3303.0 - Causes of Death, Australia, 2018 Quality Declaration 
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Leading causes of death in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

There were 3,218 deaths of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 2018 (1,780 males and 1,438 females). The median age at death was 60.7 years of age, increasing from 56.1 years of age recorded in 2009.

The standardised death rate in 2018 was 927.1 deaths per 100,000 persons. This compares to a death rate of 933.2 deaths per 100,000 ten years ago in 2009. Rates have fluctuated for both males and females over the past decade, but there has been little change overall. The mortality rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people for 2009 to 2018 are presented in the graph below.

Methods for reporting on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths: Data reported in this article are compiled by jurisdiction of usual residence for New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory only. Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines. For further information see Explanatory Notes 63-75.

All causes of death, standardised death rates, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, 2009-2018 (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)

Graph: All causes of death, standardised death rates, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, 2009-2018
Footnote(s):
(a) All causes of death data from 2006 onward are subject to a revisions process - once data for a reference year are 'final', they are no longer revised. Affected data in this table are: 2009 - 2015 (final), 2016 (revised), 2017 and 2018 (preliminary). See Explanatory Notes 59-62 in this publication and Causes of Death Revisions, 2015 Final Data (Technical Note) and 2016 Revised Data (Technical Note) in Causes of Death, Australia, 2017 (cat. no. 3303.0).
(b) See Explanatory Notes 77-108 for further information on specific issues related to interpreting time-series and 2018 data.
(c) Standardised death rate. Death rate per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid year). See Explanatory Notes 46-49 for further information.

(d) Data are reported by jurisdiction of usual residence for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT only. Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines. For information on issues with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification, see Explanatory Notes 63-75.
(e) Rates presented in this table have been calculated using Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates and projections based on the 2016 Census. As a result, these rates may differ from those previously published. See Explanatory Note 71 for further information.
(f) Changes in coding processes have been applied to 2018 data. See Technical Note Updates to Iris coding software: Implementing WHO updates and improvements in coding processes in this publication.

Top five leading causes of death
The top five leading causes of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males, females and persons can be seen in the table below. Five year aggregate death rates for the periods 2009-2013 and 2014-2018 are included to better enable comparison of rates over time.

The leading cause of death for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 2018 was Ischaemic heart disease, accounting for 390 deaths (12.1% of all deaths). Between the five year periods 2009-2013 and 2014-2018 the Ischaemic heart disease death rate decreased by 11.2%, from 133.2 to 118.3 deaths per 100,000 people. Decreases among both males and females have occurred since 2009 at 12.2% and 10.5%, respectively.

Diabetes was the second leading cause of death, accounting for 232 deaths at a rate of 72.1 deaths per 100,000 in 2018. The death rate from diabetes has decreased by 7.0% between 2009-2013 and 2014-2018. Diabetes is the third leading cause for both males and females.

Four of the top five leading causes are the same for both males and females, although they have different rankings. Intentional self-harm is the second leading cause for males, but is ranked seventh for females. Approximately three-quarters of intentional self-harm deaths are of males. Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease is the fifth ranked cause among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females, but is ranked 12th for males.

Both Chronic lower respiratory diseases and Malignant neoplasms of the trachea, bronchus and lung feature in the top five leading causes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males, females and persons. Both have recorded increased death rates between 2009-2013 and 2014-2018, with the largest increase recorded for Chronic lower respiratory disease. In 2014 to 2015 it was estimated that 45.0% of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population aged 18 years and over were current smokers, with the prevalence being as high as 54.0% in remote areas (ABS, 2017). Although smoking rates have decreased over time for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the development of smoking related illnesses can have delayed onset from smoking initiation (ABS, 2017).

Top 5 leading causes of death, Standardised Death Rates, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People, 2009-2018 (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(h)

2009
2013
2018
2009-2013
2014-2018
Cause of Death and ICD Code
No.
Rate(b)(c)
No.
Rate(b)(c)
No.
Rate(b)(c)
Rate(b)(c)
Rate(b)(c)

Persons
Ischaemic heart disease (II20-I25)
347
154.0
322
117.6
390
117.3
133.2
118.3
Diabetes mellitus (E10-E14)
182
85.0
202
83.9
232
72.1
82.7
76.9
Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47)
110
60.3
148
60.4
225
77.3
60.4
75.1
Malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung (C33, C34)
91
50.0
140
51.6
204
58.5
53.8
56.3
Intentional self-harm (X60-X84, Y87.0)(e)
100
16.7
140
22.7
169
24.1
20.2
23.7
All causes
2,230
933.2
2,641
917.0
3,218
927.1
924.0
917.8
Males
Ischaemic heart disease (I20-I25)
210
193.0
204
147.7
256
156.7
176.8
155.2
Intentional self-harm (X60-X84, Y87.0) (e)
75
25.8
101
33.7
129
38.1
30.4
36.4
Diabetes mellitus (E10-E14)
77
75.4
81
70.5
120
79.2
80.9
76.6
Malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung (C33-C34)
56
81.9
64
44.4
115
72.4
66.6
70.0
Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47)
51
62.4
85
83.8
103
84.1
70.1
84.1
All causes
1,194
1,010.7
1,433
1,031.4
1,780
1,046.4
1,048.6
1,037.4
Females
Ischaemic heart disease(I20-I25)
137
123.2
118
91.4
134
83.8
97.6
87.4
Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47)
59
58.9
63
43.3
122
72.9
53.6
68.9
Diabetes mellitus (E10-E14)
105
92.1
121
93.8
89
65.5
83.8
76.8
Malignant neoplasm of trachea bronchus and lung (C33-C34)
35
28.1
76
56.4
71
47.2
44.3
45.6
Dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (F01, F03, G30)
35
53.4
34
41.6
104
69.3
45.9
56.2
All causes
1,036
862.5
1,208
827.5
1,438
819.9
818.8
813.9

Footnote(s):
(a) Causes listed are the top 5 leading causes of death for all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2018, based on WHO recommended tabulation of leading causes. See Explanatory Notes 38-41 for further information.
(b) Standardised death rate. Death rate per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid year). See Explanatory Notes 46-49 for further information.
(c) Rates presented in this table have been calculated using Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates and projections based on the 2016 Census. As a result, these rates may differ from those previously published. See Explanatory Note 71 for further information.
(d) See Explanatory Notes 77-108 for further information on specific issues related to interpreting time-series and 2018 data.
(e) The data presented for intentional self-harm includes ICD-10 codes X60-X84 and Y87.0. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to intentional self-harm. See Explanatory Note 41 and 91-100 in this publication
(f) All causes of death data from 2006 onward are subject to a revisions process - once data for a reference year are 'final', they are no longer revised. Affected data in this table are: 2009 - 2015 (final), 2016 (revised), 2017 and 2018 (preliminary). See Explanatory Notes 59-62 in this publication and Causes of Death Revisions, 2015 Final Data (Technical Note) and 2016 Revised Data (Technical Note) in Causes of Death, Australia, 2017 (cat. no. 3303.0).
(g) Data are reported by jurisdiction of usual residence for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT only. Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines. For information on issues with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification, see Explanatory Notes 63-75.
(h) Changes in coding processes have been applied to 2018 data. See Technical Note Updates to Iris coding software: Implementing WHO updates and improvements in coding processes in this publication.


Closing the Gap

Measures of mortality relating to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are key inputs into the Closing the Gap strategy, led by the Council Of Australian Governments (COAG) in partnership with the National Coalition of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peak Organisations. This government initiative sees work undertaken with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities to reduce disadvantage across areas such as life expectancy, mortality, education and employment.

The table below shows the number of deaths and death rate for the top 20 leading causes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-indigenous people in 2018. Death rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are generally higher than for non-indigenous people, with only Malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, haemopoietic and related tissue (C81-C96) having a lower death rate across the top 20 leading causes. The largest rate ratios are seen for deaths from Diabetes, Cirrhosis and other diseases of the liver and Chronic lower respiratory diseases, with death rate ratios of 4.7, 3.5 and 3.0 times higher in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population, respectively. The death rate from Intentional self-harm is 1.9 times higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.
Top 20 leading causes of death, by Indigenous status, 2018 (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(h)(i)(j)(k)

Cause of Death and ICD Code
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
No.
SDR (b)(f)
Rate
Non-Indigenous
No.
SDR (b)(f)
Rate
Rate Ratio
(g)
Rate Difference
(h)

All causes
3,218
927.1
109,753
539.3
1.7
387.9
Ischaemic heart diseases (I20-I25)
390
117.3
12,048
58.6
2.0
58.8
Diabetes (E10-E14)
232
72.1
3,138
15.2
4.7
56.9
Chronic lower respiratory diseases (J40-J47)
225
77.3
5,425
26.0
3.0
51.2
Malignant neoplasm of trachea, bronchus and lung (C33, C34)
204
58.5
6,007
28.6
2.0
29.9
Intentional self-harm (X60-X84, Y87.0) (c)
169
24.1
2,121
12.4
1.9
11.7
Dementia, including Alzheimer disease (F01, F03, G30)
108
60.3
9,800
47.6
1.3
12.7
Cirrhosis and other diseases of liver (K70-K76)
108
23.2
1,329
6.7
3.5
16.5
Cerebrovascular diseases (I60-I69)
105
44.4
6,990
34.0
1.3
10.4
Land Transport Accidents (V01-V89, Y85) (d)
84
12.9
878
5.0
2.6
7.8
Accidental poisoning (X40-X49)
78
13.6
844
5.1
2.7
8.5
Malignant neoplasm of colon, sigmoid, rectum and anus (C18-C21, C26.0) (e)
71
23.0
3,820
18.6
1.2
4.3
Diseases of the urinary system (N00-N39)
66
24.9
2,267
11.0
2.3
13.9
Malignant neoplasm of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (C22)
58
15.2
1,444
6.9
2.2
8.3
Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period (P00-P96)
57
4.5
325
2.1
2.2
2.5
Malignant neoplasm of pancreas (C25)
53
14.8
2,123
10.2
1.4
4.6
Influenza and pneumonia (J09-J18)
47
14.9
2,089
10.2
1.5
4.7
Malignant neoplasms of breast (C50)
40
12.8
2,079
10.3
1.2
2.5
Malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue (C81-C96)
40
9.3
3,237
15.6
0.6
-6.3
Heart failure and complications and ill-defined heart disease (I50-I51)
32
10.3
2,098
10.2
1.0
0.1
Cardiomyopathy (I42)
31
6.7
709
3.5
1.9
3.2

Footnote(s):
(a) Causes listed are the top 20 leading causes of death for 2018, based on the WHO recommended tabulation of leading causes. See Explanatory Notes 38-41 in this publication for further information. Groupings of deaths coded to Chapter XVIII: Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified (R00-R99) are not included in analysis, due to the unspecified nature of these causes. Furthermore, many deaths coded to this chapter are likely to be affected by revisions, and hence recoded to more specific causes of death as they progress through the revisions process.
(b) Standardised death rate. Death rate per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid year). See Explanatory Notes 46-49 for further information.
(c) The data presented for intentional self-harm includes ICD-10 codes X60-X84 and Y87.0. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to intentional self-harm. See Explanatory Notes 41 and 91-100 in this publication
(d) The data presented for Land transport accidents includes ICD-10 codes V01-V89 and Y85. See Explanatory Note 41 in this publication.
(e) The data presented for Malignant neoplasm of the colon, sigmoid, rectum and anus (C18-C21) includes deaths due to Malignant neoplasm of the intestinal tract, part unspecified (C26.0). Comparisons with data for this leading cause, and associated leading cause rankings, should therefore be made with caution. See Explanatory Note 40 in this publication for further details.
(f) Rates presented in this table have been calculated using Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates and projections based on the 2016 Census. As a result, these rates may differ from those previously published. See Explanatory Note 71 for further information.
(g) The rate ratio is the rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons divided by the non-Indigenous rate.
(h) The rate difference is the rate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons less the non-Indigenous rate.
(i) Data are reported by jurisdiction of usual residence for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT only. Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines. For information on issues with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification, see Explanatory Notes 63-75.
(j) All causes of death data from 2006 onward are subject to a revisions process. See Explanatory note 59-62 in this publication.
(k) Changes in coding processes have been applied to 2018 data. See Technical Note Updates to Iris coding software: Implementing WHO updates and improvements in coding processes in this publication.


Causes of injury-related deaths in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

Injury-related deaths in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have increased over the last decade, despite a decrease in the death rate for all causes. Injury-related deaths are those in which an injury is incurred as a result of an external cause, leading to death. Examples of injuries can include fractures and dislocations, cuts and lacerations, burns and poisonings. External causes are classified by intent, describing whether the injury resulted from an accident, assault, suicide or the intent could not be determined. In mortality statistics, the external cause is considered to be the underlying cause of death.

Between 2009-2013 and 2014-2018 the number of deaths from external causes increased by 20.4%, with the death rate increasing from 69.8 to 78.2 deaths per 100,000 people. Males were more likely to die from external causes than females, with 2.0 male deaths for every female death. In 2018, injury-related deaths made up over 20.0% of the total premature mortality among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

The most common intent for deaths from external causes among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was accident (50.5%), with transport accidents accounting for the largest number of deaths (429 in 2009-2013 and 423 in 2014-2018). Accidental drug overdoses accounted for the second largest number of accidental deaths, and also recorded the largest increase in rate from 7.8 to 11.6 deaths per 100,000 between the two five year periods.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths from external causes, NSW, Qld, SA, WA and NT, 2009-2013 to 2014-2018 (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(h)

2009-2013
2014-2018
Rate Difference(e)
Cause of Death and ICD Code
No.
Rate (a)(d)
No.
Rate (a)(d)

All Causes
12,038
924.0
14,734
917.8
-6.2
External Causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y98)
1,795
69.8
2,162
78.2
8.4
Accidents (V01-X59, Y85, Y86)
909
38.3
1,092
44.8
6.5
Transport accidents (V01-V99, Y85)
429
15.0
423
13.7
-1.3
Falls (W00-W19)
71
5.3
95
7.4
2.1
Exposure to inanimate mechanical forces (W20-W49)
21
0.7
12
np
np
Exposure to animate mechanical forces (W50-W64)
5
np
13
np
np
Accidental drowning and submersion (W65-W74)
49
1.4
48
1.3
-0.1
Other accidental threats to breathing (W75-W84)
34
1.5
29
1.2
-0.3
Exposure to electricity, radiation and extreme air temperature and pressure (W85-W99)
5
np
3
np
np
Exposure to smoke, fire and flames (X00-X09)
17
np
17
np
np
Contact with heat and hot substances (X10-X19)
1
np
4
np
np
Contact with venomous animal and plants (X20-X29)
0
2
np
np
Exposure to forces of nature (X30-X39)
16
np
12
np
np
Accidental drug overdose (X40-X44)
191
7.8
325
11.6
3.8
Accidental poisoning by alcohol and other noxious substances (X45-X49)
34
1.3
44
1.6
0.3
Overexertion, travel and privation (X50-X57)
4
np
3
np
np
Accidental exposure to other and unspecified factors (X58-X59)
35
3.5
66
5.7
2.2
Intentional self-harm (X60-X84, Y870) (b)
603
20.2
796
23.7
3.5
Assault (X85-Y09, Y871) (c)
193
6.6
183
5.8
-0.8
Event of undetermined intent (Y10-Y34)
51
1.9
53
1.9

np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated.
— nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
Footnote(s):
(a) Standardised death rate. Death rate per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid year). See Explanatory Notes 46-49 for further information.
(b) The data presented for intentional self-harm includes ICD-10 codes X60-X84 and Y87.0. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to intentional self-harm. See Explanatory Notes 41 and 91-100 in this publication
(c) The data presented for Assault includes ICD-10 codes X85-Y09 and Y87.1. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to assault. See Explanatory Note 41 in this publication
(d) Rates presented in this table have been calculated using Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates and projections based on the 2016 Census. As a result, these rates may differ from those previously published. See Explanatory Note 71 for further information.
(e) The rate difference is the rate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons less the non-Indigenous rate.
(f) Data are reported by jurisdiction of usual residence for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT only. Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines. For information on issues with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification, see Explanatory Notes 63-75.
(g) All causes of death data from 2006 onward are subject to a revisions process. See Explanatory note 59-62 in this publication.
(h) Changes in coding processes have been applied to 2018 data. See Technical Note Updates to Iris coding software: Implementing WHO updates and improvements in coding processes in this publication.

The table below shows the number and rate of external cause deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and non-Indigenous people the five year period from 2014-2018. The rate of death from external causes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 2.0 times higher than for non-Indigenous people during this period.

Deaths from assault had the highest disparity in death rate between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous people, with death rates of 5.8 and 0.9 deaths per 100,000, respectively.

The death rate from intentional self-harm among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 1.9 times higher than that for non-Indigenous people. For further information, see the article 'Intentional self-harm in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people' in this publication.

The death rate from accidents among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people was 1.8 times higher than non-Indigenous people. The largest rate ratio among causes of accidental death is for Accidental poisoning by alcohol and other noxious substances, which is 4.0 times higher among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Over three-quarters of deaths in this category are due to alcohol toxicity. The rate of death for Transport accidents and Accidental drug overdoses was 2.4 times higher than that for non-Indigenous people.


External causes of death, by Indigenous status, NSW, Qld, SA, WA and NT, 2014-2018 (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)(g)(h)(i)


Cause of Death and ICD Code
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
No.
SDR (a)(d)
Rate
Non-Indigenous
No.
SDR (a)(d)
Rate
Rate Ratio (e)
Rate Difference(f)

All Causes
14,734
917.8
543,947
566.7
1.6
351.1
External Causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y98)
2,162
78.2
35,026
40.1
2.0
38.2
Accidents (V01-X59, Y85, Y86)
1,092
44.8
22,563
25.2
1.8
19.6
Transport accidents (V01-V99, Y85)
423
13.7
4785
5.7
2.4
8.1
Falls (W00-W19)
95
7.4
7765
8.1
0.9
-0.7
Exposure to inanimate mechanical forces (W20-W49)
12
np
317
0.4
np
np
Exposure to animate mechanical forces (W50-W64)
13
np
59
0.1
np
np
Accidental drowning and submersion (W65-W74)
48
1.3
661
0.8
1.7
0.5
Other accidental threats to breathing (W75-W84)
29
1.2
636
0.7
1.7
0.5
Exposure to electricity, radiation and extreme air temperature and pressure (W85-W99)
3
np
44
0.1
np
np
Exposure to smoke, fire and flames (X00-X09)
17
np
164
0.2
np
np
Contact with heat and hot substances (X10-X19)
4
np
14
np
np
np
Contact with venomous animal and plants (X20-X29)
2
np
26
np
np
Exposure to forces of nature (X30-X39)
12
np
120
0.1
np
np
Accidental drug overdose (X40-X44)
325
11.6
3951
4.9
2.4
6.7
Accidental poisoning by alcohol and other noxious substances (X45-X49)
44
1.6
330
0.4
4.0
1.2
Overexertion, travel and privation (X50-X57)
3
np
13
np
np
np
Accidental exposure to other and unspecified factors (X58-X59)
66
5.7
3678
3.8
1.5
1.9
Intentional self-harm (X60-X84, Y870) (b)
796
23.7
10,293
12.3
1.9
11.4
Assault (X85-Y09, Y871) (c)
183
5.8
715
0.9
6.7
5.0
Event of undetermined intent (Y10-Y34)
53
1.9
599
0.7
2.6
1.2

np not available for publication but included in totals where applicable, unless otherwise indicated.
— nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
Footnote(s):
(a) Standardised death rate. Death rate per 100,000 estimated resident population as at 30 June (mid year). See Explanatory Notes 46-49 for further information.
(b) The data presented for intentional self-harm includes ICD-10 codes X60-X84 and Y87.0. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to intentional self-harm. See Explanatory Notes 41 and 91-100 in this publication
(c) The data presented for Assault includes ICD-10 codes X85-Y09 and Y87.1. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to assault. See Explanatory Note 41 in this publication
(d) Rates presented in this table have been calculated using Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates and projections based on the 2016 Census. As a result, these rates may differ from those previously published. See Explanatory Note 71 for further information.
(e) The rate ratio is the rate for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons divided by the Non-Indigenous rate.
(f) The rate difference is the rate Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons less the non-Indigenous rate.
(g) Data are reported by jurisdiction of usual residence for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT only. Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines. For information on issues with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification, see Explanatory Notes 63-75.
(h) All causes of death data from 2006 onward are subject to a revisions process. See Explanatory note 59-62 in this publication.
(i) Changes in coding processes have been applied to 2018 data. See Technical Note Updates to Iris coding software: Implementing WHO updates and improvements in coding processes in this publication.

External causes contribute considerably to premature mortality among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, with a median age at death of 35.5 years. The table below shows Years of Potential Life lost (YPLL) to external causes by intent type for 2018. It is presented as an average number of years lost for deaths in each category as opposed to a total number of years of life lost.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lose on average 45.6 years of life for every death from an external cause, 12.5 years more than for non-Indigenous people. The average years of life lost to deaths from external causes are also consistently higher across all intents. Assault deaths have the highest average YPLL for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous persons (48.6 and 39.5 average years of life lost per death). The largest difference in premature mortality occurred in deaths from Accidents, where Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people lost 44.1 years of life on average, compared to 30.8 for non-Indigenous people.

Average Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL), by Indigenous status, external causes of death by intent, 2018 (a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)

Graph: Average Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL), external causes by intent, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, 2018

Footnote(s):
(a) For further information on Years of Potential Life Lost, see Explanatory Notes 42-45 in this publication.
(b) The data presented for intentional self-harm includes ICD-10 codes X60-X84 and Y87.0. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to intentional self-harm. See Explanatory Notes 41 and 91-100 in this publication
(c) The data presented for Assault includes ICD-10 codes X85-Y09 and Y87.1. Care needs to be taken in interpreting figures relating to assault. See Explanatory Note 41 in this publication.
(c) Data are reported by jurisdiction of usual residence for NSW, Qld, WA, SA and the NT only. Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines. For information on issues with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander identification, see Explanatory Notes 63-75.
(d) All causes of death data from 2006 onward are subject to a revisions process. See Explanatory note 59-62 in this publication.
(e) YPLL presented in this table have been calculated using Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates and projections based on the 2016 Census. As a result, these rates may differ from those previously published. See Explanatory Note 71 for further information.
(f) Changes in coding processes have been applied to 2018 data. See Technical Note Updates to Iris coding software: Implementing WHO updates and improvements in coding processes in this publication.

References:

1. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2017, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples: Smoking Trends, Australia, 1994 to 2014-2015. Cat no. 4737.0. Viewed September 10th 2018.
https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/4737.0~1994%20to%202014-15~Main%20Features~Smoking%20Prevalence~10