diabetes) so counts for those conditions would be more likely to be affected by such changes.

Deaths are presented by counts only. Counts of death do not account for changes in population. See data downloads for weekly and monthly age-standardised death rate calculations. 

  1. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  2. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  3. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  4. Refer to explanatory notes on the Methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.
  5. Data for the number of COVID-19 infections has been sourced from the COVID-19 daily infections graph published on the Australian Government Department of Health website. Data extracted 8 December 2021.

Ischaemic heart disease

Ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in Australia. The category includes acute conditions such as myocardial infarction and chronic conditions such as coronary atherosclerosis.

  • 12,728 deaths occurred from ischaemic heart disease between January and November 2021
  • This is 1,244 deaths (8.9%) below the 2015-19 average, but remains 1.8% above the 12,508 deaths at the same point in 2020.

  • Deaths due to ischaemic heart disease have been decreasing over time.
  1. Ischaemic heart disease includes all deaths where the underlying cause of death is assigned an ICD-10 code between I20-I25.
  2. This graph only includes doctor certified deaths.
  3. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  4. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  5. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  6. Refer to the weekly data cube to find the dates corresponding to each week. For example, week 1 in 2020 was 29 December 2019 to 5 January 2020, while week 1 in 2021 was 4 January to 10 January 2021. 
  7. Refer to the explanatory notes on the Methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.

Cerebrovascular diseases

Cerebrovascular diseases refer to a number of conditions such as stroke, cerebral aneurysms and stenosis that affect blood flow and circulation to the brain.

  • 8,384 deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (including strokes) occurred between January and November 2021.
  • This is 599 deaths (6.7%) below the 2015-19 average, and comparable to the 8,334 deaths at the same point in 2020.
  • Similar to ischaemic heart disease, deaths from cerebrovascular diseases have been declining over time. 
  1. Cerebrovascular diseases include all deaths where the underlying cause of death is assigned an ICD-10 code between I60-I69.
  2. This graph only includes doctor certified deaths.
  3. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  4. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  5. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  6. Refer to the weekly data cube to find the dates corresponding to each week. For example, week 1 in 2020 was 29 December 2019 to 5 January 2020, while week 1 in 2021 was 4 January to 10 January 2021. 
  7. Refer to explanatory notes on the Methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.

Respiratory diseases

Respiratory diseases include causes of death such as pneumonia, influenza, and chronic lower respiratory diseases (including emphysema and chronic bronchitis). Deaths due to COVID-19 are not included in this category. COVID-19 deaths are captured using WHO issued emergency codes U07.1 and U07.2 and are not currently grouped with any other diseases, though they are included in the total number of deaths and are presented in the data downloads.

  • There were 12,053 deaths from respiratory diseases between January and November 2021.
  • This is 1,297 deaths (9.7%) below the 2015-19 average, but 8.4% higher than 2020 (11,114). Deaths from respiratory diseases were particularly low in 2020, likely because of measures in place to prevent the spread of COVID-19.
  • In November 2021 there were 962 deaths due to respiratory diseases, 5.4% more than in November 2020, but 9.9% below the 2015-19 average.
  1. Respiratory diseases include all deaths where the underlying cause of death is assigned an ICD-10 code between J00-J99.
  2. This graph only includes doctor certified deaths.
  3. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  4. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  5. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  6. Refer to the weekly data cube to find the dates corresponding to each week. For example, week 1 in 2020 was 29 December 2019 to 5 January 2020, while week 1 in 2021 was 4 January to 10 January 2021. 
  7. Refer to the explanatory notes on the Methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.

Chronic lower respiratory diseases

Chronic lower respiratory diseases include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47) are a sub-group of respiratory diseases (J00-J99).

  • There were 6,639 deaths from chronic lower respiratory diseases between January and November 2021.
  • This is 462 deaths (6.5%) below the 2015-19 average, but 7.8% higher than 2020 (6,160).
  • In November 2021 there were 549 deaths from chronic lower respiratory conditions, 4.2% more than November 2020 and 5.7% less than the 2015-19 average. 
  1. Chronic lower respiratory diseases include all deaths where the underlying cause of death is assigned an ICD-10 code between J40-J47.
  2. This graph only includes doctor certified deaths.
  3. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  4. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  5. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  6. Refer to the weekly data cube to find the dates corresponding to each week. For example, week 1 in 2020 was 29 December 2019 to 5 January 2020, while week 1 in 2021 was 4 January to 10 January 2021. 

  7. Refer to explanatory notes on the Methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.

Influenza and pneumonia

Influenza and pneumonia are acute respiratory diseases often grouped together when compiling leading causes of death. They are two distinct diseases: influenza is a viral infection, while pneumonia can be caused by a virus, bacteria or fungi. Influenza is a common cause of pneumonia.

Influenza deaths are highly seasonal and most commonly occur in Australia between the months of May and September. The timing, length and severity of the influenza season varies considerably from year to year. For this reason, influenza deaths have been excluded from the graph below so pneumonia deaths can be tracked separately.

Influenza and pneumonia (J09-J18) are a subset of respiratory diseases (J00-J99).

  • There were 1,967 deaths due to influenza and pneumonia recorded between January and November 2021. All but two deaths in this category were due to pneumonia. 
  • This is 1,167 deaths (37.2%) lower than the 2015-19 average, and 34 deaths (1.7%) lower than at the same point in 2020.

Influenza

  • There were no deaths due to influenza in November 2021.  

Pneumonia

  • The number of deaths due to pneumonia has generally been below average since late April 2020.
  • Between January and November 2021, the 1,965 deaths due to pneumonia were 22.5% below the 2015-19 average but comparable to the 1,958 deaths at the same point in 2020.
  • During November 2021 there were 134 deaths due to pneumonia, 8.1% more than in November 2020 but 35.3% below the 2015-19 average.
  1. Pneumonia includes all deaths where the underlying cause of death is assigned an ICD-10 code between J12-J18.
  2. This graph only includes doctor certified deaths.
  3. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  4. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  5. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  6. Refer to the weekly data cube to find the dates corresponding to each week. For example, week 1 in 2020 was 29 December 2019 to 5 January 2020, while week 1 in 2021 was 4 January to 10 January 2021. 
  7. Refer to the explanatory notes on the Methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.

Cancer

Cancer includes malignant neoplasms encompassing carcinomas, sarcomas and lymph and blood cancers.

  • 44,952 deaths from cancer occurred between January and November 2021.
  • This is 6.5% higher than the 2015-19 average, and 2.3% higher than at the same point in 2020.
  • The SDR for cancer between 1 January and 30 November 2021 was 135.1 deaths per 100,000 people. This is comparable to the SDR of 136.4 for the same period in 2020 but lower than the SDR of 143.9 for 2015-2019 (average).
  • During November 2021 there were 3,967 deaths due to cancer, comparable to the 4,004 deaths in November 2020, and 5.3% higher than the 2015-19 average.
  1. Cancer includes all deaths where the underlying cause of death is assigned an ICD-10 code between C00-C97, D45, D46, D47.1 or D47.3-D47.5.
  2. This graph only includes doctor certified deaths.
  3. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  4. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  5. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  6. Refer to the weekly data cube to find the dates corresponding to each week. For example, week 1 in 2020 was 29 December 2019 to 5 January 2020, while week 1 in 2021 was 4 January to 10 January 2021.
  7. Refer to the explanatory notes on the Methodology page in this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.

Diabetes

Diabetes includes both Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. The majority of diabetes deaths are from Type 2 diabetes.

  • 4,535 deaths from diabetes occurred between January and November 2021.
  • This is 10.4% higher than the 2015-19 average, but comparable to the 4,515 deaths at the same point in 2020.
  • The SDR for diabetes between 1 January and 30 November 2021 was 13.1 deaths per 100,000 people. This is lower than the SDR over the same period in 2020 (13.5) and the 2015-2019 average (also 13.5).
  • During November 2021 there were 399 deaths due to diabetes, which is 17.4% higher than the 2015-19 average, and 4.2% higher than in November 2020.
  1. Diabetes includes all deaths where the underlying cause of death is assigned an ICD-10 code between E10-E14.
  2. This graph only includes doctor certified deaths.
  3. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  4. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  5. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  6. Refer to the weekly data cube to find the dates corresponding to each week. For example, week 1 in 2020 was 29 December 2019 to 5 January 2020, while week 1 in 2021 was 4 January to 10 January 2021.
  7. Refer to the explanatory notes on the Methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.

Dementia, including Alzheimer disease

Dementia, including Alzheimer disease, is the second leading cause of death in Australia and counts of deaths from dementia have increased steadily over the past 20 years. This increase should be taken into consideration when comparing 2020 and 2021 counts against baseline averages.

  • 14,188 deaths from dementia, including Alzheimer disease, occurred between January and November 2021.
  • This is 13.9% higher than the 2015-19 average, and 6.1% higher than at the same point in 2020.
  • The SDR for dementia between 1 January and 30 November 2021 was 38.3 per 100,000 people. This is slightly above the historical average SDR of 38.0 and above the SDR for the same period in 2020 of 37.4. 
  •  In November 2021 there were 1,138 deaths due to dementia, including Alzheimer disease, comparable to the 1,126 deaths in November 2020, and 10.0% higher than the baseline average.

  1. Dementia, including Alzheimer Disease includes all deaths where the underlying cause of death is assigned an ICD-10 code of F01, F03 or G30.
  2. This graph only includes doctor certified deaths.
  3. This graph is compiled by the date the death occurred.
  4. This data is considered to be provisional and subject to change as additional data is received.
  5. In line with the ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) week date system, weeks are defined as seven-day periods which start on a Monday. Week 1 of any given year is the week which starts on the Monday closest to 1 January, and for which the majority of its days fall in January (i.e. four days or more). Week 1 therefore always contains the 4th of January and always contains the first Thursday of the year. Using the ISO structure, some years (e.g. 2015 and 2020) contain 53 weeks.
  6. Refer to the weekly data cube to find the dates corresponding to each week. For example, week 1 in 2020 was 29 December 2019 to 5 January 2020, while week 1 in 2021 was 4 January to 10 January 2021.
  7. Refer to the explanatory notes on the Methodology page of this publication for more information regarding the data in this graph.

Timeliness and completeness of data

Each death registration in the national mortality dataset has 3 dates:

  • The date on which the death occurred.
  • The date on which the death was registered with the jurisdictional Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages (RBDM).
  • The date on which the death was lodged with the ABS.
     

The time between the occurrence of a death and registration can vary, although in general, deaths certified by a doctor are registered sooner. Coroner certified deaths undergo extensive investigative processes which can delay registration times, and for this reason they are excluded from the provisional mortality reports.

When looking to measure change over time, the completeness of data for the most recent period is important. When data are received each month by the ABS, the lag between the date of death and date of registration means that only 40-50% of reported registrations are of deaths that occurred in the month being reported. The remainder are deaths that occurred in earlier months. After a second month of reporting, approximately 95% of doctor certified registrations have been received. This is considered sufficiently complete to enable meaningful comparison with historical counts, noting that the level of completeness will be higher for the start of any given month than the end of that month.

This pattern of registration and reporting is highlighted in the table below, which also shows the slight variation in reporting timelines by cause of death. This should be considered when comparing 2021 data to the 2015-2019 baseline data.

 

Cause of deathReported at the end of the month the death occurredReported at the end of the month after the death occurredTotal portion reported at the end of the month after the death occurred
All cause

45.8%

48.6%

94.4%

Ischaemic heart disease (I20 – I25)

45.2%

49.2%

94.4%

Cerebrovascular diseases (I60 – I69)

45.4%

49.3%

94.7%

Respiratory diseases (J00 – J99)

45.5%

48.7%

94.2%

Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40 – J47)

45.4%

48.3%

93.7%

Influenza and pneumonia (J09 – J18)

45.7%

49.2%

94.9%

Cancer (C00 – C97, D45, D56, D47.1, D47.3 – D47.5)

46.9%

48.0%

94.9%

Diabetes (E10 – E14)

43.6%

49.0%

92.7%

Dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease (F01, F03, G30)

46.0%

48.6%

94.6%

a. Percentages are based on the average of 5 years (2015-2019) of receipt of death registrations.
b. This table only includes doctor certified deaths.
c. Data is subject to change.
 

The graph below shows how numbers of deaths for each period have increased over time as additional registrations that occurred in previous months are reported to the ABS. Due to these increases, data for the most recently reported periods should be treated with caution.

Data downloads

Provisional mortality statistics, Jan 2020 - Nov 2021

Data files

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 3303.0.55.004