Latest release

Migration, Australia

Statistics on Australia's international migration, internal migration (interstate and intrastate), and the population by country of birth

Reference period
2019-20 financial year

Key statistics

For the year ending 30 June 2020:

  • There were over 7.6 million migrants living in Australia
  • 29.8% of Australia's population were born overseas
  • Australia's population increased by 194,400 people due to net overseas migration
  • 368,700 people moved interstate, a decrease of 8.7% from the previous year.

Upcoming Releases

The ABS is changing the way it will publish the content of the Migration Australia publication.

This is the final release in this compendium format. We are producing new publications that are more timely, accessible and reduce duplication where possible. There will be no loss of data through these changes.

In its place will be two new publications: Overseas Migration scheduled for release 17 December 2021, and Australia's Population by Country of Birth scheduled for release 26 April 2022. 

COVID-19

This release covers data up to 30 June 2020 and as such, covers the start of the COVID-19 pandemic period.

Some of the changes recorded in this release are due to the impact of the pandemic.

For further information, see the Net overseas migration section below. 

Australia's population by country of birth

Australia's estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is measured at 30 June each year. This data is available at the national level annually.

For state and territory, see the following chapter — State and territory populations by country of birth. It is only available for Census years.

Key findings

In 2020, there were over 7.6 million migrants living in Australia. This was 29.8% of the population that were born overseas. One year earlier, in 2019, there were 7.5 million people born overseas.

Nearly every single country from around the world was represented in Australia's population in 2020.

  • England (980,400) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born living in Australia. However, this decreased from just over a million, recorded throughout the period 2012 to 2016
  • Those born in India (721,000) were in second place, with an increase of 56,300 people
  • Chinese-born (650,600) fell to third place, with 17,300 fewer people
  • Those born in Australia (18.0 million) increased 211,400 during the year.
     

​​​​​​​Australia's population by country of birth

Historically, more people immigrate to, than emigrate from, Australia thereby adding to the growth of the national population. The various waves of migrants from numerous countries over time, have had an important effect on the diversity of Australia's population.

High levels of immigration in the years before 1891 resulted in 32% of the population enumerated as overseas-born in the first country-wide census in 1891. In 2020 the proportion of Australia's population born overseas was 30%.

  1. Census years only until 1981. Post-1981 based on estimated resident population at 30 June.
  2. Population estimates for 2020 are preliminary - see ERP status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.


In 2020, those born in England (980,400 people) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents, accounting for 3.8% of Australia's total population. This year, residents from India (721,000) moved into second position, replacing China (650,600).

Table 1.2 Australia's population by top 10 countries of birth - at 30 June 2020(a)
Country of birth(b)'000%(c)
England9803.8
India7212.8
China(d)6512.5
New Zealand5652.2
Philippines3101.2
Vietnam2701.1
South Africa2000.8
Italy1780.7
Malaysia1770.7
Sri Lanka1470.6
All overseas-born7,65429.8
Australian-born18,04370.2
  1. Population estimates for 2020 are preliminary - see ERP status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
  2. Top 10 countries of birth for overseas-born as at 30 June 2020.
  3. Proportion of the total population of Australia.
  4. Excludes SARs and Taiwan.
  1. Top 10 countries of birth for overseas-born as at 30 June 2020.
  2. Population estimates for 2020 are preliminary - see ERP status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
  3. Excludes SARs and Taiwan.

​​​​​​​Country of birth by age and sex

There are differences in the age structure of people born in Australia and those born overseas. Those born in Australia dominate the younger age groups, while the overseas-born increase from the 20-24 year age group. The main reason there are fewer overseas-born in the very young age groups is that most people are far less likely to migrate with young families.

In 2020 the highest proportions of the population for those born:

  • overseas, were aged 30-34 years and those aged 35-39 years (each 2.9%), with 1.4% being males and 1.5% females for each age group.
  • in Australia, were aged 0-4 years (5.8%), with 3.0% being males and 2.8% females.
     

For comparison, in 2010 the highest proportions of the population for those born:

  • overseas, were aged 25-29 years (2.4%), with 1.2% each being males and females.
  • in Australia, were aged 0-4 years (6.3%), with 3.3% being males and 3.1% females.
     
  1. Australian-born and overseas-born persons as a proportion of Australia's total population.
  2. Population estimates for 2020 are preliminary - see ERP status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.

Median age and sex ratio

The median age is useful to assess the changing age structure of a given population over time. It is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.

The median age of the overseas-born population has gradually been decreasing from a decade ago however, at 30 June 2020, a small increase was recorded from the previous year, to 44 years of age. On the other hand, the median age of the Australian-born population has gradually been increasing over time to now be 34 years of age, similar to the previous year. The decrease in the median age of the overseas-born population prior to 30 June 2020 has had a positive effect on the age structure of Australia by slowing the ageing of the total population.

Migrants from countries who were part of the post-second world war migration streams, are now generally older. For example, the Italian-born population has a median age of 72 years whereas, those from more recent groups of migrant arrivals are younger. For example, the Indian-born population has a median age of 35 years, one year older than those born in Australia.

Table 1.5 Top 10 countries of birth by median age - at 30 June 2020(a)
Country of birth(b)Median age(c)
England58
India35
China(d)38
New Zealand44
Philippines40
Vietnam47
South Africa44
Italy72
Malaysia41
Sri Lanka41
All overseas-born44
Australian-born34
  1. Population estimates for 2020 are preliminary - see ERP status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
  2. Top 10 countries of birth for overseas-born as at 30 June 2020.
  3. Median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
  4. Excludes SARs and Taiwan.


When analysing those countries of birth in 2020 within Australia (those with a population of 100 or more), the group with the:

  • oldest median age was from Latvia, at 78 years of age
  • youngest median age was from the Cayman Islands, at 14 years of age
  • highest sex ratio was from Vanuatu, (with 225 males per 100 females)
  • lowest sex ratio was from Turkmenistan, (with 37 males per 100 females).

State and territory populations by country of birth

Australia's estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is measured at 30 June. At the state and territory level, data is only available for Census years, with the latest being 2016.

Key findings

In 2016, the proportion of Australians born overseas was just under 29%. However, this varied across the nation.

At the state and territory level, the proportion of the population born overseas was as follows:

  • Western Australia had the highest proportion at 35%
  • Tasmania had the lowest at 13%
  • New South Wales at 30%
  • Victoria at 31%
  • Queensland at 24%
  • South Australia at 24%
  • The Northern Territory at 23%
  • The Australian Capital Territory at 28%.
     

State and territory by country of birth

The proportion of the population born overseas increased for all states and territories since 2011:

  • The Northern Territory had the largest increase, up from 18.9% to 22.6%.
  • Tasmania had the smallest, up from 12.5% to 13.1%.
     


In 2016, those born in England (just over 1 million people) continued to be the largest group of overseas-born residents in Australia. New Zealand-born (568,000 people) were in second place, while Chinese-born (558,000 people) were in third place. At the state and territory level, the ranking of countries varied to the national level and that of the other states and territories.

The largest groups of overseas-born residents for each state and territory in 2016 were as follows:

  • New South Wales — China (256,000 people)
  • Victoria — England (193,000)
  • Queensland — New Zealand (220,000)
  • South Australia — England (104,000)
  • Western Australia — England (214,000)
  • Tasmania — England (20,000)
  • The Northern Territory — Philippines (7,000)
  • The Australian Capital Territory — England (13,000).
     
Table 2.2. Australia's top 20 countries of birth(a) by state and territory(b) - at 30 June 2016
 NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACTAust.(c)
 '000'000'000'000'000'000'000'000'000
Australia5,406.44,280.63,705.11,294.01,660.6449.7190.3289.617,278.8
Overseas-born         
England250.7192.7200.4103.7213.920.56.713.31,002.1
New Zealand127.9102.7219.913.887.45.45.65.0568.2
China(d)256.1176.651.626.830.03.31.411.9557.7
India153.8182.853.129.053.42.14.210.9489.4
Philippines94.156.043.113.333.41.87.04.0252.7
Vietnam92.989.921.815.717.60.51.23.6243.2
Italy56.079.114.820.222.01.00.62.1195.8
South Africa47.730.344.77.245.61.71.12.2180.5
Malaysia34.955.316.48.432.31.60.82.6152.9
Scotland33.130.325.213.330.42.60.92.0137.8
Sri Lanka32.663.211.14.28.90.41.03.1124.5
Germany33.730.023.111.212.82.41.22.5116.7
Greece36.057.04.010.22.80.61.81.2113.4
Korea, South58.016.921.04.17.90.70.52.5111.6
USA36.924.320.95.211.52.01.73.3105.8
Hong Kong47.324.412.24.07.00.50.41.897.6
Lebanon68.419.91.71.81.30.10.10.593.7
Ireland28.218.213.33.721.60.81.40.988.0
Indonesia34.119.37.92.312.50.41.31.479.0
Netherlands18.922.215.87.210.42.50.51.178.7
Total overseas-born2,326.41,892.51,140.0418.8895.467.955.4113.56,912.1
Total7,732.96,173.24,845.21,712.82,556.0517.5245.7403.124,190.9
  1. Top 20 countries of birth for overseas-born at the Australia level as at 30 June 2016.
  2. Country of birth is available at the state and territory level in Census years only.
  3. Includes Other Territories. See paragraphs 59-60 of the Methodology.
  4. Excludes SARs and Taiwan.

Net overseas migration

Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population, through immigration (overseas migrant arrivals) to Australia and emigration (overseas migrant departures) from Australia. The data presented here is annual, for years ending 30 June. For quarterly migration estimates, see the publication National, state and territory population.

Effects of COVID-19 outbreak

The World Health Organisation (WHO) commenced daily situation reports of the COVID-19 outbreak on 21 January 2020 and identified it as an international health emergency on 30 January. This was less than a month after suspected cases were reported in Wuhan, China. Initially the Australian Government placed travel restrictions on those travelling to Australia from mainland China commencing 1 February 2020. Restrictions on other countries soon followed. From 20 March 2020, all overseas travel was banned, with few exceptions.

The pandemic has continued to disrupt international travel and migration patterns. Some of the changes recorded in the migration data below are due to the impact of these travel restrictions.

Key findings

Preliminary overseas migration to and from Australia in the year to June 2020, resulted in a net increase to Australia's population of 194,400 people:

  • There were 509,600 overseas migrant arrivals, a decrease of 7.4% since 2019
  • There were 315,200 overseas migrant departures, the highest estimate on record and a 2.0% increase since 2019
  • Temporary visa holders were the majority of overseas migrant arrivals (61.3%) and overseas migrant departures (62.1%).
     

Net overseas migration - Australia

While exhibiting a pattern of variability over time, net overseas migration has remained above 180,000 people since 2007. However, in 2020 overseas migration has been impacted by COVID-19. The preliminary estimates below show some of these changes.

In the year ending 30 June 2020 there:

  • was a net gain from overseas migration of 194,400 people, 46,900 fewer than 2019
  • were 509,600 overseas migrant arrivals, 40,800 fewer than 2019
  • were 315,200 overseas migrant departures, 6,100 more than 2019.
     
  1. Estimates from December quarter 2019 are preliminary - see Overseas migration status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.

Source: Historical population (cat. no. 3105.0.65.001)
 

Net overseas migration - states and territories

The three largest states, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, continued to account for the largest contributions to preliminary net overseas migration nationally in the year ending 30 June 2020. Much of the change observed from one year earlier is due to the impact of COVID-19.

The net overseas migration estimates and change from one year earlier, for each state and territory were:

  • New South Wales 58,300 people (a decrease of 26,200)
  • Victoria 61,300 (a decrease of 24,100)
  • Queensland 28,600 (a decrease of 3,100)
  • South Australia 14,900 (a decrease of 200)
  • Western Australia 25,000 (an increase of 7,500)
  • Tasmania 3,700 (an increase of 500)
  • Northern Territory 200 (a decrease of 800)
  • Australian Capital Territory 2,400 (a decrease of 400).
     

When comparing overseas migrant arrivals and overseas migrant departures in the year ending 30 June in 2020 to 2019:

  • Increases in migrant arrivals were recorded for Western Australia (2,300), South Australia (1,200) and Tasmania (700)
  • The largest decreases in migrant arrivals were recorded for NSW (-21,300), Victoria (-16,500) and Queensland (-5,300)
  • Victoria and New South Wales recorded the largest increases in migrant departures of 7,600 and 4,900 people respectively
  • Western Australia recorded the largest decrease in migrant departures of 5,200 people.
Table 3.2 Net overseas migration - state and territory - year ending June 2020(a)
 Overseas Migrant arrivalsOverseas Migrant departuresNet Overseas Migration
State or territory'000%'000%'000%
NSW173.033.9114.636.458.330.0
Vic.151.829.890.528.761.331.5
Qld86.417.057.818.328.614.7
SA27.85.512.94.114.97.7
WA50.49.925.48.125.012.8
Tas.6.61.32.90.93.71.9
NT4.10.83.91.20.20.1
ACT9.51.97.22.32.41.2
Australia(b)509.6100.0315.2100.0194.4100.0
  1. Estimates from December quarter 2019 are preliminary - see Overseas migration status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
  2. Includes Other Territories. See paragraphs 59-60 of the Methodology.

Net overseas migration by visa groupings and Australian citizens

Temporary visa holders were the majority of overseas migrant arrivals (61.3%) and overseas migrant departures (62.1%) in the year ending 30 June 2020.

  • There were 312,500 migrant arrivals travelling on temporary visas, including 113,100 international students (22.2% of all migrant arrivals)
  • Arrivals on temporary student visas decreased 31.2% from a year ago
  • Arrivals on temporary work skilled visas decreased from a year ago by 29.1% to 23,100 people
  • Migrant departures on temporary visas increased 16.2% to 195,800 people, compared to a year ago.
     

For permanent visa holders in the year ending 30 June 2020, overseas migrant arrivals declined, while migrant departures increased from one year earlier.

  • 14.1% of all migrant arrivals were permanent visa holders
  • Permanent visa holders arriving decreased from a year ago, to 71,800 people (down 15.9%)
  • Permanent visa holders departing increased from a year ago, to 25,300 people (up 17.1%)
  • 8.0% of all migrant departures were permanent visa holders.
     

For Australian and New Zealand citizens (who do not require a visa for migration to Australia), in the year ending 30 June 2020:

  • 22,400 New Zealand citizens moved to Australia to live. However, in the same year, 21,200 New Zealand citizens left Australia to live overseas
  • a record 99,200 Australian citizens returned to Australia after living overseas. In the same year, 61,100 Australian citizens moved overseas, a decline of 28.8% from one year earlier. These changes are due to the impact of the COVID-19 global pandemic.
     
Table 3.3 Net overseas migration by major groupings and visa(a) - Australia - year ending June 2020(b)
  Overseas Migrant arrivalsOverseas Migrant departures
 Major groupings and visa'000%'000%
Temporary visas    
 Vocational education and training sector11.52.321.97.0
 Higher education sector77.915.365.720.9
 Student other23.74.712.74.0
 Temporary work skilled23.14.513.74.4
 Visitor(c)115.622.716.75.3
 Working holiday41.88.225.48.1
 Other temporary visas18.83.739.812.6
 Total temporary visas312.561.3195.862.1
Permanent Visas    
 Family20.64.06.62.1
 Skill27.75.48.92.8
 Special Eligibility and humanitarian13.02.60.10.0
 Other permanent visas10.62.19.63.1
 Total Permanent visas71.814.125.38.0
New Zealand Citizen (subclass 444)22.44.421.26.7
Australian Citizen (no visa)99.219.561.119.4
Other(d)3.70.711.73.7
Total509.6100.0315.2100.0
  1. Represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate net overseas migration. Therefore, the number of visas in this table should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by Home Affairs.
  2. Estimates from December quarter 2019 are preliminary - see Overseas migration status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
  3. Visitor visas include tourists, business visitors, those seeking medical treatment and other visitor types.
  4. Includes residents returning (i.e. non Australian citizens who have a permanent resident visa) and visa unknown.

Net overseas migration by country of birth

Migrants born in China have provided a net gain to Australia's population through overseas migration in recent years. However, in the year ending 30 June 2020, Chinese-born migrants recorded a net loss of 15,600 people (over 63,200 migrant arrivals minus 78,900 migrant departures). This decline was due to the impact of COVID-19 and travel restrictions put in place from China from 1 February 2020. This especially affected the travel of international students from China before the start of the academic year. 

Australian-born migrants also recorded a substantial change due to the impact of COVID-19, with a net gain through overseas migration of 19,200 people (62,200 arrivals minus 43,000 departures). Traditionally each year, more Australian-born people emigrate from Australia than immigrate to Australia.

In recent years, Indian-born migrants recorded strong net gains through overseas migration. Of all countries of birth over time, those born in India reached an all time record in 2019 with a net gain of 73,200 people through overseas migration. The impact of COVID-19 however, saw a drop in 2020.

Those born in the United Kingdom recorded a net gain (10,700 people) in 2020, whereas New Zealand-born migrants recorded a net loss (400 people) through overseas migration.

  1. Estimates from December quarter 2019 are preliminary - see Overseas migration status in paragraph 9 in the Methodology.
  2. Top 5 countries of birth based on total migration flows, arrivals and departures for 2020.
  3. Excludes SARs and Taiwan.
  4. Includes United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man.

Overseas migrant arrivals by region of birth

The regions of the world where Australia's incoming migrants are born have changed considerably over time. The years ending 30 June for 2015 to 2020 have seen such changes, with a continued shift away from Europe towards the regions of Asia. Migrant arrivals from the South and Central Asian region were the highest for immigration in 2020, followed by those from Oceania and North-East Asia.

  1. Estimates from December quarter 2019 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.

Regional overseas migration

Regional overseas migration is the movement of people to or from Australia's regions through immigration or emigration.

This commentary analyses regional overseas migration estimates for 2019-20 as released in the publication Regional population, 2019-20. Any reference to capital city refers to Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA), and any reference to region refers to Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4).

​​​​​​​Capital cities

All capital cities recorded net gains from overseas migration.

  • Melbourne had the largest net gain (56,100), followed by Sydney (50,100) and Perth (22,200)
  • Darwin had the smallest net gain with 130 people, followed by Hobart (2,100) and Canberra (2,400).
  1. Population estimates for 2019-20 are preliminary.

Source: Regional population, 2019-20

Regions

The ten regions with the highest net gains through regional overseas migration in 2019-20 were located in Melbourne, Sydney and Perth. 

  • Melbourne - Inner had the largest net gain of all (12,100), followed by Melbourne - South East (11,300)
  • In Sydney, the regions with the largest net gain were Sydney - Inner South West (8,100) and Sydney - Parramatta (8,000)
  • In Perth, the largest net gains were in Perth - South East (7,300) and Perth - North West (5,700).

In contrast, the ten regions with the smallest net gains from overseas migration were almost all outside of the capital cities, mostly covering rural and remote regions of Australia. These included:

  • Northern Territory - Outback (40 people)
  • Darwin (130)
  • South East in Tasmania (150)

​​​​​

Table 3.7 Highest and lowest net overseas migration gains by SA4 - year ending June 2020(a)
 ArrivalsDeparturesNet
SA4no.no.no.
Highest net overseas migration gains   
Melbourne - Inner41,51929,44812,071
Melbourne - South East25,18213,89311,289
Melbourne - West19,3419,9709,371
Sydney - Inner South West19,90511,7618,144
Sydney - Parramatta20,00012,0467,954
    
Lowest net overseas migration gains   
Northern Territory - Outback97593540
Darwin3,1132,981132
South East (Tasmania)24795152
Queensland - Outback504333171
Barossa - Yorke - Mid North (South Australia)322131191
  1. Population estimates for 2019-20 are preliminary. 

Source: Regional population, 2019-20 

Net interstate migration

Net interstate migration (NIM) is the net gain or loss of population through the movement of people from one state or territory of usual residence to another. The data presented here is annual, for years ending 30 June. For quarterly migration estimates, see the publication National, state and territory population.

Key findings

During 2019-20, there were 368,700 people who moved interstate, a decrease of 8.7% from the number of people who moved interstate during the previous year.

  • Queensland had the highest net gain from interstate migration of 25,300 people
  • New South Wales had the highest net loss from interstate migration of 20,900 people.
     

​​​​​​​Interstate migration and population change

In the year ended 30 June 2020, there was a net gain from interstate migration which contributed to population growth for:

  • Queensland (25,300 people)
  • Victoria (2,200)
  • Tasmania (1,200)
     

There was a net loss from interstate migration which contributed to population loss for:

  • New South Wales (-20,900 people)
  • Northern Territory (-2,700)
  • Western Australia (-2,400)
  • South Australia (-2,200)
  • Australian Capital Territory (-700).
     

a. Estimates for 2019-20 are preliminary - see Interstate migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.
 

10 years of interstate migration and population change

In some states and territories, consistent long-term patterns of net gains or net losses from interstate migration have been established whereas other, mainly smaller states, experienced fluctuating results through the years.

Over the 10 years to June 2020, interstate migration contributed to population growth with average annual gains for:

  • Queensland, consecutive net gains, had the highest average at 14,300 people
  • Victoria, consecutive net gains, averaging 9,800 people
  • Tasmania average gain of 400 people
  • Australian Capital Territory average gain of 300 people.

 

Interstate migration contributed to population loss with average annual losses for:

  • New South Wales, consecutive net losses, had the highest average at -15,100 people, however 2019 was the highest loss in the last 10 years
  • South Australia, consecutive net losses, averaging -4,400 people
  • Western Australia average loss of -2,900 people, recording seven consecutive years of decline
  • Northern Territory average loss of -2,400 people, however the loss for 2019 was the highest in the last 10 years.
     

Table 4.2 Net interstate migration(a) - 2011 to 2020 (year ending June)

 NSWVic.QldSAWATas.NTACT
2010-11-13,4963,5346,795-2,6147,033-47-2,5491,354
2011-12-18,1152,41711,782-3,2208,609-1,925-6911,145
2012-13-14,6456,4208,874-4,7615,676-1,286-481202
2013-14-6,7519,7396,294-3,890-1,724-435-2,421-812
2014-15-6,77611,0796,861-4,570-4,278127-2,341-103
2015-16-11,53917,63911,986-7,212-10,010760-2,029383
2016-17-15,16118,19317,795-6,778-13,9341,522-2,8671,230
2017-18-21,67214,31624,698-5,151-11,3002,382-3,831558
2018-19-22,06312,19822,831-3,958-6,4512,008-4,371-194
2019-20-20,8872,24325,348-2,160-2,4101,213-2,697-650
Annual average-15,1119,77814,326-4,431-2,879432-2,428311
  1.  Estimates from 2016-17 onwards are preliminary - see Interstate migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology.

Regional internal migration

Regional internal migration is the movement of people from one region to another within Australia (both interstate and intrastate).

This commentary analyses regional internal migration estimates for 2019-20 as released in the publication Regional population, 2019-20. Any reference to capital city refers to Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA), and any reference to region refers to Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4).

​​​​​​​Capital cities

Brisbane had the highest net internal migration gain of all capital cities (13,800 people) with most arrivals coming from:  

  • Rest of Queensland (44,400)
  • Sydney (10,900) 
  • Rest of New South Wales (10,400).

Perth (740) was the only other capital city to record a net gain from internal migration.

Sydney had the highest net loss of all capitals (-30,100 people). Most people departed Sydney for: 

  • Rest of New South Wales (47,500)
  • Rest of Queensland and Melbourne (both 13,100).
  1. Population estimates for 2019-20 are preliminary.

Source: Regional population, 2019-20

Regions

Queensland's Gold Coast had the highest net migration gain of all SA4s (6,700 people) with most net gains to the Gold Coast coming from:

  • Logan - Beaudesert (3,100 people), a neighbouring region
  • Richmond - Tweed (2,600) in New South Wales.

Other SA4s with relatively high net gains included Queensland's Sunshine Coast (6,200 people) and Geelong (5,000) in Victoria.

Sydney - Parramatta had the highest net migration loss of all SA4s (-9,000 people). In net terms this area lost most people to the neighbouring Sydney regions of:

  • Blacktown (-7,600 people)
  • Sydney - Baulkham Hills and Hawkesbury (-3,600)
  • Sydney - South West (-3,400).

Other SA4s with relatively high net migration losses included Sydney - Inner South West (-8,500 people), Sydney - Eastern Suburbs (-4,500) and Melbourne - Inner (-4,400).

Table 4.4 Highest net internal migration gains and losses by SA4 - year ending June 2020(a) 
 ArrivalsDeparturesNet
SA4no.no.no.
Highest net internal migration gains   
Gold Coast34,82128,1126,709
Sunshine Coast24,85118,6216,230
Geelong15,74710,7704,977
Moreton Bay - North20,19816,4163,782
Ipswich25,46721,8373,630
    
Highest net internal migration losses   
Sydney - Parramatta27,66136,700-9,039
Sydney - Inner South West25,11633,589-8,473
Sydney - Eastern Suburbs15,45819,925-4,467
Melbourne - Inner48,27752,696-4,419
Sydney - North Sydney and Hornsby22,79327,186-4,393
  1.  Population estimates for 2019-20 are preliminary.

Source: Regional population, 2019-20

In this issue

Status of data within this publication

Statistics used for the analysis within this release undergo revisions as part of a standard revision cycle. The estimated resident population and the components of population change (natural increase, net interstate migration (NIM) and net overseas migration (NOM)), are referred to as either preliminary, revised or final. For further information, see paragraph 9 of the methodology.

Statistics for the post-release changes to the NOM calendar year data download and the NOM calendar year ABS.Stat datasets have been produced in a later revision cycle and are preliminary for the calendar year 2020. For further information, see the footnotes in the data downloads or the Information pane in the ABS.Stat datasets.

Data notes

In this release, estimates and their components have sometimes been rounded. Rounded figures and un-rounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of component items and totals. Analysis featured in this release is based on un-rounded data. Calculations based on rounded data may differ to those published.

Inquiries

For further information about these and related statistics, contact the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070.

Post-release changes

17/06/2021 - Standard mid-year updates

The following calendar year datasets now contain revised 2019 data and have had 2020 data added:

1. Net overseas migration, arrivals and departures, state/territory, major groupings and visa - calendar years in Data downloads

as well as the following ABS.Stat datasets:

Net overseas migration, arrivals, departures and net, state/territory, age and sex - calendar years, 2004 onwards 
Net overseas migration, arrivals, departures and net, state/territory, major groupings and visas - calendar years, 2004 onwards 

The following ABS.Stat dataset has had 2020 data added:

Interstate migration, arrivals, departures and net, state/territory, age and sex - calendar years, 1997 onwards

Data downloads

Future changes to the format of Data downloads

Future issues of this publication will contain Data downloads in Excel with the new file extension of .xlsx rather than the current .xls format.

1. Net overseas migration, arrivals and departures, state/territory, major groupings and visa - calendar years, 2004 to 2020

I-note

Overseas migration estimates are final up to December quarter 2019 and preliminary from March quarter 2020. See Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 11 to 37 of the Methodology.

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

The visa category information in this data cube represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate NOM. Therefore, the number of visas in this data cube should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by the Department of Home Affairs.

Over time, new visas created by Home Affairs are added to the visa hierarchy while the use of other visas may expire. Care should be taken in the analysis of overseas migration by visa over time.

2. Net overseas migration, arrivals and departures, state/territory, major groupings and visa - financial years, 2004-05 to 2019-20

I-note

Overseas migration estimates are final up to September quarter 2019 and preliminary from December quarter 2019. See Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 11 to 37 of the Methodology.

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

The visa category information in this data cube represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate NOM. Therefore, the number of visas in this data cube should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by the Department of Home Affairs.

Over time, new visas created by Home Affairs are added to the visa hierarchy while the use of other visas may expire. Care should be taken in the analysis of overseas migration by visa over time.

3. Net overseas migration by country of birth, state/territory by reference period - financial years, 2004-05 to 2019-20

I-note

Overseas migration estimates are final up to September quarter 2019 and preliminary from December quarter 2019. Preliminary estimates are based on outputs from a propensity model and data is therefore an aggregate rather than a true count of each individual. Please take care when using the variables of preliminary estimates at this level of granularity. See Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 11 to 37 of the Methodology.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

4. Net overseas migration by country of birth, reference period by state/territory - financial years, 2004-05 to 2019-20

I-note

Overseas migration estimates are final up to September quarter 2019 and preliminary from December quarter 2019. Preliminary estimates are based on outputs from a propensity model and data is therefore an aggregate rather than a true count of each individual. Please take care when using the variables of preliminary estimates at this level of granularity. See Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

This time series is based on the '12/16 month rule' methodology and provides data from 2004 onwards. It has been used in calculating Australia's official estimated resident population (ERP) since September quarter 2006. NOM estimates from September quarter 2011 onward have been produced based on improved methods - see the: Information Paper: Improvements to the Estimation of Net Overseas Migration (cat. no. 3412.0.55.004). For further information, see paragraphs 11 to 37 of the Methodology.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

5. Estimated resident population, country of birth - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2020

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2019. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

6. Estimated resident population, country of birth, state/territory by reference period - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2016 - Census years

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2019. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

Estimated resident population (ERP), country of birth by state and territory are only available for Census years.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

7. Estimated resident population, country of birth, reference period by state/territory - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2016 - Census years

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2019. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

Estimated resident population (ERP), country of birth by state and territory are only available for Census years.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

8. Estimated resident population, country of birth, median age - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2020

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2019. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

The median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.

To confidentialise, estimates in this data cube have been rounded to the nearest 10. As a result, sums of the components may not add exactly to totals. Rounded figures and unrounded figures should not be assumed to be accurate to the last digit shown. Analysis featured in the publication is based on unrounded data. Calculations made on rounded data may differ to those published.

9. Estimated resident population, country of birth, sex ratio - as at 30 June, 1996 to 2020

I-note

Estimated resident population (ERP) by country of birth is recast from 1996 to 2006, final rebased from 2006 to 2016, and preliminary from 2019. It may differ to previously published data. See ERP Status in paragraph 9 of the Methodology for further information.

The ABS has identified an unrealistically high number of deaths from 2012 to 2014 being attributed to persons born in Isle of Man. For the Australian population born in Isle of Man, this has resulted in an underestimate of ERP for the period 2012 to 2015.

Country classification and codes are from the: Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0)

The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. In this data cube, the sex ratio is published for the total population, overseas-born population, each main region of birth and each selected country of birth. It has been calculated for those countries of birth with a population of 100 persons or more.

All data cubes

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 3412.0.