Energy Account, Australia

This is not the latest release View the latest release

This publication presents estimates of energy assets, and physical/monetary supply and use. It also presents key indicators to support data users.

Reference period
2019-20 financial year

Summary indicators

In 2019-20 energy use per household and aggregate industry intensity has continued to trend downwards:

  • Energy use per household decreased 5.4% to 125 GJ/ Household
  • Industry energy intensity decreased 3.6% to 1,515 GJ/ $mGVA

Defining energy intensity

Energy intensity is a ratio of energy consumed (GJ) per unit of economic output (GVA). Net energy use is used as the numerator as it represents final consumption.

Energy intensity changes can be caused by increased efficiency, structural change in industry contribution, or pricing variations.

Energy stocks

The stocks of economically demonstrated energy resources have generally increased in 2020-21:

  • Black coal stocks up 7.7% to 2,713,500 PJ
  • Natural gas stocks up 3.0% to 200,538 PJ
  • Uranium stocks down 0.9% to 637,504 PJ
  • Brown coal stocks down 7.3% to 750,680 PJ

Defining economically demonstrated energy resources

Consists of known deposits of coal, oil, gas or other fuels and metallic ores, and non-metallic minerals, etc., that are located below or on the earth's surface, including deposits under the sea, that are economically exploitable given current technology and relative prices.

Physical supply and use

Australia's net energy supply remained steady in 2019-20, at  25,714 PJ.

Natural inputs

Australia's energy was supplied from:

  • Direct extraction from the environment, 23,534 PJ
  • Imports, 2,180 PJ

In terms of direct extraction Australia's energy supply came from the following commodities:

  • Black coal, 12,317 PJ
  • Natural gas, 5,945 PJ
  • Uranium, 3,454 PJ
  • Crude oil, 798 PJ
  • Brown coal,  425 PJ
  • LPG, 175 PJ
  • Solar energy, 94 PJ
  • Wood and wood waste, 90 PJ
  • Bagasse, 84 PJ
  • Wind energy, 73 PJ
  • Hydro energy, 55 PJ

Renewable energy supply continued to ramp up in 2019-20. 

End Use

Australia's energy was used by:

  • Exports, 19,703 PJ
  • Industry, 2,814 PJ
  • Households, 1,228 PJ

The remainder of energy produced was either lost in transformation or reflects inventory changes.

Towards the end of 2019-20, the lockdowns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic began to impact on the use of some energy products:

  • Air Transport use of Other refined fuels, down 21.8% to 273 PJ.
  • Household use of Electricity, up 2.9% to 211 PJ.
  1. Includes Forestry and fishing,
  2. Includes Gas, water supply and waste services,
  3. Includes Postal and warehousing,
  4. Includes ANZSIC divisions F,G,H,J,K,L,M,N,O,P,Q,R,S.

Energy exports of Black coal decreased 0.6% in 2019-20, whilst LNG exports continued to increase. Key energy exports in 2019-20  were as follows:

  • Black coal down 0.6% to 11,062 PJ
  • LNG up 6.4% to 4,393 PJ
  • Uranium down 4.9% to 3,382 PJ

Monetary supply and use

Calculating an average unit price utilising the monetary estimates and physical estimates from this publication may not provide accurate estimates of price change. An average unit value will reflect both price change and changes in the product mix. There are a broad range of price indexes published by the ABS for the purpose of measuring price change over time. See Methodology section for alternative sources for energy prices.

Energy supply

Australia's supply of energy products, in basic prices, was valued at $210,775 million, of which:

  • Domestic supply accounted for 84.9%, at $178,887 million
  • Imports accounted for 15.1%, at $31,888 million

Domestic supply was composed of:

  • Coal, accounting for $58,770 million
  • Electricity, accounting for $23,072 million
  • Oil, accounting for $8,077 million
  • Gas and petroleum products were not available for publication

a. Includes all other industries.

Energy use

Australia’s use of energy, in purchaser prices, was valued at $263,511 million, of which:

  • Domestic use accounted for 56.0% at $147,448 million
  • Exports accounted for 44.0%, at $116,063 million

Domestic use was composed of:

  • Petroleum products, $61,119 million
  • Electricity generation, $47,437 million
  • Gas, $26,723 million
  • Oil, $7,592 million
  • Coal, $4,577 million

 Major domestic users were:

  • Households consumed $48,984 million
  • Manufacturing used $24,719 million
  • Transport used $16,605 million

 Key energy exports were:

  • Coal, at $54,878 million
  • Gas, at $49,597 million

 Note that uranium exports are not valued in this account.


a. Includes Forestry and fishing,

b. Includes Gas, water supply and waste services,

c. Includes Postal and warehousing,

d. Includes Government use,

e. 2018-19 and 2019-20 not available for publication.

Changes in this issue

The 2019-20 Energy Account, Australia (EAA) implemented the following changes:

  • The net supply use tables have been discontinued in the 2019-20 energy account. All data from these tables are derivable from the gross supply use tables. Net supply use tables are available upon request.

  • Energy extracted (Net) - per household indicator has been discontinued in Table 1. 

  • A new Maritime Boundary Treaty between Australia and Timor-Leste came in to force on 30 August 2019. The new treaty provides exclusive jurisdiction of the former Joint Petroleum Development Area excluding Greater Sunrise in the Timor Sea to Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste. From this publication onwards, data contained within the Energy Account, Australia will reflect the new maritime boundary.

In addition standard revisions may be seen in prior years due to:

  • Revisions in source data.

Data downloads

Changes to Excel file format on the ABS website

In line with updating to more recent technology formats, the ABS will progressively transition to releasing Excel files in the .XLSX format. This means that all data cubes in future Energy Account, Australia publications will be progressively upgraded from .XLS files to .XLSX files.

While this change will improve usability, it may also require changes to automated macros or similar programs that users may have in place that call on the current file extension format.

This change will take effect in the Energy Account, Australia, 2020-21 financial year publication. Previously released data will not change.

Energy Account, Australia 2019-20

Data files

Previous catalogue number

This release previously used catalogue number 4604.0.

Back to top of the page