4125.0 - Gender Indicators, Australia, Nov 2019  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 01/11/2019   
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DEMOCRACY, GOVERNANCE AND CITIZENSHIP

KEY FINDINGS

The key findings for Democracy, Governance and Citizenship are:

    1. More men (82.9%) occupy senior leadership positions in the non-public sector than women.1
    2. Women continued to be outnumbered by men in Parliament. In 2019, three in ten federal parliamentarians in the House of Representatives and almost two in five federal parliamentarians in the Senate were women.
    3. In 2019, the proportion of women (51.2%) in Executive Level positions in the public service surpassed men (48.8%) for the first time.


DATA

The detailed data supporting the following insights are available from the Downloads tab of this publication:
    • Data Cube 13: Democracy, Governance and Citizenship.


INSIGHTS

Leadership roles

Non-public sector

This section presents information from data provided to the ABS from the Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA) and WGEA's Australia's gender equality scorecard, November 2018. The data discussed in this section refers to non-public organisations with 100 or more employees. Under the Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012 , non-public sector employers with 100 or more employees must report annually to WGEA on the gender composition of their workforce.

In 2017-18, most senior leadership roles in the non-public sector are occupied by men (82.9%). The representation of women declines with seniority, however the representation of women across all management levels has grown consistently since 2013-14.2

While the proportion of women in senior leadership roles has increased between 2013-14 and 2017-18, the growth in female appointments remains slow. There was only a 1.4 percentage point increase in the number of female CEOs (up to 17.1% in 2017-18). Women's representation on boards also marginally increased by 2.1 percentage points in the five years to 2017-18. The number of female chair persons also marginally increased, up 1.7 percentage points to 13.7% in 2017-18.


Proportion of women in senior leadership roles in the non-public sector, 2013-14 to 2017-18

2013-14
2017-18
5 year percentage point difference
%
%
%

Female CEOs
15.7
17.1
1.4
Female board members
23.7
25.8
2.1
Female chair persons
12.0
13.7
1.7

Source(s): Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA)


Non-public sector: Industry

Between 2013-14 and 2017-18, the industries with the largest increases in the proportion of women in CEO positions were:
    • Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services (12.1 percentage points)
    • Electricity, Gas, Water and Waste Services (8.0 percentage points)
    • Arts and Recreation (7.0 percentage points).

In 2017-18, women had the highest representation in CEO roles in the Healthcare and Social Assistance (39.8%), Education and Training (35.6%) and Administrative and Support Services (23.8%) industries. Women had no representation in CEO roles in the Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Industry and the lowest representation in the Construction (4.4%) and Manufacturing (5.7%) industries.

Parliamentarians

This section presents information from data provided to the ABS by the Australian Commonwealth Parliamentary Library.

In January 2019, three in ten federal parliamentarians in the House of Representatives were women and almost two in five federal parliamentarians in the Senate were women. Over the last decade, the proportion of female federal parliamentarians in the House of Representatives has increased slowly. Levels of female representation in the Senate has remained largely unchanged since 2012. However, over the last decade, the average proportion of women has been consistently higher in the Senate (38.2%) than in the House of Representatives (26.8%).

One in five (20.0%) Federal Government Ministers and over a quarter (26.1% ) of Federal Government Cabinet Ministers were women, as of January 1, 2019.


Proportion of Federal Parliamentarians in the House of Representatives, by sex, 2009-2019(a)
Graph showing the proportion of Federal Parliamentarians in the House of Representatives, by sex, 2009-2019
Footnote(s): (a) Reference period is at 1 January the reference year. These figures are calculated according to the current number of parliamentarians, and do not include vacant seats.
Source(s): Unpublished data, Commonwealth Parliamentary Library, Australia


Proportion of Federal Parliamentarians in the Senate, by sex, 2009-2019(a)
Graph showing the proportion of Federal Parliamentarians in the Senate, by sex, 2009-2019
Footnote(s): (a) Reference period is at 1 January the reference year. These figures are calculated according to the current number of parliamentarians, and do not include vacant seats.
Source(s): Unpublished data, Commonwealth Parliamentary Library, Australia


Public Sector

This section presents information from the APS Employment Data 30 June 2019 release, Australian Public Service Commission, Canberra.

The proportion of female senior and middle managers in the Australian Public Service has been increasing over the last decade. In 2019, 46.3% of Senior Executive Service (SES) managers were women, up from 36.5% in 2009. The proportion of women (51.2%) in Executive Level (EL) positions surpassed men (48.8%) for the first time in 2019. These data are available in Data Cube 13, Table 13.6.


Proportion of Executive Level (EL) managers (ongoing) in the Australian Public Service, by sex, 2009-2019(a)(b)
Graph showing the proportion of Executive Level (EL) managers (ongoing) in the Australian Public Service,by sex, 2009-2019
Footnote(s): (a) Reference period is as at 30 June in each year. Some time series data from 2009 to 2017 has been revised. Please see 'Table 10: All employees: base classification by gender, 30 June 2000 to 30 June 2018', in APS Employment Data 30 June 2109 release, Australian Public Service Commission, Canberra, for further information.
(b) The Australian Public Service Commission regularly makes minor revisions to APS staff numbers. This is primarily in response to corrections made to the personnel records of the source agency.
Source(s): APS Employment Data 30 June 2019 release, Australian Public Service Commission, Canberra


Proportion of Senior Executive Service (SES) managers (ongoing) in the Australian Public Service, by sex, 2009-2019(a)(b)
Graph showing the proportion of Senior Executive Service (SES) managers (ongoing) in the Australian Public Service, by sex, 2009-2019
Footnote(s): (a) Reference period is as at 30 June in each year. Some time series data from 2008 to 2017 has been revised. Please see 'Table 10: All employees: base classification by gender, 30 June 2000 to 30 June 2018', in APS Employment Data 30 June 2109 release, Australian Public Service Commission, Canberra for further information.
(b) The Australian Public Service Commission regularly makes minor revisions to APS staff numbers. This is primarily in response to corrections made to the personnel records of the source agency.
Source(s): APS Employment Data 30 June 2019 release, Australian Public Service Commission, Canberra


Justices and Judges

This section presents information from data provided to the ABS from the Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration (AIJA) and AIJA's Judicial Gender Statistics.

In 2018, there were 57 female and 100 male Commonwealth Justices and Judges. Male Federal Court Justices/Judges outnumber female Justices/Judges by almost three to one (74.0% compared with 26.0%), however the proportion of High Court Justices was much closer to parity (57.1% male and 42.9% female).

In 2018, just over a quarter (25.6%) of State Supreme Court and Court of Appeal Justices/Judges were women.


Recognition of outstanding achievement and service

This section presents information from data provided to the ABS by the Australian Honours and Awards Secretariat, Office of the Official Secretary to the Governor-General.

Order of Australia: Nominations and awards

The Order of Australia in both the General Division and Military Division have four award levels - the Companion (AC), Officer (AO), Member (AM) and Medal (OAM) of the Order.

In 2019, 38.1% of all nominees for the Order of Australia (General Division) were women. Between 2009 and 2019, three in every ten nominees in this division were women, on average. Although more men received nominations, women were slightly more likely to receive an order if they had been nominated: 73.9% of female nominees received an order compared with 73.1% of male nominees.

Of the 56 Order of Australia (Military Division) awarded in 2019, 8.9% were received by women. Between 2009 and 2019, the ratio of total female to male recipients for the Military division was roughly 1:13.

In 2019, women were represented in all four award categories for the General Division and three out of the four award levels for the Military Division (see Data Cube 13, Tables 13.8 and 13.9).

Order of Australia: Community category

The Community category generally receives the most nominations and generates the most Order of Australia (General Division) awards of any of the 31 categories. Between 2009 and 2018, roughly half of all the awards nominated and subsequently granted were for services to the community. While nominations for men outnumbered those for women, men and women were almost as likely as each other to receive the award. In 2019, 71.2 % of female nominees and 72.5% of male nominees in the community category received an award. Overall, 40.7% of Order of Australia Awards in the Community Category were received by women (see Data Cube 13, Table 13.10).

Of all the Order of Australia (General Division) categories, women had the highest proportion of nominations in the Library and Related Occupations (75.0%), Conservation and the Environment (56.2%) and Education (53.1%) categories. In 2019, women received no nominations (and subsequently no awards) in the Information Technology, Mining, Surveying and Mapping and Veterinary Science categories.

    1. The data refers to non-public organisations with 100 or more employees. Under the Workplace Gender Equality Act 2012 , non-public sector employers with 100 or more employees must report annually to Workplace Gender Equality Agency (WGEA) on the gender composition of their workforce.
    2. Workplace Gender Equality Agency, Australia's gender equality scorecard, November 2018.


    No new data is available for the below topic. For analytical commentary on these topics please refer to previous versions of this publication, which can be found in the Past & Future Releases tab.
      • Participation in civic, community or social groups