Visa classes are aggregated into three main groups: short term visitors (students); short term visitors (sponsored visa holders); and short term visitors (other).
To estimate the number of main jobs held by students who short term visitors, the quarterly average employment rate of resident persons attending tertiary education, obtained from the Labour Force Survey, is multiplied by the estimated number of short term student visa holders. The Labour Force Survey data used in the calculation of employed short term students is limited to those persons aged 15-24 years old, who are currently undertaking full-time tertiary education. The method assumes that similar employment rates apply to short term visitors on student visas as for full-time Australian resident tertiary students, and that all short term student visa holders are in the labour force (either employed or unemployed).
To estimate the number of main jobs held by other short term visitors, the quarterly average employment rate for all residents is multiplied by the number of visa holders (other than sponsored visa holders) with working rights. This method assumes that all temporary entrants with a visa that had working rights (other than 400, 457 and 482 visa holders) were in the labour force (either employed or unemployed), and that similar rates of employment for this group apply when compared with the resident population
To estimate the number of main jobs held by short term visitors who are sponsored visa holders, the total number of short term arrivals with this type of visa is used. As these visa types require that the holder remains employed for the duration of the visa, an employment rate of 100% is assumed.
To estimate the number of secondary jobs held by other non-resident short-term visitors, the estimated number of non-resident main job holders (excluding students and sponsored visa holders) is multiplied by the proportion of resident employed persons who hold multiple jobs sourced from the Labour Force Survey. Students and sponsored visa holders are assumed to only hold main jobs, due to the restrictions associated with these types of visa. This method assumes that the same proportion of short term visitors hold multiple jobs as for the resident employed population.
There is a time lag in the estimation of Net Overseas Migration (NOM) data. Consequently, estimates of short term visitors for the latest quarters are extrapolated by applying movements in Overseas Arrivals and Departures (OAD) data to estimates of NOM. The movements are applied after matching visa codes and reasons for journey between the NOM and OAD series.
Time periods from September 1994 to December 2005
OAD and NOM data with both visa type and reason for journey are not available for the entire time series of the Australian Labour Account. For earlier time periods, the following data are available:
- NOM data classified by reason for journey by visa type is available from March 2006
- OAD data classified by reason for journey by visa type is available from September 2004
- OAD data classified by reason for journey only is available from September 1993.
As with the current end of the NOM series, estimates for the periods prior to March 2006 are modelled from OAD data by applying movements with matching visa codes and reasons for journey category to the estimates of March 2006.
The resulting series are aggregated to students, non-students and sponsored visa holders in the same way as for the rest of the time series.
Disaggregation to industry
Jobs held by short term visitors are disaggregated to industry in the following ways:
- Main jobs held by short term visitors (students) are disaggregated to industry using an underlying Labour Force Survey series of persons aged 15-24 attending full-time educational institutions.
- For main jobs held by other short term visitors, underlying data from Labour Force Survey supplementary surveys which approximates tenuous employment, namely part-time employment with no leave entitlements, are used.
- For main jobs held by short term visitors (sponsored visa holders), data from the Department of Home Affairs on the industry of the employer sponsoring the visa are used to distribute the total to industry division. Division level totals are further disaggregated to subdivision, using the tenuous employment data described above. Data from the Department of Home Affairs are not available prior to the 2005-06 financial year. For time periods prior to this, 2005-06 industry proportions are assumed to apply.
- Data for short term visitors on “working holiday visas” (417 and 462) is distributed to industry using published information on employers of these visa types from the Australian Taxation Office.
- For secondary jobs held by sponsored visa holders) is assumed to apply.
- the number of jobs held by Australian residents living in Australia employed by non-resident enterprises, sourced from underlying Balance of Payments data. As most of the people involved are employed by agencies of foreign governments (consulates, embassies etc.), the deductions are made from ANZSIC subdivision 75 (Public Administration) within Division O (Public Administration and Safety). Although the Labour Force Survey would include people over the age of 15 years in this category, they are not contributing to economic activity within Australian economic territory as measured in the Australian National Accounts.
Calculation of filled jobs (household sources) by industry
The Labour Force Survey collects quarterly data on the industry of the main job held by employed persons. For each employed person, it also collects the number of secondary jobs held (second, third, fourth or more). The Labour Force Survey does not record the industry of secondary jobs. To calculate the number of filled jobs and people employed at an industry level requires the allocation of each secondary job to an industry.
This is done in the Australian Labour Account by first obtaining the total number of multiple job holders and the number of second, third and fourth jobs from the Labour Force Survey. Employed persons who indicate they hold more than four jobs are assumed to hold only four jobs, as no further information on the number of jobs actually held is available. At this stage of compilation, multiple job holders and second, third and fourth jobs are classified by the industry of main job for each employed person.
Data from the ABS Linked Employer Employee Dataset (LEED) are then used to determine the proportions of the industry of employment of second, third and fourth jobs for multiple job holders, and applied to industry of main job Labour Force Survey data. These proportions are extracted as at the end date for each quarter from the LEED, and are updated as new data points become available. Industry proportions from the earliest available LEED are applied to earlier time periods in the Australian Labour Account, and similarly the latest available proportions are applied to subsequent time periods where necessary.
Where relevant, data are sourced from information collected in the Labour Force Survey in the last month of the relevant quarter, and apportioned across the industries using the related quarterly labour force industry data. For example, estimates in the September quarter Australian Labour Account are sourced from September month Labour Force data, which are then distributed across industry divisions from the industry distribution of quarterly data captured in the August Labour Force Survey published in Labour Force, Australia, Detailed, Quarterly.
Sector of Filled Jobs
One commonly used sector classification in labour statistics is the public and private sector classification. In this classification, the public sector includes all government units, such as government departments, non-market non-profit institutions that are controlled and mainly financed by government, and corporations and quasi-corporations that are controlled by government. The private sector refers to enterprises that are not controlled by Commonwealth, state/territory or local governments (that is, any enterprise that is not part of the public sector).
The Australian Labour Account publishes estimates of private and public sector filled jobs. These are compiled by applying proportions from business sources (with data from the Economic Activity Survey representing the private sector, and data from the Survey of Employment and Earnings representing the public sector) to balanced numbers of filled jobs for each industry.
There is currently no household side information available on the number of jobs with job sharing arrangements. As a result, the total number of filled jobs is equivalent to the sum of reported main jobs and secondary jobs, plus scope adjustments. As with the business side, shared jobs on the household side would be counted as many times as there are people engaged in such arrangements.
Annual jobs methods
The Jobs quadrant contains stock data, which are data that measure certain attributes at a point in time. To determine an annual estimate of jobs in this quadrant, an average level is derived using a simple arithmetic average of the four quarterly estimates. Refer to Labour Account Methods for an example of this method.
The annual estimate of jobs is an approximate estimate of the number of jobs at any point in time during the year.