Australian Bureau of Statistics

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Understanding statistics

Statistical Language helps you to understand a range of statistical concepts and terms with simple explanations.

Find concept definitions:

Explore a concept:

Image: What are Data?What are Data?
- Data unit
- Data item (variable)
- Observation
- Dataset
Image: Quantitative and Qualitative DataQuantitative and Qualitative Data
- Quantitative data
- Qualitative data
Image: What are Variables?What are Variables?
- Variable (data item)
- Numeric
- Continuous
- Discrete
- Categorical
- Ordinal
- Nominal
Image: What is a Population?What is a Population?
- Population
Image: Census and SampleCensus and Sample
- Census
- Sample
- Random (probability) sample
- Non-random (non-probability) sample
Image: Data SourcesData Sources
- Direct/Primary data
- Survey
- Indirect/Secondary data
- Administrative data
Image: Describing FrequenciesDescribing Frequencies
- Absolute frequency
- Relative frequency
- Ratio
- Rate
- Proportion
Image: Frequency DistributionFrequency Distribution
- Frequency distribution
- Histogram
- Bar chart
Image: Pictures of ShapeMeasures of Shape
- Measures of shape
- Normal distribution
- Skewness
Image: Measures of Central TendencyMeasures of Central Tendency
- Mode
- Median
- Mean
- Outlier
Image: Measures of SpreadMeasures of Spread
- Range
- Quartiles
- Interquartile range
- Variance
- Standard deviation
Image: Types of ErrorTypes of Error
- Sampling error
- Non-sampling error
Image: Measures of ErrorMeasures of Error
- Standard error (SE)
- Relative error (RE)
- Confidence interval
Image: What are Statistics?What are Statistics?
- Descriptive (summary) statistics
- Inferential statistics
Image: What are StandardsWhat are Standards?
- Statistical standard
- Classification
Image: What is Metadata?
What is Metadata?
- Metadata
Image: Data VisualisationData Visualisation
- Static
- Dynamic
- Interactive
Image: Time Series Data
Time Series Data
- Original time series
- Seasonally adjusted time series
- Trend series
Image: Estimate and ProjectionEstimate and Projection
- Estimate
- Projection
Image: Correlation and CausationCorrelation and Causation
- Correlation
- Causation (Causality)
Image: ConfidentialityConfidentiality
- Confidentiality

Commonwealth of Australia 2008

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