4125.0 - Gender Indicators, Australia, Nov 2019  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 01/11/2019   
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EDUCATION

KEY FINDINGS

The key findings for Education are:

    1. Over a quarter of females (29.7%) and around one-fifth of males (21.1%), aged 20-24 years in 2018, were not fully engaged in education and/or employment. These proportions have increased over the last decade.
    2. Women are more likely than men to have attained a Bachelor degree or above qualification. This is unlikely to change in the near future as more women are currently enrolled in Bachelor Degree or above courses.
    3. For graduates of most fields of study, females are paid less than their male counterparts.

DATA

The detailed data supporting the following insights are available from the Downloads tab of this publication:
    • Data Cube 4: Education - Attainment
    • Data Cube 5: Education - Participation and Education & employment.


INSIGHTS

Attainment

Attainment of Year 12 or a formal qualification of Certificate II or above

This section presents information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 4, Table 4.1.

In 2018, the majority of people aged 15 to 64 years had attained Year 12 or a formal qualification at Certificate II or above (78.6% of females and 79.2% of males). Around nine in ten people aged 20-44 years had attained this qualification: for every 5 year age group between 20 to 44 the rate of attainment was between 84.8% and 91.1%. Over the past 10 years, there has been an overall increase in attainment for all age groups especially for those aged 35 years and over, with greater increases for females than males. This increase was most notable for those aged 40-44 years: females from 70.3% to 88.7% and males from 74.7% to 84.8%. There was also a large increase for the 45-49 years age group: females from 67.8% to 84.2% and males from 72.2% to 81.6%.


Attainment of Year 12 or a formal qualification of Certificate II or above(a), by sex and age group, 2008 and 2018
Graph showing the Attainment of Year 12 or a formal qualification of Certificate II or above, by sex and age group, 2008 and 2018
Footnote(s): (a) Includes any of the following: Year 12; Certificate II, III, or IV; Advanced Diploma or Diploma; Bachelor Degree; Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate, or Post Graduate
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


Attainment of Certificate III or above

This section presents previously unpublished information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 4, Table 4.3.

More than half of females and males aged 18-64 years had attained a formal qualification of Certificate III or above in 2018 (60.4% and 60.1% respectively). Although this proportion has increased for both groups over the past 10 years, it has increased more sharply for females who were less likely than males to have this attainment in 2008 (47.5% for females in 2008 compared to 52.4% for males).

Between 2008 and 2018, the proportion of females with a Certificate III or above increased at a greater rate than males across all age groups. In 2018, 74.6% of women and 70.7% of men aged 30-34 years had attained a Certificate III or above. This was the age group with the largest total increase since 2008, when 60.4% of women and 60.2% of men had a Certificate III or above. The largest increase for females between 2008 and 2018 was for the 35-44 years age group (52.8% in 2008 compared to 72.2% in 2018). These data are available in Data Cube 4, Table 4.3.


Attainment of a formal qualification of Certificate III or above(a), by sex and age group, 2008 and 2018
Graph showing the attainment of a formal qualification of Certificate III or above, by sex and age group, 2008 and 2018
Footnote(s): (a) Includes any of the following: Certificate III, or IV; Advanced Diploma or Diploma; Bachelor Degree; Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate, or Post Graduate Degree.
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


Attainment of Bachelor Degree or above

This section presents previously unpublished information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 4, Table 4.5

In 2018, females aged 18-64 years were more likely than males to have attained a Bachelor degree or above qualification (33.5% compared to 26.8%). Although the proportion of people with a Bachelor degree or above attainment has increased for both groups over the past 10 years, it has been greater for females leading to an increased gap between the two groups:
    • increased from 25.0% of females in 2008 to 33.5% in 2018
    • increased from 21.7% of males in 2008 to 26.8% in 2018.

In 2018, people aged 30-34 years were most likely to have attained a Bachelor degree or above, close to half of women (46.5%) and over a third of men (35.4%). In 2008, females had a higher level of attainment then males but this gap has increased in 2018. For all groups aged 25 years and over, there was a greater increase between 2008 and 2018 for females than males in attaining a Bachelor degree or above. The greatest increase for both females and males was for the 35-44 year age group: females from 28.6% to 43.6% and males from 25.4% to 33.4%.


Attainment of a Bachelor Degree or above, by sex, 18-64 year olds, 2008-18
Graph showing the attainment of a Bachelor Degree or above, by sex, 18-64 year olds, 2008-18
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


Attainment of a Bachelor Degree or above, by sex, by age group, 2008 and 2018
Graph showing the attainment of a Bachelor Degree or above, by sex by age group, 2008 and 2018
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


Attainment of a non-school qualification

This section presents previously unpublished information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 4, Tables 4.7 and 4.9.

Almost two-thirds of people aged 15-64 years had attained a non-school qualification in 2018: 62.0% of females compared to 60.9% of males.

However, the type of qualifications attained varied between women and men:
    • Women with a non-school qualification were most likely to have attained a Bachelor degree (34.8% compared to 27.7% of males)
    • Men were most likely to have attained a Certificate III or IV (37.7% compared to 22.5% of females).

This pattern has been consistent across the past 10 years.


Attainment of a non-school qualification, by sex, 15-64 year olds, 2008-18
Graph showing the attainment of a non-school qualification by sex, 15-64 year olds, 2008-18
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


With a non-school qualification, selected highest non-school qualifications(a), by sex, 15-64 year olds, 2008 to 2018
Graph showing males and females with a non-school qualification, selected highest non-school qualifications by sex, 15-64 year olds, 2008 to 2018
Footnote(s): (a) Males and females with a non-school qualification by level, as a proportion of persons with a non-school qualification for each sex and age group.
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


Main field of education for non-school qualification

This section presents previously unpublished information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 4, Table 4.10.

The main fields of non-school qualifications have remained fairly consistent for both females and males over the past 10 years.

In 2018:
    • Management and Commerce was the main field of non-school qualifications for females (27.4%)
    • Engineering and Related Technologies was the main field of non-school qualifications for males (30.1%).

The top three main fields of highest non-school qualification with the largest difference between women and men, in 2018, were:
    1. Engineering and related technologies (women 2.3% compared with 30.1% of men). Men were thirteen times more likely than women to have completed a qualification in this field, that covers a wide range of areas including Electrical Engineering, Garment Making and Rail Operations
    2. Society and Culture (women 20.8% compared with 9.1% of men)
    3. Health (women 16.2% compared with 5.3% of men).


With a non-school qualification(a), main field of highest non-school qualification, by sex, 15-64 years, 2008 and 2018
Graph showing males and females with non-school qualification, main field of highest non-school qualification by sex, 15-64 years, 2008 and 2018
Footnote(s) (a) Males and females who have attained a non-school qualification by field of qualification as a proportion of persons with a non-school qualification for each sex and age
(b) Includes Related Technologies
(c) Includes Environmental and Related Sciences
(d) Includes Personal Services
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


Participation

Education participation rate

This section presents previously unpublished information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 4, Table 5.1.

In 2018, almost one in five people aged 15-64 years were participating in either full-time or part-time formal learning (20.2% of females and 17.7% of males). This proportion was highest for those aged 15-24 years, with two-thirds of females (64.7%) and close to two-thirds of males (61.6%) participating in formal learning.


Education participation rate(a), by sex, 15-64 years, 2008-18
Graph showing the education participation rate by sex, 15-64 years, 2008-18
Footnote(s) (a) From 2013 education data is restricted to formal study (study for a qualification, including Year 10 and Year 12 certificates).
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


Apparent retention rate

This section presents information from Schools, Australia, 2018 (cat. no. 4221.0) as provided in Data Cube 5, Tables 5.3 and 5.4.

In 2018, the apparent retention rate from Year 7/8 to Year 12 was higher for females (88.5%) than males (80.6%). The rate has increased for both groups over the previous 10 years. In 2008 the apparent retention rate was 80.5% for women and 68.9% for men.

The apparent retention rate from Year 7/8 to Year 12 for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in 2018 was lower than the national rates. However, like the national rates, those for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 2018 was higher for females (65.4%) than males (56.5%). These apparent retention rates increased from those in 2008, for both females (51.1%) and males (43.4%).


Enrolment

Enrolment in Certificate III or above

This section presents previously unpublished information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 5, Tables 5.5 and 5.6.

Enrolments by sex vary, according to the qualification enrolled in, with women more likely to be enrolled in higher qualifications.

For the 18-64 year age group, in 2018:
    • More females (9.4%) than males (7.4%) were enrolled in a Bachelor Degree or above
    • More females (2.1%) were enrolled in an Advanced Diploma than males (1.3%)
    • Females (2.6%) were less likely to be enrolled in a Certificate III or IV than males (3.0%).

For the 18-24 year age cohort, in 2018:
    • More females (38.0%) than males (30.5%) were enrolled in a Bachelor Degree or above
    • More females (5.2%) were enrolled in an Advanced Diploma or Diploma than males (3.5%)
    • Females (4.3%) were less than half as likely to be enrolled in a Certificate III or IV than males (10.3%).

Enrolment in apprenticeships and traineeships by age

This section presents previously unpublished information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 5, Table 5.7.

In 2018, enrolments in an apprenticeship or traineeship for females (0.6%) aged 18-64 years were around a quarter of that of males (2.6%). This difference was even greater for those aged 15-24 years (2.1% females compared to 13.6% for males). The likelihood of females or males aged 18-64 being enrolled in an apprenticeship or traineeship has decreased over the past 10 years: 1.1% for females in 2008 and 3.3% for males.


Education and Employment

Not fully engaged in education and/or employment by selected age groups (NEET)

This section presents previously unpublished information from Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0), as provided in Data Cube 5, Table 5.13.

Gender Indicators presents data for 15-24 year olds who were not fully engaged in education and/or employment.

Of people in the 15-24 year age group, those aged 20-24 years were the least likely in 2018 to be fully engaged. In 2018:
    • Over a quarter of females (29.7%) and around one-fifth of males (21.1%) aged 20-24 years were not fully engaged in education and/or employment. This has increased from 2008, where estimates were 24.4% of females and 14.8% of males who were not fully engaged in education and/or employment
    • Around one in ten females (10.5%) and males (12.1%) aged 15-19 years were not fully engaged in education and/or employment. This proportion has decreased for females since 2008 (14.3%), with no statistically significant movement in the proportion of males (10.7%).


Not fully engaged in education and/or employment(a)(b), by sex, selected age groups, 2008-2018
Graph showing males and females not fully engaged in education and/or employment by sex, selected age groups, 2008-2018
Footnote(s) (a) In 2013 and 2014 education data is restricted to formal study (study for a qualification). Data for previous years include some people who may have been undertaking non-formal learning.
(b) People are categorised as fully engaged in education and/or employment if they are: employed full-time; studying full-time; or both studying part-time and employed
Source(s): Survey of Education and Work, Australia (cat. no. 6227.0)


Median starting salary for undergraduates

This section presents information from Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching, 2018 Graduate Outcomes Survey, as provided in Data Cube 5, Table 5.15.

In 2018, the median starting salary for female undergraduates was $60,000 compared to $63,000 for males.

The five study areas with the highest median starting salary in 2018 were the same for both females and males: Dentistry; Medicine; Social Work; Teacher Education; and Engineering. The highest median starting salary for both females and males was for Dentistry undergraduates, with female graduates paid a median starting salary of $78,000 and male graduates paid $24,000 more ($102,000). The lowest starting salary for both groups was Pharmacy, with females paid a median starting salary of $46,000 and males paid $51,300.

Female graduates were paid less than male graduates in all but four study areas. For further information see Data Cube 5, Table 15.


No new data is available for the below topics. For analytical commentary on these topics please refer to previous version of this publication, which can be found in the Past & Future Releases tab.
    • Literacy and numeracy skills
    • Work related learning.