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Migration, Australia

Statistics on Australia's international migration, internal migration (interstate and intrastate), and the population by country of birth

Reference period
2018-19 financial year

Key statistics

For the year ending 30 June 2019:

  • There were over 7.5 million migrants living in Australia.
  • 29.7% of Australia's population were born overseas.
  • Australia's population increased by 239,600 people due to net overseas migration.
  • 404,000 people moved interstate, an increase of 2.9% from the previous year.

Australia's population by country of birth

Australia's estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is measured at 30 June each year. This data is available at the national level annually.

For state and territory, see the following chapter — State and Territory Populations by Country of Birth. It is only available for Census years.

Key statistics

In 2019, there were over 7.5 million migrants living in Australia. This was 29.7% of the population that were born overseas. One year earlier, in 2018, there were 7.3 million people born overseas.

Every single country from around the world was represented in Australia's population in 2019. People born in:

  • England (986,000) continues to be the largest group of overseas-born living in Australia. However, this has dropped from just over a million recorded between 2012 and 2016
  • China (677,000) remained in second place from 2017 with strong growth since 2002
  • India (660,000) with strong growth remained in third place with an extra 68,000 people
  • Sri Lanka (140,000) continued to increase and is now in tenth place, dropping Scotland (134,000) to eleventh place
  • Australian born (17.8 million) increased 186,000 during the year.
     

​​​​​​​Australia's population by country of birth

Historically, more people immigrate to, than emigrate from, Australia thereby adding to the growth of the national population. The various waves of migrants from numerous countries over time, have had an important effect on the diversity of Australia's population.

High levels of immigration in the years before 1891 resulted in 32% of the population enumerated as overseas-born in the first country-wide census in 1891. In 2019 the proportion of Australia's population born overseas was 30%.

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  1. Census years only until 1981. Post 1981 based on estimated resident population at 30 June.
  2. Estimates from December quarter are preliminary - see ERP status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.


In 2019, those born in England (986,000 people) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, accounting for 3.9% of Australia's total population. This year, the growing overseas-born residents from Sri Lanka has moved into 10th position, replacing Scotland.

Table 1.2 Australia's population by country of birth - 2019(a)

Country of birth(b)'000%(c)
England9863.9
China6772.7
India6602.6
New Zealand5702.2
Philippines2941.2
Vietnam2631.0
South Africa1940.8
Italy1830.7
Malaysia1760.7
Sri Lanka1400.6
All overseas-born7 53029.7
Australia-born17 83670.3
a. Estimates are preliminary.
b. Top 10 countries of birth for overseas-born are at 30 June 2019.
c. Proportion of the total population of Australia.
 
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  1. Top 10 countries of birth for overseas-born are at 30 June 2019.
  2. Population estimates are preliminary - see ERP status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
     

​​​​​​​Country of birth by age and sex

There are differences in the age structure of people born in Australia and those born overseas. As seen below, those born in Australia dominate the younger age groups, while the overseas-born increase from the 20-24 year age group which in part, is due to international students studying in Australia. The main reason there are less overseas-born in the very young age groups is that most people are far less likely to migrate with young families.

In 2019 the highest proportions of the population for those born:

  • overseas, were aged 30-34 years (2.9%), with 1.4% being males and 1.5% females.
  • in Australia, were aged 0-4 years (5.9%), with 3.1% being males and 2.9% females.
     

For comparison, in 2009 the highest proportions of the population for those born:

  • overseas, were aged 45-49 years (2.3%), with 1.2% each being males and females.
  • in Australia, were aged 0-4 years (6.3%), similar to 2019.
     
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  1. Australian-born and overseas-born persons as a proportion of Australia's total population.
  2. Population estimates are preliminary - see ERP status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
     

Median age and sex ratio

The median age is useful to assess the changing age structure of a given population over time. It is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.

The median age of the overseas-born population has gradually decreased from a decade ago to now be 43 years of age in 2019. On the other hand, the median age of the Australian born population has gradually increased over time to now be 34 years of age. The decrease in the median age of the overseas-born population is having a positive effect on the age structure of Australia by slowing the ageing of the total population.

Migrants from countries who were part of the post-second world war migration streams were now generally older, for example the Italian born population have a median age of 72 years. Whereas, those from more recent groups of migrant arrivals are younger, for example the Chinese and Indian born both have a median age of 34 years. This is the same as those born in Australia.

Table 1.5 Australia's population by country of birth - 2019(a)

Country of birth(b)Median age(c)
England57
China34
India34
New Zealand44
Philippines40
Vietnam47
South Africa44
Italy72
Malaysia40
Sri Lanka41
All overseas-born43
Australian-born34
a. Estimates are preliminary.
b. Top 10 countries of birth for overseas-born are at 30 June 2019.
c. Median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
 


When analysing those countries of birth in 2019 within Australia (those with a population of 100 or more), the group with the:

  • oldest median age was from Latvia at 77 years of age
  • youngest median age was from the Cayman Islands at 13 years of age
  • highest sex ratio was from Benin (with 195 males per 100 females)
  • lowest sex ratio was from Turkmenistan (with 41 males per 100 females)

State and territory populations by country of birth

Australia's estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is measured at 30 June. At the state and territory level, data is only available for Census years, with the latest being 2016.

Key statistics

In 2016, the proportion of Australians born overseas was just under 29%. However, this varies across the nation.

At the state and territory level, the proportion of the population born overseas was as follows:

  • Western Australia had the highest proportion at 35%
  • Tasmania had the lowest at 13%
  • New South Wales at 30%
  • Victoria at 31%
  • Queensland at 24%
  • South Australia at 24%
  • The Northern Territory at 23%
  • The Australian Capital Territory at 28%.
     

State and territory by country of birth

The proportion of the population born overseas increased for all states or territories since 2011:

  • The Northern Territory had the largest increase, up from 18.9% to 22.6%.
  • Tasmania had the smallest, up from 12.5% to 13.1%.
     
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In 2016, those born in England (just over 1 million people) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents in Australia. The New Zealand born (568,000 people) were in second place while the Chinese born (558,000) were in third place. At the state and territory level, the ranking of countries varies to the national level and that of the other states and territories.

The largest group of overseas-born residents for each state and territory in 2016 was as follows:

  • New South Wales — China (256,000 people)
  • Victoria — England (193,000)
  • Queensland — New Zealand (220,000)
  • South Australia — England (104,000)
  • Western Australia — England (214,000)
  • Tasmania — England (20,000)
  • Northern Territory — Philippines (7,000)
  • Australian Capital Territory — England (13,000).
     

Table 2.2. Estimates resident population, top 20 countries of birth(a) by state and territory(b), 30 June 2016

  NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACTAust.(c)
  '000'000'000'000'000'000'000'000'000
Australia5,406.44,280.63,705.11,294.01,660.6449.7190.3289.617,278.8
Overseas-born         
 England250.7192.7200.4103.7213.920.56.713.31,002.1
 New Zealand127.9102.7219.913.887.45.45.65.0568.2
 China(d)256.1176.651.626.830.03.31.411.9557.7
 India153.8182.853.129.053.42.14.210.9489.4
 Philippines94.156.043.113.333.41.87.04.0252.7
 Vietnam92.989.921.815.717.60.51.23.6243.2
 Italy56.079.114.820.222.01.00.62.1195.8
 South Africa47.730.344.77.245.61.71.12.2180.5
 Malaysia34.955.316.48.432.31.60.82.6152.9
 Scotland33.130.325.213.330.42.60.92.0137.8
 Sri Lanka32.663.211.14.28.90.41.03.1124.5
 Germany33.730.023.111.212.82.41.22.5116.7
 Greece36.057.04.010.22.80.61.81.2113.4
 Korea, South58.016.921.04.17.90.70.52.5111.6
 USA36.924.320.95.211.52.01.73.3105.8
 Hong Kong47.324.412.24.07.00.50.41.897.6
 Lebanon68.419.91.71.81.30.10.10.593.7
 Ireland28.218.213.33.721.60.81.40.988.0
 Indonesia34.119.37.92.312.50.41.31.479.0
 Netherlands18.922.215.87.210.42.50.51.178.7
Total overseas-born2,326.41,892.51,140.0418.8895.467.955.4113.56,912.1
Total7,732.96,173.24,845.21,712.82,556.0517.5245.7403.124,190.9
a. Top 20 countries of birth for overseas-born are at the Australia level at 30 June 2016.
b. Country of birth is available at the state and territory level in Census years only.
c. Includes Other Territories. See paragraphs 60-61 of the Explanatory Notes.
d. Excludes SARs and Taiwan.

Net overseas migration

Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration (overseas migrant arrivals) to Australia and emigration (overseas migrant departures) from Australia. The data presented here are annual, for years ending 30 June. For quarterly migration estimates see Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0).

Key statistics

Overseas migration to and from Australia in 2019, resulted in a net increase to Australia's population of 239,600 people:

  • There were 537,800 overseas migrant arrivals, a slight increase reversing the decline seen in 2018
  • There were 298,200 overseas migrant departures which is the highest number on record
  • Temporary visa holders were the majority of overseas migrant arrivals (64.3%) and overseas migrant departures (52.8%).
     

Net overseas migration - Australia

While exhibiting a pattern of variability over time, net overseas migration has remained above 180,000 people since 2006. After a 9.5% decrease in 2017-18 migrant numbers remained relatively steady in 2018-19.

In the year ending 30 June 2019 there was:

  • a net gain from overseas migration of 239,600 people. This is a slight increase of 0.6% from 2017-18 (1,400 people)
  • 537,800 overseas migrant arrivals, which was 10,300 more than during 2018
  • 298,200 overseas migrant departures, which was 8,900 more than during 2018.
     
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  1. Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology

Source: Australian Historical Population Statistics (cat. no. 3105.0.65.001)
 

Net overseas migration - states and territories

The three largest states, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, continued to account for the largest contributions to net overseas migration nationally in the year ending 30 June 2019.

The net overseas migration estimates, and change from one year earlier for each state and territory were:

  • New South Wales 86,200 people (with a decrease of -4,500)
  • Victoria 84,500 (decrease of -2,500)
  • Queensland 32,400 (increase of 4,600)
  • South Australia 14,100 (increase of 1,300)
  • Western Australia 15,700 (increase of 3,700)
  • Tasmania 3,000 (increase of 200)
  • Northern Territory 700 (decrease of -40)
  • Australian Capital Territory 3,100 (decrease of -1,500).
     

When comparing overseas migrant arrivals and overseas migrant departures in 2018-19 to 2018-17:

  • Queensland and Victoria recorded the largest increases in migrant arrivals of 4,600 and 3,900 people respectively
  • The ACT and NSW recorded decreases in migrant arrivals of -1,100 and -800 people respectively
  • Victoria and New South Wales recorded the largest increases in migrant departures of 6,400 and 3,700 people respectively
  • Western Australia recorded the largest decrease in migrant departures of -2,100 people.
     

Table 3.2 Net overseas migration - state and territory - year to 30 June 2019(a)

 Overseas Migrant arrivalsOverseas Migrant departuresNet Overseas Migration
State or territory'000%'000%'000%
NSW190.735.5104.535.186.236.0
Vic.165.030.780.627.084.535.3
Qld90.016.757.619.332.413.5
SA25.54.711.53.814.15.9
WA45.88.530.110.115.76.6
Tas.5.71.12.70.93.01.2
NT5.21.04.51.50.70.3
ACT9.81.86.72.33.11.3
Australia(b)537.8100.0298.2100.0239.6100.0
a. Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology
b. Includes Other Territories.
 

Net overseas migration by visa groupings and Australian citizens

Temporary visa holders were the majority of overseas migrant arrivals (64.3%) and overseas migrant departures (52.8%) in the year ending 30 June 2019.

  • There were 346,000 migrant arrivals on temporary visas including nearly 173,000 international students (32.2% of all migrant arrivals)
  • Arrivals on temporary work skilled visas increased from a year ago by 18.1% to 31,800 people
  • Migrant departures on temporary visas increased by 9.7% to 157,000 people.
     

For permanent visa holders in 2019, overseas migrant arrivals declined while migrant departures increased from one year earlier.

  • 15.4% of all migrant arrivals were permanent visa holders
  • Permanent visa holders arriving decreased from a year ago to 82,600 people (down 6.0%)
  • Permanent visa holders departing decreased from a year ago to 21,100 people (down 2.1%)
  • 7.1% of all migrant departures were permanent visa holders.
     

For Australian and New Zealand citizens (who do not require a visa for migration to Australia), in the year ending 30 June 2019:

  • 30,200 New Zealand citizens moved to Australia to live, however in the same year, 22,200 left Australia to live overseas
  • 74,900 Australian citizens returned to Australia after living overseas but in the same year 86,700 decided to move overseas to live.
     

Table 3.3 Net overseas migration by major groupings and visa(a) - Australia - year to 30 June 2019(b)

 Overseas Migrant arrivalsOverseas Migrant departures
Major groupings and visa'000%'000%
Temporary visas    
 Vocational education and training sector21.94.116.55.5
 Higher education sector117.621.934.611.6
 Student other33.36.29.13.1
 Temporary work skilled31.85.915.45.2
 Visitor(c)77.514.424.58.2
 Working holiday50.39.324.88.3
 Other temporary visas13.62.532.710.9
 Total temporary visas346.164.3157.552.8
Permanent Visas    
 Family23.44.45.61.9
 Skill37.67.07.52.5
 Special eligibility and humanitarian15.22.80.10.0
 Other permanent visas6.41.27.82.6
 Total permanent visas82.615.421.17.1
New Zealand citizen (subclass 444)30.25.622.27.4
Australian citizen (no visa)74.913.986.729.1
Other(d)40.710.93.6
Total537.8100.0298.2100.0
a. Represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate net overseas migration. Therefore the number of visas in this table should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by Home Affairs.
b.  Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology
c.  Visitor visas include tourists, business visitors, medical treatment and other.
d.  Includes residents returning (i.e. non Australian citizens who have a permanent resident visa) and visa unknown.
 

Net overseas migration by country of birth and age

In the year ending 30 June 2019, people aged 20 to 24 years made up the largest proportion of overseas migrant arrivals, while those aged 25 to 29 made up the largest proportion of overseas migrant departures. The proportion of overseas-born migrants is much higher than Australian-born migrants for both arrivals and departures for almost all age groups. This is mainly due to the ebb and flow of temporary migration into and out of the country. The exception to this is migrant departures for the 0 to 4 year old age group, where almost four fifths were Australian born.

  • The 20 to 24 age group had the largest proportion of arrivals at 22.7%. Of this age group 95.8% were born overseas
  • The 25 to 29 age group had the largest proportion of departures at 24.4%. Of this age group 84.3% were born overseas.
     
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  1. Australian-born and overseas-born persons as a proportion of Australia's total annual migration for the year to 30 June 2019.
  2. Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology
     

Overseas migrant arrivals by region of birth

The regions of the world where Australia's incoming migrants are born can change considerably over time. The five years to 30 June 2019 has seen such changes, with a continued shift away from Europe and Oceania towards the regions of Asia. Migrant arrivals from South and Central Asia and North-East Asia are now higher than Oceania, with South & Central Asia clearly the highest region for immigration in 2019.

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  1. Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology

Regional overseas migration

Regional overseas migration is the movement of people to or from Australia's regions through immigration or emigration.

This commentary analyses regional overseas migration estimates for 2018-19 as released in Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2018-19 (cat. no. 3218.0). Any reference to capital city refers to Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA), and any reference to region refers to Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4).

​​​​​​​Capital cities

All capital cities recorded net gains from overseas migration.

  • Melbourne had the largest net gain (77,400), followed by Sydney (73,900) and Brisbane (18,800). 
  • Darwin had the smallest net gain with 540 people, followed by Hobart (1,700) and the Australian Capital Territory (3,100).
     
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Source: Regional Population Growth, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3218.0)
 

Regions

Sydney and Melbourne contained the ten regions with the highest net gains through regional overseas migration in 2018-19.

  • Melbourne - Inner had the largest net gain of all (18,000), followed by Melbourne - South East (15,100). 
  • In Sydney, the SA4s with the largest net gain were Sydney - Inner South West (12,000) and Sydney - Parramatta (11,800).
     

In contrast, the ten regions with the smallest net gains from overseas migration were almost all outside of the capital cities, mostly covering rural and remote regions of Australia. These included:

  • South East in Tasmania (120 people)
  • Barossa - Yorke - Mid North in South Australia (170)
  • Northern Territory - Outback (180)
     

Highest and lowest net overseas migration gains by SA4

 ArrivalsDeparturesNet
SA4no.no.no.
Highest net migration gains  
Melbourne - Inner45,92927,95417,975
Melbourne - South East27,11911,98415,135
Melbourne - West20,7248,30612,418
Sydney - Inner South West21,9009,88212,018
Sydney - Parramatta22,06610,27911,787
Lowest net migration gains  
South East (Tasmania)21491123
Barossa - Yorke - Mid North288116172
Northern Territory - Outback1,2311,055176
Queensland - Outback513333180
South Australia - Outback325132193

Net interstate migration

Net interstate migration (NIM) is the net gain or loss of population through the movement of people from one state or territory of usual residence to another. The data presented here are annual, for years ending 30 June. For quarterly migration estimates see Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0).

Key statistics

During 2018-19, there were 404,000 people who moved interstate, an increase of 2.9% from the number of people who moved interstate during the previous year.

  • Queensland had the highest net gain from interstate migration of 22,800 people
  • New South Wales had the highest net loss from interstate migration of 22,100 people.
     

​​​​​​​Interstate migration and population change

In the year ended 30 June 2019, there was a net gain from interstate migration which contributed to population growth for:

  • Queensland (22,800 people)
  • Victoria (12,200)
  • Tasmania (2,000)
     

There was a net loss from interstate migration which contributed to population loss for:

  • New South Wales (-22,100 people)
  • Western Australia (-6,500)
  • South Australia (-4,000)
  • Northern Territory (-4,400).
  • Australian Capital Territory (-190).
     
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a. Estimates for 2018-19 are preliminary - see Interstate migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
 

10 years of interstate migration and population change

In some states and territories consistent long-term patterns of net gains or net losses from interstate migration have been established whereas other, mainly smaller states, experienced fluctuating results through the years.

Over the 10 years to June 2019, interstate migration contributed to population growth with average annual gains for:

  • Queensland, consecutive net gains, had the highest average at 12,400 people
  • Victoria, consecutive net gains, averaging 9,900 people
  • Australian Capital Territory average gain of 420 people
  • Tasmania average gain of 380 people.
     

Interstate migration contributed to population loss with average annual losses for:

  • New South Wales, consecutive net losses, had the highest average at -14,000 people, however 2019 was the highest loss in the last 10 years
  • South Australia, consecutive net losses, averaging -4,500 people
  • Western Australia average loss of -2,400 people, recording six consecutive years of decline
  • Northern Territory average loss of -2,200 people, however the loss for 2019 was the highest in the last 10 years.
     

4.2 Net interstate migration(a) - 2009-10 to 2018-19

 NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACT
2009-10-9,4583,3146,172-2,7092,119664-661427
2010-11-13,4963,5346,795-2,6147,033-47-2,5491,354
2011-12-18,1152,41711,782-3,2208,609-1,925-6911,145
2012-13-14,6456,4208,874-4,7615,676-1,286-481202
2013-14-6,7519,7396,294-3,890-1,724-435-2,421-812
2014-15-6,77611,0796,861-4,570-4,278127-2,341-103
2015-16-11,53917,63911,986-7,212-10,010760-2,029383
2016-17-15,16118,19317,795-6,778-13,9341,522-2,8671,230
2017-18-21,67214,31624,698-5,151-11,3002,382-3,831558
2018-19-22,06312,19822,831-3,958-6,4512,008-4,371-194
Annual average-13,9689,88512,409-4,486-2,426377-2,224419
a. Estimates from 2016-17 onwards are preliminary - see Interstate migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.

Regional internal migration

Regional internal migration is the movement of people from one region to another within Australia (both interstate and intrastate).

This commentary analyses regional internal migration estimates for 2018-19 as released in Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2018-19 (cat. no. 3218.0). Any reference to capital city refers to Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA), and any reference to region refers to Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4).

​​​​​​​Capital cities

Brisbane had the highest net internal migration gain of all capital cities (15,900 people) with most arrivals coming from:  

  • Rest of Queensland (48,200)
  • Sydney (12,000) 
  • Rest of New South Wales (10,700)
     

Melbourne (2,300) and Hobart (990) had the next highest net internal migration gains. 

Sydney had the highest net loss of all capitals (-25,600 people). Most people departed Sydney for: 

  • Rest of New South Wales (46,400)
  • Melbourne (15,300)
  • Rest of Queensland (13,400)
     
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Source: Regional Population Growth, Australia (ABS cat. no. 3218.0)
 

Regions

Queensland's Sunshine Coast had the highest net migration gain of all regions (6,400 people) with most net gains to the Sunshine Coast coming from the adjoining regions of:

  • Wide Bay (2,100 people)
  • Moreton Bay - North (1,600)
     

Other regions with relatively high net gains included Melbourne - West (5,800), which encompasses some of Melbourne's largest growing suburbs such as Tarneit, Truganina and Rockbank – Mount Cottrell, and Queensland's Gold Coast (5,600 people).

Sydney - Inner South West had the highest net migration loss of all regions (-9,600 people). In net terms this region lost most people to the neighbouring Sydney regions of:

  • South West (-4,600 people)
  • Parramatta (-3,900) 
  • Outer South West (-3,000)
     

Other regions with relatively high net migration losses included Sydney - Parramatta (-6,700), Sydney - Eastern Suburbs (-5,700 people) and Darwin (-3,200).

Highest net internal migration gain and losses by SA4

  ArrivalsDeparturesNet
SA4 no.no.no.
Highest net migration gains
Sunshine Coast26,15319,7826,371
Melbourne - West41,08435,2465,838
Gold Coast35,75230,1955,557
Ipswich27,62222,2445,378
Geelong16,32511,3784,947
Highest net migration losses 
Sydney - Inner South West24,82134,417-9,596
Sydney - Parramatta29,51736,242-6,725
Sydney - Eastern Suburbs14,62120,346-5,725
Darwin11,25814,471-3,213
Sydney - Inner West21,39324,459-3,066

In this issue

COVID-19

This release covers data up to 30 June 2019, as such this data precedes COVID-19.

Status of data within this publication

In this release, statistics for the year to 30 June 2019 are preliminary and for the year to 30 June 2018 have had standard revisions. The estimated resident population and the components of population change (natural increase, net interstate migration (NIM) and net overseas migration (NOM)), are referred to as either preliminary, revised or final. For further information see paragraph 9 of the methodology.

Data notes

In this release, estimates and their components have sometimes been rounded. Rounded figures and un-rounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of component items and totals. Analysis featured in this release is based on un-rounded data. Calculations based on rounded data may differ to those published.

Inquiries

For further information about these and related statistics, contact the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070.

Data downloads

1. Net overseas migration, arrivals and departures, state/territory, major groupings and visa - calendar years, 2004 to 2019

I-note

Overseas migration estimates are final up to December quarter 2018 and preliminary from March quarter 2019. See Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 11 to 37 of the Methodology.

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

The visa category information in this data cube represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate NOM. Therefore, the number of visas in this data cube should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by the Department of Home Affairs.

Over time, new visas created by Home Affairs are added to the visa hierarchy while the use of other visas may expire. Care should be taken in the analysis of overseas migration by visa over time.

2. Net overseas migration, arrivals and departures, state/territory, major groupings and visa - financial years, 2004-05 to 2018-19

I-note

Overseas migration estimates are final up to September quarter 2018 and preliminary from December quarter 2018. See Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 11 to 37 of the Methodology.

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

The visa category information in this data cube represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate NOM. Therefore, the number of visas in this data cube should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by the Department of Home Affairs.

Over time, new visas created by Home Affairs are added to the visa hierarchy while the use of other visas may expire. Care should be taken in the analysis of overseas migration by visa over time.

3. Net overseas migration by country of birth, state/territory by reference period - financial years, 2004-05 to 2018-19

I-note

Overseas migration estimates are final up to September quarter 2018 and preliminary from December quarter 2018. Preliminary estimates are based on outputs from a propensity model and data is therefore an aggregate rather than a true count of each individual. Please take care when using the variables of preliminary estimates at this level of granularity. See Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 11 to 37 of the Methodology.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

4. Net overseas migration by country of birth, reference period by state/territory - financial years, 2004-05 to 2018-19

I-note

Overseas migration estimates are final up to September quarter 2018 and preliminary from December quarter 2018. Preliminary estimates are based on outputs from a propensity model and data is therefore an aggregate rather than a true count of each individual. Please take care when using the variables of preliminary estimates at this level of granularity. See Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 11 to 37 of the Methodology.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

5. Estimated resident population, country of birth - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2019

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2017. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

6. Estimated resident population, country of birth, state/territory by reference period - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2016 - Census years

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2017. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

Estimated resident population (ERP), country of birth by state and territory are only available for Census years.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

7. Estimated resident population, country of birth, reference period by state/territory - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2016 - Census years

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2017. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

Estimated resident population (ERP), country of birth by state and territory are only available for Census years.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

8. Estimated resident population, country of birth, median age - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2019

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2017. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

9. Estimated resident population, country of birth, sex ratio - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2019

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2017. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. In this data cube, the sex ratio is published for the total population, overseas-born population, each main region of birth and each selected country of birth. It has been calculated for those countries of birth with a population of 100 persons or more.

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History of changes

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18/06/2020 - Net overseas migration, Arrivals and Departures, State/territory, Major groupings and visa - Calendar years, 2004 to 2018 Datacube has been updated to include data for the 2018 calendar year as well as new data for the 2019 calendar year.

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 3412.0.