Part C - The key analytical aggregates of the statement of operations
Analytical aggregates are economic constructs that are obtained by calculating the sum and / or residual values of various GFS aggregates and are particularly useful in fiscal analysis. The analytical aggregates that are recorded in the GFS statement of operations are the net acquisition of non-financial assets, the GFS net operating balance, and GFS net lending (+) / net borrowing (-).
The net acquisition of non-financial assets
Non-financial assets are defined as economic assets other than financial assets. The net acquisition of nonfinancial assets records the transactions that change a government's net investment in non-financial assets. The calculation of the net acquisition of non-financial assets is shown in Table 5.1 below:
|Acquisitions of fixed produced assets|
(ETF 411, TALC 1)
|Disposals of fixed produced assets|
(ETF 421, TALC 1, SDC)
|Gross fixed capital formation (derived by the ABS)|
|Change in inventories|
(ETF 4111, TALC 21)
|Other transactions in non-financial assets|
(ETF 4112, ETF 4113, ETF 4114, ETF 4115, ETF 4116, TALC 22, TALC 23, TALC 3, SDC (excluding ETF 4113), COFOG-A)
|Disposals of non-financial assets (excluding depreciation)|
(ETF 4211, TALC 2, TALC 3, SDC, COFOG-A)
|Reductions in non-financial assets due to depreciation|
(ETF 4212, TALC 11, TALC 12, TALC 13, TALC 15,)
|Net acquisition of non-financial assets|
The net operating balance
GFS net operating balance is a key analytical balance in the GFS statement of operations. It is derived by subtracting total expenses from total revenues in the GFS. The net operating balance may be positive or negative in value. When the net operating balance is positive, it indicates that surplus funds have been generated from current operations and are available to finance capital acquisitions. When the net operating balance is negative, it indicates that a shortfall has been incurred on current operations and that it has been necessary to liquidate assets, incur liabilities or increase equity in order to finance the operations. The net operating balance is comparable to the national accounts concept of saving plus net capital transfers receivable.
The gross operating balance is derived by adding depreciation (ETF 124) to the net operating balance. However, the net operating balance is the preferred measure because it captures all of the operating costs during the reporting period.
GFS net lending (+) / net borrowing (-)
GFS net lending (+) / net borrowing (-) is the summary balance of GFS revenue minus GFS expenses minus transactions in non-financial assets. This is represented by the net operating balance minus the net acquisition of non-financial assets. The GFS net lending (+) / net borrowing (-) is equivalent in concept to the national accounting balance of the same name, but may not be equal in value due to some measurement differences for government. The GFS net lending (+) / net borrowing (-) position may be positive or negative. When positive, it indicates a surplus of funds that may be used to purchase assets and / or repay liabilities. When GFS net lending (+) / net borrowing (-) is negative, it indicates that there are insufficient funds available to finance current operations, and may require the liquidation of assets or the incurrence of liabilities to continue to fund current operations.
Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF)
Gross fixed capital formation is measured as acquisitions of fixed produced assets (ETF 411, TALC 1) less disposals of fixed produced assets (ETF 421, TALC 1). Fixed produced assets are goods and services that are used in production for more than 1 year. Valuables are excluded from GFCF because, although they may be produced assets, valuables are not used in production. Although inventories form part of capital formation, they do not form part of GFCF because inventories have a production life of less than one year.