People in Australia who were born in Hong Kong

2016 Census Country of birth QuickStats
Area code 0 by 6102
People 86,888
Male 41,645
Female 45,243
Australian citizen 75.3%
Not an Australian citizen 23.3%
Families 39,448
Couples with children 20,002
Couples without children 15,591
One parent families 3,103
Other families 753
All private dwellings 57,229
Median monthly mortgage repayment $2,000
Median weekly rent paid $421

(a) This label has been updated to more accurately reflect the Census concept shown in this data item. The data has not changed.

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People

demographics & education | cultural & language diversity | employment

Demographics & education

People Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Male 41,645 47.9 2,997,173 48.6 7,735,362 49.5 11,546,638 49.3
Female 45,243 52.1 3,166,493 51.4 7,880,175 50.5 11,855,248 50.7

In the 2016 Census, there were 86,888 people in Australia who were born in Hong Kong. Of these 47.9% were male and 52.1% were female.

View the data quality statements for: Place of Usual Residence (PURP) Country of birth of person (BPLP)

Age
People
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
0-14 years 4,106 4.7 366,872 6.0 3,777,875 24.2 4,364,607 18.7
15-24 years 13,274 15.3 612,643 9.9 2,197,847 14.1 2,988,390 12.8
25-34 years 18,597 21.4 1,130,884 18.3 1,994,601 12.8 3,368,449 14.4
35-44 years 13,236 15.2 1,021,528 16.6 1,911,355 12.2 3,144,935 13.4
45-54 years 11,902 13.7 961,980 15.6 1,920,340 12.3 3,105,007 13.3
55-64 years 16,407 18.9 840,595 13.6 1,704,198 10.9 2,753,734 11.8
65 years and over 9,363 10.8 1,229,161 19.9 2,109,310 13.5 3,676,765 15.7
Median age 39 -- 44 -- 34 -- 38 --

Of the population born in Hong Kong who usually live in Australia, 4.7% were aged 0 - 14 years and 10.8% were aged 65 years and over. The median age of people in Australia who were born in Hong Kong was 39 years.

View the data quality statement for Age (AGEP)
Registered marital status
People aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Married 45,334 54.8 3,362,174 58.0 5,158,710 43.6 9,148,218 48.1
Separated 1,259 1.5 178,867 3.1 376,863 3.2 608,059 3.2
Divorced 3,949 4.8 464,766 8.0 1,021,844 8.6 1,626,890 8.5
Widowed 1,857 2.2 326,987 5.6 560,940 4.7 985,204 5.2
Never married 30,383 36.7 1,463,996 25.3 4,719,302 39.9 6,668,910 35.0

Of people in Australia aged 15 years and over who were born in Hong Kong, 54.8% were married, 1.5% were separated, and 4.8% were divorced.

View the data quality statement for Registered marital status (MSTP)
Education Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Pre-school 374 0.4 21,982 0.4 323,754 2.1 347,621 1.5
Primary 2,113 2.4 197,196 3.2 1,717,830 11.0 1,926,880 8.2
Secondary 3,292 3.8 224,770 3.6 1,211,676 7.8 1,446,506 6.2
University or tertiary institution 10,877 12.5 440,789 7.2 713,008 4.6 1,160,630 5.0
Technical or further education 2,259 2.6 152,909 2.5 267,689 1.7 424,870 1.8
Other 1,122 1.3 97,890 1.6 98,429 0.6 198,383 0.8
Institution attended, type not stated 821 0.9 117,292 1.9 329,449 2.1 1,707,023 7.3
Not attending an educational institution 66,021 76.0 4,910,840 79.7 10,953,685 70.1 16,189,980 69.2

Of the population born in Hong Kong who usually live in Australia, 24.0% were attending an educational institution. There were 2.4% in primary school, 3.8% in secondary school and 15.1% in a tertiary or technical institution.

View the data quality statement for Educational institution attendee status (TYSTAP)
Level of highest educational attainment
People aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Bachelor Degree level and above 37,924 45.8 1,830,410 31.6 2,320,141 19.6 4,181,406 22.0
Advanced Diploma and Diploma level 7,818 9.4 587,176 10.1 1,079,954 9.1 1,687,893 8.9
Certificate level IV 1,159 1.4 120,064 2.1 425,836 3.6 551,767 2.9
Certificate level III 2,729 3.3 565,803 9.8 1,831,323 15.5 2,442,203 12.8
Year 12 17,544 21.2 1,051,623 18.1 1,902,337 16.1 2,994,097 15.7
Year 11 2,735 3.3 200,856 3.5 724,761 6.1 941,531 4.9
Year 10 3,843 4.6 418,929 7.2 1,588,715 13.4 2,054,331 10.8
Certificate level II 27 0.0 3,313 0.1 9,848 0.1 13,454 0.1
Certificate level I 5 0.0 863 0.0 1,266 0.0 2,176 0.0
Year 9 or below 4,135 5.0 458,176 7.9 1,027,299 8.7 1,529,897 8.0
No educational attainment 855 1.0 114,870 2.0 26,748 0.2 145,844 0.8
Not stated 1,770 2.1 264,618 4.6 570,419 4.8 1,974,794 10.4

Of the population born in Hong Kong who usually live in Australia, 21.2% reported having completed Year 12 as their highest level of educational attainment, 4.7% had completed a Certificate III or IV and 9.4% had completed an Advanced Diploma or Diploma.

View the data quality statement for Level of highest educational attainment (HEAP)

Cultural & language diversity

Year of arrival Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Before 1941 128 0.1 9,289 0.2 -- -- -- --
1941 - 1950 207 0.2 84,378 1.4 -- -- -- --
1951 - 1960 731 0.8 321,721 5.2 -- -- -- --
1961 - 1970 2,238 2.6 590,106 9.6 -- -- -- --
1971 - 1980 7,388 8.5 541,319 8.8 -- -- -- --
1981 - 1990 20,812 24.0 768,312 12.5 -- -- -- --
1991 - 2000 21,583 24.8 766,940 12.4 -- -- -- --
2001 - 2005 7,220 8.3 559,084 9.1 -- -- -- --
2006 - 2010 7,974 9.2 985,332 16.0 -- -- -- --
2011 - 2016 15,802 18.2 1,324,426 21.5 -- -- -- --
Born in Australia -- -- -- -- 15,615,531 -- -- --

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong, 18.2% arrived in Australia from 2011 - 2016 and 9.2% from 2006 - 2010.

View the data quality statement for Year of arrival in Australia (YARP)
Citizenship Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Australian citizen 65,390 75.3 3,652,290 59.3 15,304,785 98.0 19,278,834 82.4
Not an Australian citizen 20,260 23.3 2,402,591 39.0 86,884 0.6 2,507,458 10.7

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong, 75.3% were Australian citizens.

View the data quality statement for Australian citizenship (CITP)
Birthplace of spouse or partner Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Spouse or partner born overseas 39,521 83.9 2,533,692 72.3 874,386 14.5 3,432,017 35.9
Spouse or partner born in Australia 6,204 13.2 874,386 25.0 4,975,104 82.7 5,872,893 61.4

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong and had a spouse or partner, 83.9% had a spouse or partner who was born overseas and 13.2% had a spouse or partner born in Australia.

Note: Total does not include those spouses or partners who did not state their country of birth.

View the data quality statements for: Country of birth of person (BPLP) Relationship in household (RLHP) Family/household reference person indicator (RPIP)

Religious affiliation, top responses
Results may include 'nfd' for 'not further defined'
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
No Religion, so described 45,444 52.3 1,647,084 26.7 5,197,438 33.3 6,933,708 29.6
Catholic 11,087 12.8 1,306,565 21.2 3,895,007 24.9 5,291,834 22.6
Buddhism 6,398 7.4 400,332 6.5 156,171 1.0 563,674 2.4
Baptist 5,338 6.1 105,653 1.7 234,177 1.5 345,142 1.5
Christian, nfd 4,102 4.7 211,734 3.4 391,430 2.5 612,371 2.6

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong, the most common responses to the religion question were No Religion, so described 52.3%, Catholic 12.8%, Buddhism 7.4%, Baptist 6.1% and Christian, nfd 4.7%.

View the data quality statement for Religious affiliation (RELP)
English language proficiency Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Speaks English only 11,171 12.9 2,581,282 41.9 14,190,672 90.9 17,020,421 72.7
Speaks other language and speaks English:  null  null  null  null  null  null
Very well or well 63,825 73.5 2,885,219 46.8 1,122,966 7.2 4,068,598 17.4
Not well or not at all 11,325 13.0 648,470 10.5 157,704 1.0 819,925 3.5

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong, 12.9% spoke English only at home. A further 73.5% spoke another language but also spoke English very well or well.

View the data quality statement for Proficiency in spoken English/language (ENGLP)

Employment

Employment
Labour force, people aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Worked full-time 32,555 60.7 2,052,828 58.4 4,491,739 57.5 6,623,065 57.7
Worked part-time 15,202 28.4 1,025,198 29.2 2,421,402 31.0 3,491,503 30.4
Away from work 1,894 3.5 158,027 4.5 397,088 5.1 569,276 5.0
Unemployed 3,939 7.4 277,586 7.9 498,013 6.4 787,452 6.9
Not in the labour force 28,913 34.9 2,221,922 38.3 3,913,066 33.1 6,297,600 33.1

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong and who were in the labour force, 60.7% worked full-time, 28.4% worked part-time and 7.4% were unemployed.

The ABS Labour Force Survey provides the official estimates of Australia's unemployment rate. More information about Census and labour force status is provided in Understanding the Census and Census Data.

View the data quality statement for Labour force status (LFSP)
Employment - hours worked
Labour force, people aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
1-15 hours per week 4,996 10.1 313,561 9.7 890,779 12.2 1,218,823 11.4
16-24 hours per week 5,314 10.7 358,890 11.1 706,291 9.7 1,079,236 10.1
25-34 hours per week 4,893 9.9 352,748 10.9 824,331 11.3 1,193,445 11.2
35-39 hours per week 11,552 23.3 705,848 21.8 1,300,092 17.8 2,031,263 19.0
40 hours or more per week 21,001 42.3 1,346,985 41.6 3,191,643 43.7 4,591,801 43.0

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong and who were employed, 42.3% worked 40 hours or more per week and 23.3% worked 35-39 hours per week.

View the data quality statement for Hours worked (HRSP)
Occupation, top responses
Employed people aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Professionals 18,668 37.6 815,695 25.2 1,536,662 21.0 2,370,966 22.2
Clerical and Administrative Workers 7,001 14.1 393,619 12.2 1,040,953 14.2 1,449,681 13.6
Managers 5,649 11.4 403,585 12.5 970,340 13.3 1,390,047 13.0
Community and Personal Service Workers 4,827 9.7 351,854 10.9 789,597 10.8 1,157,003 10.8
Technicians and Trades Workers 4,469 9.0 405,055 12.5 1,021,688 14.0 1,447,414 13.5

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong, the most common responses for occupation were Professionals 37.6%, Clerical and Administrative Workers 14.1%, Managers 11.4%, Community and Personal Service Workers 9.7% and Technicians and Trades Workers 9.0%.

View the data quality statement for Occupation (OCCP)
Industry of employment, top responses
Employed people aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Cafes and Restaurants 3,505 7.1 121,097 3.7 130,007 1.8 253,385 2.4
Hospitals (except Psychiatric Hospitals) 2,679 5.4 141,550 4.4 265,609 3.6 411,808 3.9
Banking 1,849 3.7 56,849 1.8 86,366 1.2 144,232 1.3
Computer System Design and Related Services 1,454 2.9 82,618 2.6 79,573 1.1 162,884 1.5
Accounting Services 1,372 2.8 42,416 1.3 83,995 1.1 127,263 1.2

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong, the most common responses for industry of employment were Cafes and Restaurants 7.1%, Hospitals (except Psychiatric Hospitals) 5.4%, Banking 3.7%, Computer System Design and Related Services 2.9% and Accounting Services 2.8%.

View the data quality statement for Industry of employment (INDP)
Median weekly income
People aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Personal 690 -- 615 -- 688 -- 662 --
Family 2,038 -- 1,725 -- 1,834 -- 1,734 --
Household 1,881 -- 1,562 -- 1,539 -- 1,438 --

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong, the personal weekly median income was $690. Family median weekly income was $2,038 and Household median weekly income was $1,881.

Median personal weekly income for persons aged 15 years and over born in the selected country. Excludes those who did not state an income.

Family for the selected country of birth is determined by the reference person and/or their spouse/partner's response to country of birth. Median family income excludes families where at least one family member aged 15 years and over did not state an income.

Household for the selected country of birth is determined by the response of any household member (enumerated in the dwelling) to country of birth. Median household income excludes households where at least one member aged 15 years and over did not state an income.

View the data quality statements for: Total personal income (INCP) Total family income (FINF) Total household income (HIND)

Travel to work
Employed people aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Car 27,469 55.3 1,986,872 61.4 5,009,484 68.5 7,090,101 66.4
Bus or train 10,263 20.7 453,292 14.0 454,116 6.2 915,328 8.6
Other 5,798 11.7 381,664 11.8 672,865 9.2 1,066,965 10.0

In Australia 55.3% of employed people who were born in Hong Kong travelled to work on census day by car, while 20.7% travelled by bus or train.

View the data quality statement for Method of travel to work (MTWP)
Unpaid work
People aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Did unpaid domestic work (last week) 58,653 70.9 3,964,948 68.4 9,000,198 76.0 13,143,914 69.0
Cared for child/children (last two weeks) 19,267 23.3 1,677,392 28.9 3,507,061 29.6 5,259,400 27.6
Provided unpaid assistance to a person with a disability (last two weeks) 7,712 9.3 613,990 10.6 1,489,817 12.6 2,145,203 11.3
Did voluntary work through an organisation or group (last 12 months) 16,230 19.6 941,091 16.2 2,634,097 22.3 3,620,726 19.0

In Australia 70.9% of people who were born in Hong Kong did unpaid domestic work in the week before the census, and 23.3% cared for a child or children in the two weeks before the census.

View the data quality statements for: Unpaid domestic work (DOMP) Unpaid child care (CHCAREP) Unpaid assistance (UNCAREP) Voluntary work (VOLWP)

Unpaid domestic work, number of hours
People aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Less than 5 hours per week 21,491 26.0 1,234,900 21.3 3,013,177 25.5 4,298,593 22.6
5 to 14 hours per week 20,656 25.0 1,509,217 26.0 3,371,602 28.5 4,944,578 26.0
15 to 29 hours per week 9,218 11.1 678,501 11.7 1,479,061 12.5 2,189,776 11.5
30 hours or more per week 7,292 8.8 542,335 9.4 1,136,359 9.6 1,710,970 9.0

In Australia of people who were born in Hong Kong and who did unpaid domestic work in the week before the census, 25.0% worked 5 to 14 hours, 11.1% worked 15 to 29 hours and 8.8% worked 30 hours or more.

View the data quality statement for Unpaid domestic work, number of hours (DOMP)

Families

family composition | employment status of couple families

Family composition

For information on how migrant families are classified, see the User guide for QuickStats

Family composition Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Couple family without children 15,591 39.5 1,012,440 39.3 1,240,422 36.6 2,291,987 37.8
Couple family with children 20,002 50.7 1,248,241 48.4 1,434,939 42.3 2,716,224 44.7
One parent family 3,103 7.9 282,463 11.0 648,590 19.1 959,543 15.8
Other family 753 1.9 34,059 1.3 65,896 1.9 102,559 1.7
Families with a child under 5 6,522 16.5 446,733 17.3 591,182 17.4 1,037,904 17.1
Families with a child aged 0-15 years 12,802 32.5 977,697 37.9 1,379,763 40.7 2,357,465 38.8

These statistics are for families in Australia. They are for families where the reference person and/or their spouse or partner was born in Hong Kong. Of these families, 50.7% were couple families with children, 39.5% were couple families without children and 7.9% were one parent families.

Note: Totals for families with a child under 5 and for families with a child aged 0-15 years does not include those families where the reference person and/or their spouse/partner did not state their country of birth.

View the data quality statement for Family composition (FMCF)

Employment status of couple families

Employment status of parents in couple families
Labour force, people aged 15 years and over
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Both employed, worked full-time 8,393 23.6 475,278 21.0 600,260 22.4 1,084,006 21.6
Both employed, worked part-time 1,754 4.9 97,948 4.3 103,266 3.9 203,596 4.1
One employed full-time, one part-time 6,538 18.4 424,478 18.8 652,771 24.4 1,086,460 21.7
One employed full-time, other not working 6,881 19.3 390,307 17.3 352,203 13.2 749,886 15.0
One employed part-time, other not working 2,660 7.5 156,274 6.9 141,852 5.3 302,037 6.0
Both not working 6,357 17.9 492,423 21.8 488,403 18.3 1,006,697 20.1
Other (includes away from work) 1,521 4.3 107,664 4.8 152,346 5.7 264,145 5.3
Labour force status not stated (by one or both parents in a couple family) 1,493 4.2 116,299 5.1 184,264 6.9 311,381 6.2

These statistics are for families in Australia. They are for families where the reference person and/or their spouse or partner was born in Hong Kong. Of these families, 23.6% of families had both parents working full-time, 18.4% of families had one parent working full-time and one parent working part-time, and 17.9% of families stated that both parents were not working.

View the data quality statement for Labour force status of parents / partners in families (LFSF)

Dwellings

dwelling structure | mortgage & rent | household composition

Dwelling structure

For information on how migrant households are classified, see the User guide for QuickStats

Dwelling tables exclude visitor only and other non-classifiable households

Dwelling structure
Occupied private dwellings
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Separate house 32,015 55.9 2,212,954 67.1 5,074,866 76.9 6,041,788 72.9
Semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc 9,201 16.1 466,800 14.1 779,497 11.8 1,055,016 12.7
Flat or apartment 15,617 27.3 585,471 17.7 668,862 10.1 1,087,434 13.1
Other dwelling 185 0.3 20,721 0.6 48,617 0.7 64,425 0.8

These statistics are for occupied private dwellings in Australia. For the dwellings that were occupied on census night by a person or persons who were born in Hong Kong, 55.9% were a separate house, 27.3% were a flat or apartment, and 16.1% were a semi-detached, row or terrace house, townhouse etc.

View the data quality statement for Dwelling structure (STRD)
Number of bedrooms
Occupied private dwellings
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
None (includes bedsitters) 456 0.8 17,187 0.5 23,956 0.4 39,769 0.5
1 bedroom 3,395 5.9 176,922 5.4 254,884 3.9 411,252 5.0
2 bedrooms 11,944 20.9 658,470 20.0 1,119,772 17.0 1,562,759 18.9
3 bedrooms 18,909 33.0 1,264,755 38.3 2,787,246 42.2 3,403,190 41.1
4 or more bedrooms 21,767 38.0 1,110,865 33.7 2,287,725 34.7 2,670,758 32.2
Number of bedrooms not stated 747 1.3 71,635 2.2 126,102 1.9 198,351 2.4

These statistics are for occupied private dwellings in Australia. For the dwellings that were occupied on census night by a person or persons who were born in Hong Kong, 20.9% had two bedrooms, 33.0% had three bedrooms and 38.0% had four or more bedrooms.

View the data quality statement for Number of bedrooms in a private dwelling (BEDD)

Mortgage & rent

Mortgage and rent
Occupied private dwellings
Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
Owned outright 19,924 34.8 970,425 29.4 2,013,505 30.5 2,565,695 31.0
Owned with a mortgage 21,150 37.0 1,122,252 34.0 2,474,999 37.5 2,855,222 34.5
Rented 14,936 26.1 1,099,840 33.3 1,907,007 28.9 2,561,302 30.9
Other tenure type 302 0.5 25,380 0.8 59,681 0.9 78,994 1.0
Tenure type not stated 912 1.6 81,928 2.5 144,494 2.2 224,869 2.7
Median monthly mortgage repayment 2,000 -- 1,950 -- 1,742 -- 1,755 --
Median weekly rent paid 421 -- 370 -- 330 -- 335 --

These statistics are for occupied private dwellings in Australia. For the dwellings that were occupied on census night by a person or persons who were born in Hong Kong, 34.8% were owned outright, 37.0% were owned with a mortgage and 26.1% were rented. The median monthly mortgage repayment was $2,000 and the median weekly rent paid was $421.

Median monthly mortgage repayment relates only to occupied private dwellings that are owned with a mortgage (including those being purchased under a rent/buy scheme). It excludes 'visitor only' and 'other non-classifiable' households and dwellings that did not state a monthly repayment value.

Median weekly rent paid relates to occupied private dwellings being rented (including rent-free accommodation). It excludes 'visitor only' and 'other non-classifiable' households and dwellings that did not state a weekly payment value.

View the data quality statements for: Tenure type (TEND) Rent weekly payments (RNTD) Mortgage monthly repayments (MRED)

Household composition

Household composition Born in Hong Kong % Born in Hong Kong All overseas born % All overseas born Australian born % Australian born Total % Total
One family households 43,273 75.6 2,465,248 74.7 4,809,352 72.9 5,751,635 69.4
Multiple family households 2,120 3.7 101,470 3.1 137,593 2.1 155,992 1.9
Single (or lone) person households 7,000 12.2 559,665 17.0 1,403,935 21.3 2,023,542 24.4
Group households 4,836 8.5 173,452 5.3 248,803 3.8 354,917 4.3

All occupants of a private dwelling complete one census form and are counted as a household. 'Born in Hong Kong' includes households in Australia where at least one person was born in Hong Kong. Of those households, 75.6% were one family households and 12.2% were lone person households.

View the data quality statement for Household composition (HHCD)

Small random adjustments have been made to all cell values to protect the confidentiality of data. These adjustments may cause the sum of rows or columns to differ by small amounts from the table totals. For further information, go to the User Guide for QuickStats.

Data reported for Australia and Other Territories now includes Norfolk Island, following an amendment to the Acts Interpretation Act, 1901. Because Norfolk Island has not previously been included in the Census, any 2011 benchmarks will not include Norfolk Island.