Monthly Consumer Price Index Indicator

This is not the latest release View the latest release

The monthly CPI indicator is a measure of inflation and includes statistics about prices for categories of households expenditure

Reference period
April 2023

Key statistics

  • The monthly CPI indicator rose 6.8% in the twelve months to April.
  • The most significant price rises were Housing (+8.9%), Food and non-alcoholic beverages (+7.9%) and Transport (+7.1%).

What's new this month

Underlying inflation data

Following the monthly Trimmed mean being discontinued in December 2022, the ABS undertook an investigation to explore alternative measures. This release includes two new indicators of underlying inflation: ‘Annual trimmed mean’ and ‘CPI excluding volatile items and holiday travel’. The investigation found these two measures provide a reasonable indicator of the principal measure of underlying inflation, which is the quarterly Trimmed mean, published in the quarterly CPI publication. The previously published series 'CPI excluding volatile items' will be available in the spreadsheets under 'Data downloads'. Further details of the investigation are available in About the monthly CPI indicator.

Detailed monthly data

In addition, this release includes a table of detailed monthly data for the 87 expenditure classes measured in the CPI. The table provides the monthly movements for the three most recent months. Prices for some expenditure classes are collected less frequently than monthly. In these cases, prices from the previous period are carried forward, resulting in a zero movement for the months that prices are not collected.  The months where a zero movement has been imputed for these expenditure classes are indicated as 'imp'. This table is available in the  Detailed monthly data  and will be updated each month in future releases of the monthly CPI indicator. As previously stated, the monthly CPI indicator data may be subject to revisions. Any revisions to data will be marked as revised in the table.

International CPI comparisons

Also released today is an article on CPI international comparisons, which provides analysis of inflation in Australia compared to selected countries and explains how measurement of the CPI differs between countries.

Main features

Weighted average of eight capital cities, annual movement

Feb 22 to Feb 23

% change

Mar 22 to Mar 23

% change

Apr 22 to Apr 23

% change

All groups monthly CPI6.86.36.8
Food and non-alcoholic beverages8.08.17.9
     Bread and cereal products12.510.811.4
     Meat & seafood3.34.34.4
     Dairy and related products14.315.114.5
     Fruit & vegetables5.85.93.5
     Food products n.e.c.11.811.811.7
     Non-alcoholic beverages6.67.29.7
Alcohol and tobacco4.34.94.8
Clothing and footwear3.73.22.0
     New dwelling purchases by owner-occupiers13.011.19.2
Furnishings, household equipment and services6.67.26.3
     Automotive fuel5.6-8.29.5
Recreation and culture6.46.16.4
     Holiday travel and accommodation14.913.911.9
Insurance and financial services5.66.66.7
CPI analytical series   
       Seasonally adjusted7.16.66.9
       CPI excluding volatile items* and holiday travel6.86.96.5
       Annual Trimmed mean6.56.56.7


*Volatile items are Fruit and vegetables and Automotive fuel

Monthly Overview

The monthly CPI indicator annual movement rose 6.8% in April, up from 6.3% in March.

The annual movement for the monthly CPI excluding volatile items and holiday travel rose 6.5% in April, down from 6.9% in March. This series excludes Fruit and vegetables, Automotive fuel and Holiday travel and accommodation.

Annual trimmed mean rose 6.7% in the year to April.

*Volatile items are Fruit and vegetables and Automotive fuel

Inflation continues to ease for New dwellings

New dwelling prices rose 9.2% in the year to April reflecting labour and material cost increases. Fewer grant payments from the Federal Government's HomeBuilder program and similar state-based housing construction grants also contributed to the rise in new dwelling prices over the year. 

The rate of price growth has continued to ease compared to the record high increase of 21.7% for the year to July 2022. This reflects a softening in new demand and improvements in the supply of materials.

Increased growth for Rents

Rent prices increased 6.1% in the year to April 2023, up from 5.3% in March, with low vacancy rates reflecting strong demand for rental properties and tight rental markets. 

Food and non-alcoholic beverages prices still elevated

Food and non-alcoholic beverages rose 7.9% in the year to April 2023, with price rises seen across all food categories. These increases reflect price pressures from higher input costs.

The main contributors were:

  • Food products n.e.c. which rose 11.7%, due to high ingredient, packaging and processing costs for products such as potato chips and edible oils.
  • Dairy and related products which rose 14.5%, due to increasing farmgate milk prices flowing through to various dairy products.

In monthly terms, broad-based price rises were seen across all categories with the exception of Fruit and vegetables due to improved supply for fruit items such as avocados and bananas.

Automotive fuel prices rise

Automotive fuel prices rose 9.5% in the year to April 2023, which follows a fall of 8.2% in March. The increase in the annual movement in April is largely due to base effects from the changes to the fuel excise tax introduced on 30 March 2022. The 22 cents per litre fuel excise cut saw a monthly fall of 13.8% in automotive fuel prices in April 2022. The fall in April 2022 no longer contributes to the annual movement for April 2023.

In monthly terms, Automotive fuel prices rose 2.9% due to higher wholesale prices being passed onto consumers.

Holiday travel and accommodation

Holiday travel and accommodation rose 11.9% in the year to April, down from 13.9% in March. While demand and prices remain elevated for both Domestic and International holiday travel and accommodation, prices have fallen since peaking in December 2022.

In monthly terms, Holiday travel and accommodation prices rose 7.2% in response to demand for domestic accommodation over the Easter and school holiday period.

Data downloads

Time Series Spreadsheets

Data files

Create your own tables and visualisations with Data Explorer

Caution: Data in Data Explorer is currently released after the 11:30am release on the ABS website. Please check the reference period when using Data Explorer.

Data explorer for the monthly CPI indicator.

For information on Data Explorer and how it works, see the Data Explorer user guide.

Detailed monthly data

Monthly Expenditure class data

 Monthly % ChangeAnnual % Change  
Index nameFeb 23Mar 23Apr 23Apr22 to Apr23 Frequency
Bread-0.1-0.22.912.4 Monthly
Cakes and biscuits0.2-0.21.911.9 Monthly
Breakfast cereals-5.04.6-2.64.9 Monthly
Other cereal products1. Monthly
Beef and veal-0.2-0.4-0.4-0.8 Monthly
Pork1.00.1-0.84.3 Monthly
Lamb and goat0.2-1.01.2-0.8 Monthly
Poultry0. Monthly
Other meats0.50.3-0.66.0 Monthly
Fish and other seafood0.0- Monthly
Milk0.41.3-0.914.6 Monthly
Cheese0.41.1-0.415.5 Monthly
Ice cream & other dairy products- Monthly
Fruit EC5.50.6-3.98.5 Monthly
Vegetables1. Monthly
Eggs3. Monthly
Jams, honey & spreads-0.51.6-1.35.7 Monthly
Food additives & condiments2.3- Monthly
Oils and fats0. Monthly
Snacks and confectionery0. Monthly
Other food products n.e.c. Monthly
Coffee, tea and cocoa0.7- Monthly
Waters soft drinks & juices1.51.32.410.8 Monthly
Restaurant meals 0.7impimp7.0 Quarterly
Takeaway and fast foods 0.9impimp7.9 Quarterly
Spirits3.81.0-0.311.0 Monthly
Wine0.31.0-0.60.9 Monthly**
Beer2. Monthly
Tobacco0. Monthly
Garments for men2. Monthly**
Garments for women3.4- Monthly**
Garments for infant & childimpimp7.97.0 Quarterly
Footwear for menimpimp-1.6-0.3 Quarterly
Footwear for womenimpimp2.6-1.5 Quarterly
Footwear for infant & childimpimp1.6-0.8 Quarterly
Accessoriesimpimp-2.20.0 Quarterly
Cleaning, repair & hireimpimp1.56.1 Quarterly
Rents0. Monthly**
New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers0. Monthly**
Maintenance & repair of dwelling impimp0.85.7 Quarterly
Property rates and chargesimp0.0imp3.6 Quarterly***
Water and sewerageimp0.9imp1.4 Quarterly
Electricity0.0-0.1-0.915.2 Monthly
Gas and other household fuels imp14.3imp26.3 Quarterly
Furnitureimpimp4.96.9 Quarterly
Carpets & other floor coverimpimp0.710.3 Quarterly
Household textilesimpimp9.54.3 Quarterly
Major household appliancesimpimp-0.4-1.4 Quarterly
Small electronic household appliancesimpimp1.0-1.1 Quarterly
Glassware, tableware & householdimpimp1.64.1 Quarterly
Tools & equipmentimpimp1.34.2 Quarterly
Cleaning & maintenance products0.30.5-0.29.6 Monthly
Personal care products1. Monthly
Other non-durable household products1.50.3-0.27.9 Monthly
Child careimp2.0imp5.9 Quarterly
Hairdressing & personal grooming1.4impimp6.4 Quarterly
Other household services1.3impimp9.4 Quarterly
Pharmaceutical productsimp4.6imp1.5 Quarterly
Therapeutic appliances and equipmentimp0.4imp1.9 Quarterly
Medical & hospital servicesimp2.40.25.8 Quarterly***
Dental servicesimp0.8imp3.7 Quarterly
Motor vehiclesimp1.8imp6.0 Quarterly
Spare parts & accessories 3.3impimp14.4 Quarterly
Automotive fuel4.1- Monthly
Maintenance & repair of vehicle0.7impimp5.5 Quarterly
Other services in respect of motor vehicle0.5impimp3.0 Quarterly
Urban transport fares2.0impimp3.3 Quarterly
Postal services-0.55.5-0.97.6 Monthly
Telecommunications equip & services0.3-0.2-0.7-0.1 Quarterly*
Audio, visual & computer equipment0.6-0.8-0.1-0.1 Quarterly*
Audio, visual, media & services1.6impimp5.7 Quarterly
Booksimp3.8imp-0.8 Quarterly
Newspaper magazine & stationeryimp0.0imp8.5 Quarterly
Domestic holiday travel & accommodation- Monthly
International holiday travel & accommodation- Monthly
Equipment for sports, camping & recreation 1.6impimp6.1 Quarterly
Games, toys and hobbies0.6impimp4.1 Quarterly
Pets and related products-0.50.7-0.88.8 Monthly
Veterinary and other services for pets imp1.5imp8.1 Quarterly
Sports participation0.7-0.8imp3.8 Quarterly
Other recreational sports & cultural services0.5impimp0.0 Quarterly
Preschool & primary education-0.7-0.1imp-0.2 Quarterly***
Secondary education 4.9impimp4.9 Quarterly***
Tertiary education 9.7impimp9.6 Quarterly***
Insurance3.5impimp8.7 Quarterly
D&L Facilities Monthly
Other financial servicesimp1.5imp6.6 Quarterly
  • Imp = Imputed. Quarterly index, not collected in that month.
  • *Some components measured monthly.
  • **Some components measured quarterly.
  • *** Measured quarterly and/or typically changes once per year.


Annual weight update



weight (%)


weight (%)



Food and non-alcoholic beverages group17.1816.760.42
   Cakes and biscuits0.600.61-0.01
   Breakfast cereals0.110.12-0.01
   Other cereal products0.180.170.01
   Beef and veal0.530.54-0.01
   Lamb and goat0.290.31-0.02
   Other meats0.380.39-0.01
   Fish and other seafood0.400.44-0.04
   Ice cream and other dairy0.290.290.00
   Jams, honey and spreads0.120.13-0.01
   Food additives & condiments0.310.300.01
   Oils and fats0.220.200.02
   Snacks and confectionery0.830.84-0.01
   Other food products0.490.51-0.02
   Coffee, tea and cocoa0.260.240.02
   Waters soft drinks and juices0.890.860.03
   Restaurant meals3.963.420.54
   Takeaway and fast foods2.852.93-0.08
Alcohol and tobacco group7.879.01-1.14
Clothing and footwear group3.373.330.04
   Garments for men0.530.54-0.01
   Garments for women1.131.130.00
   Garments for children0.320.320.00
   Footwear for men0.120.120.00
   Footwear for women0.290.290.00
   Footwear for children0.070.08-0.01
   Cleaning, repair and hire0.070.11-0.04
Housing group22.2423.24-1.00
   New dwelling purchase8.628.67-0.05
   Maintenance and repair of dwelling2.242.29-0.05
   Property rates and charges1.551.61-0.06
   Water and sewerage0.880.95-0.07
   Gas and other household fuels0.980.970.01
Furnishings, household equipment & services group8.949.16-0.22
   Carpets and other floor cover0.320.34-0.02
   Household textiles0.510.500.01
   Major household appliances0.430.44-0.01
   Small electrical appliances0.320.33-0.01
   Glassware and tableware0.410.42-0.01
   Tools and equipment0.400.41-0.01
   Cleaning and maintenance products0.230.230.00
   Personal care products0.890.890.00
   Other non-durable products1.311.260.05
   Child care0.820.91-0.09
   Hairdressing services1.081.060.02
   Other household services0.680.74-0.06
Health group6.256.47-0.22
   Pharmaceutical products1.041.09-0.05
   Therapeutic equipment0.160.160.00
   Medical and hospital services4.454.56-0.11
   Dental services0.600.66-0.06
Transport group10.9910.580.41
   Motor vehicles3.043.06-0.02
   Spare parts and accessories0.770.700.07
   Automotive fuel3.613.280.33
   Maintenance and repair of vehicle1.871.780.09
   Other motor vehicle services1.351.40-0.05
   Urban transport fares0.350.36-0.01
Communication group2.312.41-0.10
   Postal services0.100.11-0.01
Recreation and culture group10.848.642.20
   Audio, visual and computer equipment1.281.35-0.07
   Audio, visual and media services0.670.70-0.03
   Newspapers, magazines and stationery0.370.40-0.03
   Domestic holiday travel2.431.950.48
   International holiday travel1.850.081.77
   Equipment for sports and camping0.610.70-0.09
   Games, toys and hobbies0.640.69-0.05
   Pets and related products0.530.500.03
   Vet and other pet services0.510.440.07
   Sports participation0.900.750.15
   Other recreational services0.890.90-0.01
Education group4.434.63-0.2
   Preschool and primary education0.950.99-0.04
   Secondary education1.912.01-0.10
   Tertiary education1.571.63-0.06
Insurance and financial services group5.565.80-0.24
   Bank fees (direct)0.400.46-0.06
   Other financial services4.004.11-0.11

About the monthly CPI indicator

What is the monthly CPI Indicator?

The monthly Consumer Price Index (CPI) indicator was developed to provide inflation data at a higher frequency for use by governments, economists and the wider community. The quarterly CPI remains the principal measure of household inflation.

Monthly CPI Indicator coverage

The monthly CPI indicator is derived using available data from the quarterly CPI. The ABS collects prices for the CPI in a range of frequencies including monthly, quarterly, and annual. The frequency of price collection is determined by how often prices change. Where price change occurs frequently, such as for food and petrol, monthly price data is collected. Where price change is less frequent, such as for restaurant meals and hairdressers, price data is available quarterly. In some cases, prices are collected once per year where it is known prices only change annually. This is the case for some education fees, property rates and private health insurance.

For this reason, the composition of the monthly CPI basket varies across the three months of the quarter, details of the monthly coverage composition are detailed in Table 1 below.

Table 1. What's price updated - monthly breakdown 

Month 1 Month 2 Month 3
Bread Bread Bread
Cakes and biscuits Cakes and biscuits Cakes and biscuits
Breakfast cereals Breakfast cereals Breakfast cereals
Other cereal products Other cereal products Other cereal products
Beef and veal Beef and veal Beef and veal
Pork Pork Pork
Lamb and goat Lamb and goat Lamb and goat
Poultry Poultry Poultry
Other meats Other meats Other meats
Fish and other seafood Fish and other seafood Fish and other seafood
Milk Milk Milk
Cheese Cheese Cheese
Ice cream & other dairy prod Ice cream & other dairy prod Ice cream & other dairy prod
Fruit Fruit Fruit
Vegetables Vegetables Vegetables
Eggs Eggs Eggs
Jams, honey & spreads Jams, honey & spreads Jams, honey & spreads
Food additives & condiments Food additives & condiments Food additives & condiments
Oils and fats Oils and fats Oils and fats
Snacks and confectionery Snacks and confectionery Snacks and confectionery
Other food products n.e.c. Other food products n.e.c. Other food products n.e.c.*
Coffee, tea and cocoa Coffee, tea and cocoa Coffee, tea and cocoa
Waters soft drinks & juices Waters soft drinks & juices Waters soft drinks & juices
Spirits Restaurant meals Spirits
Wine Takeaway and fast foods Wine
Beer Spirits Beer
Tobacco Wine Tobacco 
Garments for men Beer Garments for men
Garments for women Tobacco Garments for women
Garments for infant & child Garments for men Rents
Footwear for men Garments for women New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers
Footwear for women Rents Property rates and charges (annual)
Footwear for infant & child New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers Water and sewerage
Accessories Electricity Electricity
Cleaning, repair & hire Cleaning & maintenance prod Gas and other household fuels
Rents Personal care products Cleaning & maintenance prod
New dwelling purchase by owner occupiers Other non-dur household prods Personal care products
Maintenance & repair of dwelling Hairdressing & personal grooming Other non-dur household prods
Electricity Other household services Child care
Furniture Spare parts & accessories Pharmaceutical products
Carpets & other floor cover Automotive fuel Therapeutic appliances and equipment
Household textiles Maintenance & repair of vehicle Medical & hospital services
Major household appliances Other services in respect of motor vehicle     Medical services
Small electronic household appliances Urban transport fares Dental services
Glassware, tableware & household Postal services Motor vehicles
Tools & equipment Telecommunications equip & services (partial monthly) Automotive fuel
Cleaning & maintenance prod Audio,visual & computer equipment Postal services
Personal care products Audio, visual, media & services Telecommunications equip & services (partial monthly)
Other non-durable household prods Domestic holiday travel & accommodation Audio,visual & computer equipment
Medical & hospital services International holiday travel & accommodation Books
    Private Health insurance (annual, plus irregular changes) Equipment for sports,camp Newspaper magazine & stationery
Automotive fuel Games, toys and hobbies Domestic holiday travel & accommodation
Postal services Pets and related products International holiday travel & accommodation
Telecommunications equip & services (partial monthly) Sports participation Pets and related products
Audio,visual & computer equipment Other recreational sports & cultural services Vet & other pet services
Domestic holiday travel & accommodation Preschool & primary education (quarterly & annual) Sports participation
International holiday travel & accommodation Secondary education (annual) Preschool & primary education (quarterly & annual)
Pets and related products Tertiary education (bi-annual) D&L Facilities (direct)
D&L Facilities (direct) Insurance Other financial services
  D&L Facilities (direct)  

* n.e.c Not elsewhere classified

Introducing monthly indicators of underlying inflation

The December 2022 release of the monthly CPI indicator stated

"The release of the monthly CPI indicator includes a Trimmed mean series which was intended to provide additional analytical insights into inflation on a monthly basis. The ABS has identified that the Trimmed mean series is not, however, providing a reliable indicator for the principal measure of trimmed mean inflation published in the quarterly CPI publication. The ABS will suspend the publication of the monthly Trimmed mean series while we investigate."

Since this decision the ABS has investigated the monthly trimmed mean measure and assessed alternative measures of underlying inflation.

Investigation of monthly Trimmed mean

The investigation found there was a downward bias in the monthly Trimmed mean when compared to the quarterly Trimmed mean, which is considered the principal measure of underlying inflation (see figure 1). The bias was evident during a period of rising inflation caused by the use of carry forward imputation for some monthly data. Details on the carry forward imputation approach are provided in Introducing a monthly CPI indicator. Carry forward imputation is not used in the quarterly CPI and therefore does not affect the quarterly Trimmed mean.

Alternative measures of underlying inflation

The ABS assessed variations of established measures of underlying inflation. Two alternatives were found to be a reasonable indicator of annual movements of the quarterly Trimmed mean:

  1. Annual trimmed mean. This measure uses a similar method to the quarterly trimmed mean. The key difference is rather than use the quarterly movements in the trimming process, the annual movements are used. In this case, each month the annual movements of the 87 CPI series are ranked from lowest to highest. The top and bottom 15% of annual movements are removed, with the average is taken from the middle 70% of annual movements. For more details on the Trimmed mean method see Underlying Inflation Measures: Explaining the Trimmed Mean.
  2. CPI excluding volatile items and holiday travel. CPI exclusion based measures are used by many countries to provide different insights into CPI inflation by removing the effects of certain items. Typically, the price change for these items tend to be volatile and often not reflective of the underlying inflationary trends. This new measure builds on the existing 'CPI excluding volatile items' series and also excludes holiday travel. Volatile items are fruit, vegetables and automotive fuel. 

For holiday travel, it has been shown that events such as Christmas and Easter, as well as school holidays, have a significant impact on airfare and accommodation prices. This sees monthly movements for holiday travel as quite volatile. By calculating a series that excludes the monthly movements of holiday travel and the other volatile items, the monthly movements at the aggregate CPI level provide a reasonable insight of underlying inflation.

Figure 1 compares the annual movements of the two new series with the quarterly trimmed mean annual movement. Also included is the monthly trimmed mean annual movement, which shows a clear downward bias.


Measuring Rents in the CPI 

New data source

  • As outlined in the ABS’ information paper Introducing a monthly CPI indicator for Australia, from July 2022 the ABS has incorporated a new data source to measure the Rents series in the monthly CPI indicator and the quarterly CPI. 
  • The Rents series prior to July 2022 was measured on a quarterly basis using a survey of approximately 4,000 rental properties collected directly from real estate agents.
  • The new dataset obtained by the ABS is updated monthly and includes approximately 480,000 rental properties that are used to produce the CPI Rents series across all capital cities. 

What the CPI Rents series measures

  • The CPI measures the prices being paid by households for the goods and services that they consume during a particular measurement period (e.g. month or quarter).  In the case of rents, this means that the CPI measures the current ‘price’ being paid by all types of households that rent including new and existing renters who are renting privately or from the government.  
  • Measures of rental inflation that are based on newly advertised rental properties only measure changes in the asking or advertised price of rental properties for new tenancies. At any given time, newly advertised tenancies represent a relatively small proportion of properties being rented in Australia. The Rents series used for the CPI measures actual rents paid rather than advertised prices.
  • Advertised rents tend to reflect the dynamic end of the rental market where the price change for new tenancies can be more volatile than that being experienced by renters with existing tenancy agreements.
  • Price changes observed in advertised rents series are expected to eventually flow through to the CPI Rents series. However, the small share of rental properties leased to new tenants each quarter means that it takes some time for changes in advertised rents to impact price change observed in the CPI Rents series.
  • A useful analogy is to think about a bathtub of water. The water in the tub represents all rents being paid by households, while the water entering the tub from the tap represents new rental agreements. The CPI series is measuring the overall temperature of the bathtub whereas an advertised rents series measures the temperature of the water flowing into the tub. It will take some time for the flow of water to change the overall temperature of the water in the bathtub.

Using price indexes

Price indexes published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) provide summary measures of the movements in various categories of prices over time. They are published primarily for use in Government economic analysis. 

Consistent with existing policy, the ABS does not comment on the use (or otherwise) of the price indexes we publish. However, it should be noted that the monthly CPI indicator may be routinely subject to revision, in contrast to the quarterly CPI which is only revised in exceptional circumstances.

Use of Price Indexes in Contracts sets out a range of issues that should be taken into account by parties considering including an Indexation Clause in a contract using an ABS published price index.

Frequently asked questions

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) specific to the monthly CPI indicator can be found in the Information paper: Introducing a monthly CPI indicator for Australia FAQs 

In addition, the Frequently Asked Questions page has answers to a number of common questions to do with price indexes and the quarterly Consumer Price Index in particular.

Back to top of the page