Tangible non-produced assets (TALC 31)

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Australian System of Government Finance Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods
Reference period

Tangible non-produced assets (TALC 31) are naturally occurring assets over which ownership rights are enforced. This category is further classified into:

  • land (TALC 311);
  • mineral and energy resources (TALC 312);
  • non-cultivated biological resources (TALC 313);
  • water resources (TALC 314);
  • radio spectra (TALC 315); and
  • tangible non-produced assets not elsewhere classified (TALC 319).

Excludes: Environmental assets over which ownership rights cannot be acquired such as the open sea or air.

Land (TALC 311)


Land (TALC 311) consists of the ground, including the soil covering and any associated surface waters, over which ownership rights are enforced and from which economic benefits can be derived by their owners by holding or using them.

Includes: Land holdings; reservoirs, lakes, rivers and other inland waters over which ownership rights can be exercised; and non-cultivated biological resources that have economic value included in the value of the associated land.

Excludes: Water bodies from which water is regularly extracted, against payment, for use in production (including for irrigation) (classified to water resources (TALC 314)); buildings and other structures constructed on the land or through it, such as roads, office buildings and tunnels (classified to buildings other than dwellings (TALC 112), or structures not elsewhere classified (TALC 119)); land improvements (classified to land improvements (TALC 113)); the costs of ownership transfer on land (classified to land improvements (TALC 113)); subsoil assets (classified to mineral and energy resources (TALC 142 )); non-cultivated biological resources (classified to non-cultivated biological resources (TALC 313 )); water resources below the ground (classified to water resources (TALC 314); cultivated components of vineyards, orchards and other plantations of trees, animals and crops (classified to animal resources yielding repeat products (TALC 131) or tree, crop and plant resources yielding repeat products (TALC 132)).

Mineral and energy resources (TALC 312)


Mineral and energy resources (TALC 312) consists of mineral and energy reserves located on or below the earth’s surface that are economically exploitable, given current technology and relative prices. Ownership rights to the mineral and energy resources are usually separable from those to the land itself.

Includes: Deposits under the sea; known reserves of oil, natural gas and coal; known reserves of metallic ores including ferrous, non-ferrous and precious metal ores; non-metallic mineral reserves including stone quarries, clay and sand pits, chemical and fertiliser mineral deposits, deposits of salt, quartz, gypsum, natural gem stones, asphalt, bitumen and peat.

Excludes: Mine shafts, wells and other subsoil extraction facilities (classified to structures not elsewhere classified ( TALC 119)).

Non-cultivated biological resources (TALC 313)


Non-cultivated biological resources (TALC 313) consists of animals, birds, fish and plants that yield both once-only and repeat products over which ownership rights are enforced but for which natural growth or regeneration is not under the direct control, responsibility and management of any institutional units.

Includes: Virgin forests and fisheries that are commercially exploitable.

Excludes: Non-cultivated biological resources that have economic value included in the value of the associated land (classified to land (TALC 311)).

Water resources (TALC 314)


Water resources (TALC 314) of surface and groundwater resources used for extraction to the extent that their scarcity leads to the enforcement of ownership or use rights, market valuation and some measure of economic control.

Radio spectra (TALC 315)


Radio spectra (TALC 315) consists of the electromagnetic spectrum which includes the range of radio frequencies used in the transmission of sound, data and television.

Tangible non-produced assets not elsewhere classified (TALC 319)


Tangible non-produced assets not elsewhere classified (TALC 319) consists of tangible non-produced assets that cannot be classified to land (TALC 311), mineral and energy resources (TALC 312), non-cultivated biological resources (TALC 313), water resources (TALC 314) or radio spectra (TALC 315).

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