Gender Indicators, Australia methodology

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Reference period

Explanatory notes

As data for Gender Indicators, Australia are drawn from a variety of sources, readers are directed to the Explanatory Notes or equivalent in the relevant publication/s for each data source.

Data sources

The tables contain data from both Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) and non-ABS sources. 

  • ABS data sources are shown by publication name in table footnotes. Where data have been provided from customised tables, the name of the ABS survey is shown.
  • Where data are from non-ABS sources, the source organisation’s name is included in the footnotes along with the source publication, if published.

Most recent data

The statistics shown are the latest available as of November 2020.


Some data contained in this issue are subject to update/revision as more complete and accurate information becomes available.


To minimise the risk of identifying individuals in aggregate statistics, a technique is used to randomly adjust cell values. This technique is called perturbation which involves small random adjustment of the statistics. This is considered the most satisfactory technique for avoiding the release of identifiable statistics while maximising the range of information that can be released. These adjustments have a negligible impact on the underlying pattern of the statistics.

After perturbation, a given published cell value will be consistent across all tables. However, adding up cell values to derive a total will not necessarily give the same result as published totals. As such, proportions may add to more or less than 100%. Readers are advised to use the published totals rather than deriving totals based on the component cells. Cells with small values may be proportionally more affected by perturbation than large values. Users are advised against conducting analyses and drawing conclusions based on small values.

The introduction of perturbation in publications ensures that these statistics are consistent with statistics released via services such as Table Builder.

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