Australia

Latest release
2021 Census Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people QuickStats
Geography type Australia
Area code AUS
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people 812,728
Male 49.7%
Female 50.3%
Median age 24
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander families 283,481
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander households 352,041
Average number of people per household 3.1
Median weekly household income $1,507
Median monthly mortgage repayments $1,721
Median weekly rent (a) $300

(a) This label has been updated to more accurately reflect the Census concept shown in this data item. The data has not changed.
(b) For 2021, median weekly rent calculations exclude dwellings being occupied rent-free.

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All tables refer to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander persons in Australia, unless otherwise stated.
Small random changes have been made to all cell values for privacy reasons. These changes may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from the table totals.

People and population

Indigenous status
All people
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander total 812,728 3.2 649,168 2.8
Aboriginal 742,882 2.9 590,056 2.5
Torres Strait Islander 33,765 0.1 32,348 0.1
Both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander 36,083 0.1 26,765 0.1
Non-Indigenous 23,375,949 91.9 21,341,229 91.2
Not stated 1,234,112 4.9 1,411,492 6.0

More information on Place of Usual Residence (PURP), Indigenous status (INGP)
Table based on place of usual residence

Age
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Median age 24 N/A 23 N/A
0-4 years 85,941 10.6 73,265 11.3
5-14 years 179,604 22.1 147,133 22.7
15-24 years 150,057 18.5 123,718 19.1
25-34 years 117,969 14.5 88,860 13.7
35-44 years 87,910 10.8 72,397 11.2
45-54 years 81,802 10.1 67,418 10.4
55-64 years 61,759 7.6 45,432 7.0
65 years and over 47,677 5.9 30,954 4.8

More information on Age (AGEP)
Table based on place of usual residence

Registered marital status
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Married 127,525 23.3 105,084 24.5
Separated 23,982 4.4 19,115 4.5
Divorced 37,473 6.8 28,799 6.7
Widowed 16,329 3.0 13,794 3.2
Never married 341,871 62.5 261,978 61.1

Note: In December 2017, amendments to the Marriage Act 1961 came into effect enabling marriage equality for all couples. For 2021, registered marriages include all couples.

More information on Registered marital status (MSTP)
Table based on place of usual residence

Social marital status
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over, usually resident and present in the household on Census night
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Registered marriage (a) 112,643 23.0 86,718 23.1
De facto marriage (b) 81,295 16.6 60,055 16.0
Not married 296,032 60.4 228,277 60.9

(a) In December 2017, amendments to the Marriage Act 1961 came into effect enabling marriage equality for all couples. For 2021, registered marriages include all couples.
(b) De facto marriage is when two people live together as partners who are not in a registered marriage. It includes people who report de facto, partner, common law husband/wife/spouse, lover, girlfriend or boyfriend.

More information on Social marital status (MDCP)
Table based on place of usual residence

Education

Type of educational institution attending
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people attending an educational institution
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Preschool 25,485 8.0 16,697 6.4
Primary 120,864 37.9 97,859 37.5
Secondary 83,631 26.2 65,209 25.0
Tertiary - Vocational education (including TAFE and private training providers) 21,273 6.7 14,229 5.5
Tertiary - University or higher education 21,149 6.6 15,488 5.9
Other 7,310 2.3 5,046 1.9
Not stated 38,814 12.2 46,430 17.8

More information Type of educational institution attending (TYPP)
Table based on place of usual residence

Cultural diversity

Australian Indigenous language, top responses
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Yumplatok (Torres Strait Creole) 7,596 0.9 6,000 0.9
Kriol 7,403 0.9 7,105 1.1
Australian Indigenous Languages, nfd 4,197 0.5 8,627 1.3
Djambarrpuyngu 3,839 0.5 4,267 0.7
Pitjantjatjara 3,399 0.4 3,049 0.5
 null  null  null  null  null
Australian Indigenous languages used at home 76,978 9.5 63,753 9.8
English only used at home 683,122 84.1 544,487 83.9
Ancestry, top responses
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Australian Aboriginal 695,359 85.6 140,482 21.6
Australian 277,467 34.1 399,842 61.6
English 131,618 16.2 152,758 23.5
Torres Strait Islander 57,353 7.1 14,946 2.3
Irish 31,853 3.9 45,884 7.1

Note 1: Respondents had the option of reporting up to two ancestries on their Census form, and this is captured by the Ancestry multi response (ANCP) variable used in this table. Therefore, the sum of all ancestry responses for Australia will not equal the total number of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people in Australia.
Note 2: Calculated percentages represent a proportion of the number of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people in Australia (including those who did not state an ancestry).

More information on Ancestry multi response (ANCP)
Table based on place of usual residence

Income and work

Median weekly incomes (a)
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Personal (b) 540 N/A 441 N/A
Family (c) 1,527 N/A 1,195 N/A
Household (d) 1,507 N/A 1,203 N/A

(a) Incomes are collected in ranges. The medians are then calculated using information from the Survey of Income and Housing.
(b) Excludes people aged 15 years and over who did not state their income.
(c) Excludes families where at least one family member aged 15 years and over did not state their income.
(d) Excludes households where at least one household member aged 15 years and over did not state their income.

More information on Total personal income (weekly) (INCP), Total family income (weekly) (FINF), Total household income (weekly) (HIND), Indigenous household indicator (INGDWTD), Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander family indicator (INGF)
Personal income data is based on place of usual residence
Family and household income data is based on place of enumeration

Unpaid work and care

Unpaid work and care
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people aged 15 years and over
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Did unpaid domestic work (week before Census Night) 328,022 59.9 263,333 61.4
Provided unpaid care for child/children (during two weeks before Census Night) 166,628 30.5 136,079 31.7
Provided unpaid assistance to a person with a disability, health condition or due to old age (during two weeks before Census Night) 76,568 14.0 58,542 13.7
Did voluntary work through an organisation or group (last 12 months) 58,029 10.6 63,302 14.8

Health

Type of long-term health condition
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Arthritis 50,807 6.3 N/A N/A
Asthma 107,162 13.2 N/A N/A
Cancer (including remission) 12,927 1.6 N/A N/A
Dementia (including Alzheimer's) 3,610 0.4 N/A N/A
Diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes) 47,688 5.9 N/A N/A
Heart disease (including heart attack or angina) 30,160 3.7 N/A N/A
Kidney disease 10,053 1.2 N/A N/A
Lung condition (including COPD or emphysema) 17,552 2.2 N/A N/A
Mental health condition (including depression or anxiety) 107,776 13.3 N/A N/A
Stroke 7,059 0.9 N/A N/A
Any other long-term health condition(s) 70,592 8.7 N/A N/A
No long-term health condition(s) 462,348 56.9 N/A N/A
Not stated 65,539 8.1 N/A N/A

Note 1: Measures the number of people who reported that they have been told by a doctor or nurse that they have any of these long-term health conditions.
Note 2: Respondents had the option of reporting multiple long-term health conditions. Therefore, the sum of all long-term health condition responses for Australia will not equal the total number of people in Australia.
Note 3: Calculated percentages represent a proportion of the number of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people in Australia (including those who did not answer the long-term health conditions question).
Note 4: 2016 comparison data is not available for this table. Long-term health conditions is a new question for the 2021 Census.

More information on Type of long-term health condition (LTHP)
Table based on place of usual residence

Count of selected long-term health conditions
Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
None of the selected conditions 493,110 60.7 N/A N/A
One condition 167,204 20.6 N/A N/A
Two conditions 54,174 6.7 N/A N/A
Three or more conditions 32,701 4.0 N/A N/A
Not stated 65,539 8.1 N/A N/A

Note 1: Selected long-term health conditions include arthritis, asthma, cancer (including remission), dementia (including Alzheimer's), diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes), heart disease (including heart attack or angina), kidney disease, lung condition (including COPD or emphysema), mental health condition (including depression or anxiety) and stroke. Other long-term health conditions are not included in this count.
Note 2: 2016 comparison data is not available for this table. Long-term health conditions is a new question for the 2021 Census.

More information on Count of selected long-term health conditions (CLTHP)
Table based on place of usual residence

Housing

Dwelling characteristics
Occupied private dwellings (excl. visitor only households and other non-classifiable households) where at least one person was Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Number of dwellings requiring one or more extra bedroom(s) (a) 31,268 8.9 26,377 10.0
Average number of people per household 3.1 N/A 3.2 N/A
Average number of persons per bedroom 1 N/A 1 N/A
Average number of registered motor vehicles per dwelling 1.9 N/A 1.7 N/A

(a) The Canadian National Occupancy Standard for Housing Appropriateness is used to determine whether there are enough bedrooms in the dwelling for the usual residents. See Housing suitability information below for more details.

More information on Number of bedrooms in private dwelling (BEDD), Household composition (HHCD), Indigenous household indicator (INGDWTD), Housing suitability (HOSD)
Table based on place of enumeration

Mortgage and Rent
Occupied private dwellings (excl. visitor only households and other non-classifiable households) where at least one person was Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Median weekly rent (a) $300 N/A $255 N/A
Median monthly mortgage repayments $1,721 N/A $1,660 N/A

(a) Median rent calculations exclude dwellings being occupied rent-free. The 2016 figure presented above is conceptually comparable with the 2021 data, however this is not comparable with historical QuickStats as dwellings being occupied rent-free were included in the rented categories.

More information on Rent (weekly) dollar values (RNTD), Mortgage repayments (monthly) dollar values (MRED), Indigenous household indicator (INGDWTD)
Table based on place of enumeration

Family household composition
Occupied private dwellings (excl. visitor only households and other non-classifiable households) where at least one person was Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
One family household: Couple family with no children 62,751 17.8 42,537 16.2
One family household: Couple family with children 104,435 29.7 80,799 30.7
One family household: One parent family 86,135 24.5 67,531 25.7
One family household: Other family 7,040 2.0 5,548 2.1
Multiple family household: Couple family with no children 2,130 0.6 2,226 0.8
Multiple family household: Couple family with children 6,813 1.9 4,958 1.9
Multiple family household: One parent family 8,606 2.4 5,767 2.2
Multiple family household: Other family 412 0.1 477 0.2
Other household 73,717 20.9 53,192 20.2

Note: This table counts the types of families within family households at the dwelling level. In multiple family households, only the family composition of the primary family is recorded. Other household includes lone person households and group households.

More information on Family household composition (dwelling) (HCFMD)
Table based on place of enumeration

Dwelling structure
Occupied private dwellings where at least one person was Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Separate house 281,729 80.0 211,205 80.3
Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc. 38,396 10.9 27,017 10.3
Flat or apartment 27,919 7.9 20,585 7.8
Other dwelling 2,861 0.8 2,899 1.1

More information on Dwelling structure (STRD)
Table based on place of enumeration

Tenure type
Occupied private dwellings (excl. visitor only households and other non-classifiable households) where at least one person was Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander
Australia, 2021 % Australia, 2021 Australia, 2016 % Australia, 2016
Owned outright 48,452 13.8 32,052 12.2
Owned with a mortgage (a) 96,647 27.5 68,086 25.9
Rented (b) 192,703 54.7 147,988 56.3
Other (c) 5,582 1.6 4,729 1.8
Not stated 8,652 2.5 10,180 3.9

(a) Includes dwellings purchased under a shared equity scheme.
(b) Excludes dwellings being occupied rent-free. The 2016 figure presented above is conceptually comparable with the 2021 data, however this is not comparable with historical QuickStats as dwellings being occupied rent-free were included in the rented categories.
(c) Comprises dwellings occupied rent-free, occupied under a life tenure scheme and other tenure type

More information on Tenure type (TEND)
Table based on place of enumeration

Please note that there are small random adjustments made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from table totals.