Sources and methods
23.47 The data sources and methods used to compile the Australian TSA are outlined in detail in the ABS publication, Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account.
23.48 The usual TSA methodology involves estimating a full benchmark every third year. The method for compiling benchmark estimates involves the use of fully balanced Supply and Use tables that underlie the ASNA. Further, the latest industry data in respect of tourism related industries is incorporated. In order for tourism output and value added to be derived, the satellite accounts need to be supplemented with data from the demand side, i.e. tourism consumption. Where there are extraordinary events, for example the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in sudden structural change, the frequency and timing of the benchmark may need to be reviewed.
23.49 A number of steps are required to then compile direct tourism value added. These are detailed in the Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account. Very simply after removing product taxes and subsidies, margins and imports from internal tourism consumption (for each tourism product), it is possible to derive tourism product ratios to determine the output of each product consumed by tourists. Tourism intermediate consumption is then derived using relationships from the supply-use tables. Direct tourism gross value added is then estimated as direct tourism output less intermediate consumption required to produce this output, and sum for all industries in the economy,
23.50 It is not feasible to collect the detailed supply side data required to produce a timely full-scale TSA every year. Therefore, the key aggregates are updated annually using relationships in the benchmark TSA and demand side data that are available annually.
23.51 Where there is a structural change in tourism related industries or the general economy in the non-benchmark years, it is likely that there will be revisions when the next benchmark is compiled.
23.52 The main data sources are from:
- Tourism Research Australia – the National Visitor Survey and the International Visitor Survey; and
- The ABS – the Census of Population and Housing, the Household Expenditure Survey, the Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, the Economic Activity Survey, the Labour Force Survey and Overseas Arrivals and Departures.
23.53 Additional data sources are used in a benchmark year. They can be found in the ABS publication, Australian National Accounts: Tourism Satellite Account.