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Balance of Payments and International Investment Position, Australia

Balance of payments on capital and financial transactions plus an international investment statement detailing level of investment and income

Reference period
June 2019
Released
3/09/2019

Key statistics

  • Australia's net IIP liability position increased $9.2b.
  • Australia's net foreign debt liability position increased $19.4b.
  • Australia's net foreign equity asset position increased $10.2b.
  • The balance on goods and services surplus rose $5,060m.

Main features

Balance of payments

  • The current account, seasonally adjusted, was a surplus of $5,853m in the June quarter 2019. It was a turnaround of $6,973m on the March quarter 2019 deficit of $1,120m. The balance on goods and services surplus rose $5,060m to $19,896m. The primary income deficit fell $1,573m to $13,927m.
  • In seasonally adjusted chain volume terms, the surplus on goods and services rose $2,750m from $3,637m in the March quarter 2019 to $6,387m in the June quarter 2019. This is expected to contribute 0.6 percentage points to growth in the June quarter 2019 volume measure of GDP.
     

International investment position (IIP)

  • Australia's net IIP liability position was $1,001.6b at 30 June 2019, an increase of $9.2b on the revised 31 March 2019 position of $992.3b. Australia's net foreign debt liability position increased $19.4b to $1,143.5b. Australia's net foreign equity asset position increased $10.2b to $141.9b at 30 June 2019.
     
Mar Qtr 2019 ($m)Jun Qtr 2019 ($m)Mar Qtr 2019 to Jun Qtr 2019 (% change)
Balance on current account
Trend estimates-6404 758(a) ..
Seasonally adjusted-1 1205 853(a) ..
Balance on goods and services
Trend estimates14 69319 28131
Seasonally adjusted14 83619 89634
Net primary income
Trend estimates-15 002-14 2735
Seasonally adjusted-15 500-13 92710
Levels at end of period
International Investment Position992 3351 001 5601
Net foreign equity-131 754-141 904-8
Net foreign debt1 124 0891 143 4642

.. not applicable

  1. see paragraph 17 of the Methodology page.
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  1. Seasonally adjusted estimates at current prices.
     
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Analysis and comments

Balance of payments

In original current price terms, the June quarter 2019 current account surplus was $7,494m, a turnaround of $7,546m on the March quarter 2019 deficit. In original current price terms, the balance on goods and services was a net surplus of $19,707m, primary income was a net deficit of $11,901m and secondary income was a net deficit of $312m.

In original current price terms, the June quarter 2019 capital and financial account deficit was $4,163m, a turnaround of $7,593m on the March quarter 2019 surplus. In original current price terms, the capital account was a net deficit of $234m and the financial account was a net deficit of $3,929m.

The contributors to the current account balances, in original terms at current prices, are shown in the following table.

Balance of payments, summary(a): original - current account
Jun 2018 ($m)Sep 2018 ($m)Dec 2018 ($m)Mar 2019 ($m)Jun 2019 ($m)
Current account-10 820-12 763-6 681-527 494
Goods and services3 4745 4908 41516 57119 707
Credits105 581111 936118 109116 801123 045
Debits-102 107-106 446-109 694-100 230-103 338
Goods6 0598 7219 51213 94521 734
Credits84 55789 04393 48790 290100 284
Debits-78 498-80 322-83 975-76 345-78 550
Services-2 585-3 231-1 0972 626-2 027
Credits21 02422 89324 62226 51122 761
Debits-23 609-26 124-25 719-23 885-24 788
Primary income-13 792-17 968-15 178-15 860-11 901
Credits16 11516 45517 69118 00917 587
Debits-29 907-34 422-32 869-33 869-29 488
Secondary income-502-28582-763-312
Credits2 3382 3452 3752 3152 390
Debits-2 840-2 630-2 293-3 078-2 702
  1. For sign conventions, see paragraphs 15-17 of the Methodology page.
Balance of payments, summary(a): original - capital and financial account
Jun 2018 ($m)Sep 2018 ($m)Dec 2018 ($m)Mar 2019 ($m)Jun 2019 ($m)
Capital and financial account13 61615 4808 8453 430-4 163
Capital account-134-175-162-200-234
Acquisitions/disposals of non-produced non-financial assets3233331
Credits8036331
Debits-48--30--
Capital transfers-166-178-195-203-235
Credits-----
Debits-166-178-195-203-235
Financial account13 75015 6559 0073 630-3 929
Direct investment28 2575 66934 4814 77123 852
Assets-8 323-10 24723 254-6 3492 874
Liabilities36 58015 91611 22711 12020 979
Portfolio investment318-16 497-7 775-21 873-35 734
Assets-22 323-4 267-23 987-11 928-20 891
Liabilities22 641-12 23016 211-9 945-14 843
Financial derivatives-5 854-877-5 553-655-1 362
Assets19 87529 69310 37518 16717 162
Liabilities-25 729-30 569-15 928-18 822-18 524
Other investment-10 25926 044-13 46923 2336 321
Assets-3 12727 422-5 51617 451-3 905
Liabilities-7 132-1 378-7 9545 78210 226
Reserve assets1 2891 3151 324-1 8462 992
Net errors and omissions-2 796-2 717-2 164-3 378-3 331

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)

  1. For sign conventions, see paragraphs 15-17 of the Methodology page.


In seasonally adjusted current price terms, the June quarter 2019 current account surplus was $5,853m, a turnaround of $6,973m on the March quarter 2019 deficit.

In trend current price terms, the June quarter 2019 current account surplus was $4,758m, a turnaround of $5,398m on the March quarter 2019 deficit.

The contributors to the current account balance, in seasonally adjusted and trend terms at current prices, are shown in the following table.

Balance on current account in current prices - June quarter 2019
Current prices ($m)Change in: current prices ($m)Change in: current prices (%)
Seasonally adjusted
Balance on current account5 8536 973(a) ..
Balance on goods and services19 8965 06034.1
Net goods20 3585 03832.9
Net services-462224.5
Net primary income-13 9271 57310.1
Net secondary income-11634074.6
Trend
Balance on current account4 7585 398(a) ..
Balance on goods and services19 2814 58831.2
Net goods19 7144 25127.5
Net services-43333743.8
Net primary income-14 2737294.9
Net secondary income-2498224.8

.. not applicable

  1. see paragraph 17 of the Methodology page.
     

Terms of trade (footnote 1)

Australia's seasonally adjusted terms of trade on net goods and services for the June quarter 2019 rose 1.4% to 111.6, with an increase of 2.5% in the implicit price deflator (IPD) for goods and services credits and an increase of 1.1% in the IPD for goods and services debits.

In trend terms, the terms of trade for net goods and services rose 2.2% to 112.0.

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  1. Seasonally adjusted, reference year 2016-17 = 100.
     

Balance on goods and services

In seasonally adjusted chain volume terms, the balance on goods and services was a surplus of $6,387m, a rise of $2,750m on the March quarter 2019 surplus of $3,637m.

The net surplus on goods rose $2,435m on the March quarter 2019 surplus of $2,883m. Goods credits rose $1,335m (2%) and goods debits fell $1,099m (1%). The net surplus on services rose $315m on the March quarter 2019 surplus of $754m.

The rise in the balance on goods and services surplus, in seasonally adjusted chain volume terms, is expected to contribute 0.6 percentage points to growth in the June quarter 2019 chain volume measure of GDP, assuming no significant revision to the GDP chain volume estimate for the March quarter 2019.

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  1. Seasonally adjusted, reference year 2016-17.
     

Goods

The trend estimate of net goods at current prices for the June quarter 2019 was a surplus of $19,714m, a rise of $4,251m on the March quarter 2019 surplus of $15,463m.

In seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, net goods was a surplus of $20,358m, a rise of $5,038m on the March quarter 2019 surplus of $15,320m.

Goods, price and volume analysis: seasonally adjusted - June quarter 2019
Change in: current prices ($m)Change in: current prices (%)Change in: chain volume measures(a) (%)Change in: implicit price deflators(a)(b) (%)
Exports4 5784.81.73.0
Rural goods-489-4.0-4.30.4
Non-rural goods5 6557.34.03.2
Net exports of goods under merchanting-16-22.9-33.415.8
Non-monetary gold-573-10.3-12.02.0
Imports-460-0.6-1.50.9
Consumption goods-529-2.0-2.90.9
Capital goods-47-0.2-0.50.3
Intermediate and other merchandise goods-48-0.1-1.41.2
Non-monetary gold16512.410.02.1
  1. Reference year 2016-17.
  2. Movements in indexes are based on data to four decimal places.
     

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Good credits

The trend estimate of goods credits at current prices rose $4,130m (4%) to $99,601m in the June quarter 2019.

In seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, goods credits rose $4,578m (5%) to $99,957m, with volumes up 2% and prices up 3%.

Rural goods

Exports of rural goods, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, fell $489m (4%) to $11,809m, with volumes down 4%.

The main components contributing to the fall were:

  • other rural, down $331m (6%), with volumes down 4% and prices down 1%
  • cereal grains and cereal preparations, down $128m (8%), with volumes down 3% and prices down 5%
  • wool and sheepskins, down $101m (9%), with volumes down 11% and prices up 2%.
     

Partly offsetting these falls was meat and meat preparations, up $69m (2%), with volumes down 3% and prices up 5%.

Non-rural goods

Exports of non-rural goods, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, rose $5,655m (7%) to $83,091m, with volumes up 4% and prices up 3%.

The main components contributing to the rise were:

  • metal ores and minerals, up $5,842m (21%), with volumes up 1% and prices up 20%
  • other non-rural (incl. sugar and beverages), up $311m (12%), with volumes up 11% and prices up 1%
  • other manufactures, up $232m (4%), with volumes up 4%
  • metals (excl. non-monetary gold), up $211m (6%), with volumes up 6%.
     

Partly offsetting these rises were:

  • other mineral fuels, down $748m (5%), with volumes up 11% and prices down 14%
  • coal, coke and briquettes, down $329m (2%), with volumes up 4% and prices down 5%.
     
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  1. Seasonally adjusted.
     

Net exports of goods under merchanting

Net exports of goods under merchanting, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, fell $16m (23%) to $54m, with volumes down 33% and prices up 16%.

Non-monetary gold

Exports of non-monetary gold, in original and seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, fell $573m (10%) to $5,002m, with volumes down 12% and prices up 2%.

Goods debits

The trend estimate of goods debits at current prices fell $121m to $79,887m in the June quarter 2019.

In seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, goods debits fell $460m (1%) to $79,599m, with volumes down 1% and prices up 1%.

Consumption goods

Imports of consumption goods, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, fell $529m (2%) to $25,946m, with volumes down 3% and prices up 1%.

The main component contributing to the fall was non-industrial transport equipment, down $658m (11%), with volumes down 11%.

Partly offsetting this fall was food and beverages, mainly for consumption, up $120m (3%), with prices up 3%.

Capital goods

Imports of capital goods, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, fell $47m to $19,618m.

The main components contributing to the fall were:

  • industrial transport equipment n.e.s., down $448m (12%), with volumes down 10% and prices down 2%
  • machinery and industrial equipment, down $139m (2%), with volumes down 3% and prices up 1%.
     

Partly offsetting these falls were:

  • civil aircraft and confidentialised items, up $382m (36%), with volumes up 33% and prices up 3%
  • capital goods n.e.s., up $250m (12%), with volumes up 11%.
     

Intermediate and other merchandise goods

Imports of intermediate and other merchandise goods, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, fell $48m to $32,538m, with volumes down 1% and prices up 1%.

The main components contributing to the fall were:

  • iron and steel, down $121m (13%), with volumes down 13%
  • primary industrial supplies n.e.s., down $119m (24%), with volumes down 22% and prices down 3%
  • processed industrial supplies n.e.s., down $117m (1%), with volumes down 1%.
     

Partly offsetting these falls was fuels and lubricants, up $231m (2%), with volumes down 1% and prices up 3%.

Non-monetary gold

Imports of non-monetary gold, in original and seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, rose $165m (12%) to $1,498m, with volumes up 10% and prices up 2%.

Services

The trend estimate of net services at current prices was a deficit of $433m, a fall of $337m on the March quarter 2019 deficit of $770m.

In seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, net services was a deficit of $462m, a fall of $22m on the March quarter 2019 deficit of $484m.

Services, price and volume analysis: seasonally adjusted - June quarter 2019
Change in: current prices($m)Change in: current prices (%)Change in: chain volume measures(a)(%)Change in: implicit price deflators(a)(b)(%)
Exports2020.80.40.4
Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others----
Maintenance and repair services n.i.e.-3-21.4-21.4-
Transport271.41.00.3
Travel3382.11.70.5
Other services-160-2.4-2.50.2
Imports1800.7-0.91.7
Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others----
Maintenance and repair services n.i.e.-33-10.8-12.82.2
Transport130.3-0.81.0
Travel670.5-1.01.6
Other services1321.8-0.42.2

- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)

  1. Reference year 2016-17.
  2. Movements in indexes are based on data to four decimal places.
     

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Services credits

Services credits, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, rose $202m (1%) to $24,794m.

The main component contributing to the rise was travel, up $338m (2%), with volumes up 2%.

Partly offsetting this rise was other services, down $160m (2%), with volumes down 3%.

In seasonally adjusted terms, tourism related services credits rose $348m (2%) to $16,969m.

Services debits

Services debits, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, rose $180m (1%) to $25,256m, with volumes down 1% and prices up 2%.

The main component contributing to the rise was other services, up $132m (2%), with prices up 2%.

Partly offsetting this rise was maintenance and repair services n.i.e., down $33m (11%), with volumes down 13% and prices up 2%.

In seasonally adjusted terms, tourism related services debits rose $129m (1%) to $14,757m.

Primary income

The trend estimate of the net primary income deficit at current prices fell $729m to $14,273m in the June quarter 2019.

In seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, the net primary income deficit fell $1,573m to $13,927m in the June quarter 2019.

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Primary income credits

Primary income credits, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, fell $868m (5%) to $17,373m. The main component of investment income contributing to the fall was direct investment assets, income on equity and investment fund shares, down $920m (14%).

Primary income debits

Primary income debits, in seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, fell $2,440m (7%) to $31,300m. The main components of investment income contributing to the fall were direct investment liabilities, income on equity and investment fund shares, down $1,621m (10%) and portfolio investment liabilities, interest, down $1,074m (16%).

Secondary income

The trend estimate of the net secondary income deficit at current prices fell $82m to $249m in the June quarter 2019.

In seasonally adjusted terms at current prices, the net secondary income deficit fell $340m to $116m in the June quarter 2019.

Capital account

In original terms, the capital account deficit was $234m, an increase of $34m on the March quarter 2019 deficit of $200m. Capital account credits decreased $2m (67%) and capital account debits increased $32m (16%) in the June quarter 2019.

Financial account

The balance on the financial account, in original terms, recorded a deficit of $3.9b in the June quarter 2019, a turnaround of $7.6b on the surplus of $3.6b in the March quarter 2019. The net outflow of $3.9b was driven by a net outflow of debt of $10.6b and a net inflow of equity of $6.7b.

Direct investment

Direct investment recorded a net inflow of $23.9b in the June quarter 2019, an increase of $19.1b on the net inflow of $4.8b in the March quarter 2019, where:

  • direct investment liabilities recorded an inflow of $21.0b, an increase of $9.9b on the inflow of $11.1b in the March quarter 2019
  • direct investment assets recorded an inflow of $2.9b, a turnaround of $9.2b on the outflow of $6.3b in the March quarter 2019.
     

Portfolio investment

Portfolio investment recorded a net outflow of $35.7b in the June quarter 2019, an increase of $13.9b on the net outflow of $21.9b in the March quarter 2019, where:

  • equity and investment fund shares recorded a net outflow of $14.8b in the June quarter 2019, a turnaround of $16.9b on the net inflow of $2.1b in the March quarter 2019
  • debt securities recorded a net outflow of $20.9b in the June quarter 2019, a decrease of $3.0b on the net outflow of $24.0b in the March quarter 2019.
     

Financial derivatives

Financial derivatives recorded a net outflow of $1.4b in the June quarter 2019, an increase of $0.7b on the net outflow of $0.7b in the March quarter 2019.

Other investment

Other investment recorded a net inflow of $6.3b in the June quarter 2019, a decrease of $16.9b on the net inflow of $23.2b in the March quarter 2019. 

Reserve assets

Reserve assets recorded an inflow of $3.0b in the June quarter 2019, a turnaround of $4.8b on the outflow of $1.8b in the March quarter 2019.

International investment position (IIP)

Australia's net IIP liability position was $1,001.6b at 30 June 2019, an increase of $9.2b on the revised 31 March 2019 position of $992.3b. Australia's net foreign debt liability position increased $19.4b to $1,143.5b. Australia's net foreign equity asset position increased $10.2b to $141.9b at 30 June 2019.

The changes contributing to this result are shown in the following table.

International investment position, by net foreign equity and net foreign debt
Changes in position reflectingChanges in position reflectingChanges in position reflectingChanges in position reflecting
Position at beginning of period ($m)Transactions ($m)Price changes ($m)Exchange rate changes ($m)Other adjustments ($m)Position at end of period ($m)
Net International Investment Position
Dec-2018969 5709 00746 139-3 303-2 6661 018 747
Mar-20191 018 7473 630-27 5992 846-5 290992 335
Jun-2019992 335-3 9295 38310 253-2 4811 001 560
Net Foreign Equity
Dec-2018-104 255-10 78336 917-17 366-4 824-100 310
Mar-2019-100 31012 849-40 7413 075-6 627-131 754
Jun-2019-131 7546 667-3 989-8 440-4 388-141 904
Net Foreign Debt
Dec-20181 073 82619 7909 22214 0622 1581 119 058
Mar-20191 119 058-9 21813 142-2291 3361 124 089
Jun-20191 124 089-10 5969 37218 6921 9071 143 464

Supplementary information

Conditions

The conditions in the global economy showed slower than expected growth in most of Australia’s major trading partner countries in the June quarter 2019. According to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (footnote 2) preliminary growth rates compared to last quarter in seasonally adjusted terms showed quarterly growth for China (1.6%), Indonesia (1.3%), South Korea (1.1%), the USA (0.5%), Spain (0.5%), Japan (0.4%), the Euro 28 (0.2%), France (0.2%), Belgium (0.2%), Germany (-0.1%) and the UK (-0.2%).

  • Foreign asset transactions were -$1.8b in the June quarter 2019 compared to $15.5b in the March quarter 2019
  • Foreign liability transactions were -$2.2b in the June quarter 2019 compared to -$11.9b in the March quarter 2019.
     

The Australian share market, as measured by the MSCI global index (footnote 3), increased 7.7% in the June quarter 2019, compared to an increase of 8.4% in the March quarter 2019. Increases were recorded in New Zealand (5.3%), Switzerland (4.6%), Singapore (4.6%), the USA (3.8%), Germany (3.5%), France (3.2%), the UK (2.0%) and Canada (1.9%). Decreases were recorded in China (5.5%), Japan (1.8%) and Hong Kong (0.7%). A market price change of -$31.8b was recorded for foreign equity assets and $27.8b for foreign equity liabilities in the June quarter 2019.

According to Thomson Reuters (footnote 4), the composite corporate benchmark yields decreased in the USA from 3.68% to 3.24%, the UK from 2.33% to 2.15%, Germany from 0.90% to 0.64% and Japan from 0.35% to 0.31% over the June quarter 2019. The long-term 10 year government bond yields decreased in the USA from 2.41% to 2.00%, the UK from 1.00% to 0.83%, Germany from -0.07% to -0.32% and Japan from -0.09% to -0.16% over the June quarter 2019. A market price change of -$1.6b was recorded for portfolio investment debt securities assets and $10.3b in portfolio investment debt securities liabilities in the June quarter 2019.

The Australian dollar saw mixed movement against major currencies in the June quarter 2019. The Australian dollar depreciated 3.55% against the Canadian dollar, 3.39% against the Japanese yen, 3.03% against the Swiss franc, 2.14% against the European euro, 1.77% against the Indonesian rupiah, 1.57% against the Hong Kong dollar, 1.21% against the Singapore dollar, 1.21% against the Indian rupee and 1.18% against the US dollar. The Australian dollar appreciated 2.90% against the UK pound sterling, 1.10% against the Chinese renminbi, 0.62% against the South Korean won and 0.19% against the New Zealand dollar. The Trade Weighted Index (TWI)(footnote 5) fell 0.83% to 60.1 in the June quarter 2019. These movements were reflected in exchange rate changes for foreign assets of -$16.6b and foreign liabilities of $26.9b in the June quarter 2019.
 

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Relationship between IPD, EPI and IPI (footnote 6)

In original terms, the IPD for total goods credits rose 2.7% and the chain Laspeyres price index for goods exports rose 3.9%. The Export Price Index (EPI)(footnote 7) rose 3.8% during the June quarter 2019.

In original terms, the IPD for total goods debits rose 0.8% and the chain Laspeyres price index for goods imports rose 0.9%. The Import Price Index (IPI)(footnote 7) rose 0.9% during the June quarter 2019.

Differences between the IPD and International Trade Price Indexes can arise due to a number of methodological factors including differences in pricing points, timing, coverage and weights.

Goods and services, price comparison - June quarter 2019
Change in: seasonally adjustedChange in: originalChange in: originalChange in: original
Implicit price deflators(a)(%)Implicit price deflators(a)(%)International Trade Price Indexes(b)(%)Chain Laspeyres price indexes(a)(%)
Exports
Goods3.02.73.83.9
Services0.40.2na0.3
Imports
Goods0.90.80.90.9
Services1.71.7na1.7

na not available

  1. Reference year 2016-17 = 100.
  2. Source: International Trade Price Indexes, Australia (cat. no. 6457.0).
     
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  1. Reference year 2016-17 = 100.
  2. Source: International Trade Price Indexes, Australia (cat. no. 6457.0).
     

Commodity price indexes

The RBA Commodity Price Index (average monthly index) for rural commodities rose 1.6% between the March quarter 2019 and the June quarter 2019 while the EPI for rural goods rose 0.4%.

The RBA Commodity Price Index for non-rural commodities rose 3.4% between the March quarter 2019 and the June quarter 2019 while the EPI for non-rural goods (excluding non-monetary gold) rose 4.5%.

Differences between the RBA Commodity Price Index and ABS price measures are largely a consequence of methodological differences used in the construction of the respective indexes, including coverage of included commodities and timing of source data.

Financial year 2018-19 situation

Current account

In original terms, the balance on current account for 2018-19 was a deficit of $12.0b, a fall of $39.3b on the deficit of $51.3b recorded for 2017-18. The balance on goods and services was a surplus of $50.2b, a rise of $42.6b on the surplus of $7.6b recorded for 2017-18. Goods and services credits rose $66.6b (17%) and goods and services debits rose $23.9b (6%).

The low value threshold adjustments applied to goods debits for 2018-19, fell $3.0b to $7.5b.

The 2018-19 net primary income deficit rose $3.1b, with a rise in primary income debits of $13.9b (12%) and a rise in primary income credits of $10.8b (18%).

The 2018-19 net secondary income deficit rose by $0.2b, with a rise in secondary income debits of $0.5b (5%) and a rise in secondary income credits of $0.3b (3%).

Financial account

The balance on financial account recorded a net inflow of $24.4b, with a net inflow on equity of $18.6b and a net inflow on debt of $5.8b. This result was a decrease of $33.8b on the net inflow of $58.2b recorded for the previous financial year as a result of:

  • an increase of $7.0b on the net inflow on direct investment
  • a turnaround of $95.8b from a net inflow of $14.0b to a net outflow of $81.9b on portfolio investment
  • an increase of $2.8b on the net outflow on financial derivatives
  • a turnaround of $57.3b from a net outflow of $15.2b to a net inflow of $42.1b on other investment
  • a decrease of $5.2b on the net inflow on reserve assets.
     

International investment position

Australia's net international investment position as at 30 June 2019 was a net foreign liability of $1,001.6b. This was an increase of $28.4b on the position a year earlier as a result of:

  • transactions of $24.4b
  • price changes of $13.4b
  • exchange rate changes of $5.6b
  • other changes of -$15.0b.
     

During 2018-19, Australia's net foreign equity asset increased to $141.9b, an increase of $61.7b on the previous financial year, with exchange rate changes of $39.1b, price changes of $16.7b and other changes of $24.5b, offset by net transactions of $18.6b.

Australia's net foreign debt liability increased to $1,143.5b, an increase of $90.0b on the previous financial year, with exchange rate changes of $44.7b, price changes of $30.1b, net transactions of $5.8b and other changes of $9.5b.

At 30 June 2019, the ratio of Australia's net international investment position to GDP using the latest available GDP figure (for the year ended 31 March 2019 using current prices) was 52.2%. This compares with 52.7% one year ago.

Footnotes

  1. In this commentary movements in indexes are based on data to four decimal places.
  2. OECD Statistics Quarterly National Account, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development – Economic Department, viewed 21 August 2019.
  3. MSCI Global Market Indexes 2019, Morgan Stanley Capital International, viewed 05 July 2019.
  4. Thomson Reuters, viewed 08 July 2019.
  5. Exchange Rates – Daily 2014 to Current, Reserve Bank of Australia - Statistical Tables, viewed 10 July 2019.
  6. In this commentary movements in indexes are based on data to four decimal places.
  7. Source: International Trade Price Indexes, Australia (cat. no. 6457.0).

Revisions

The following goods component has been revised since the release of the June 2019 issue of International Trade in Goods and Services, Australia (cat. no. 5368.0).

  • capital goods n.e.s. component of goods debits, revised in the March quarter 2019.
     

Summary of revisions since the last issue of this publication

Table 28 summarises revisions, in original current price terms, since the last issue of this publication.

Incorporation of the latest survey and administrative data has resulted in revisions to the balance of payments series back to the September quarter 2015. In original current price terms, these revisions have:

  • decreased the 2015-16 current account deficit by $665m
  • decreased the 2016-17 current account deficit by $85m
  • increased the 2017-18 current account deficit by $565m
  • increased the current account deficit for the September quarter 2018 by $256m
  • increased the current account deficit for the December quarter 2018 by $152m
  • decreased the current account deficit for the March quarter 2019 by $1,044m.


The international investment position (IIP) has been revised back to the September quarter 2015. These revisions have revised Australia's net IIP liability up $26,189m to a net liability position of $992,335m at 31 March 2019. The financial account surplus has been revised up $2,628m to $3,630m in the March quarter 2019.

Seasonally adjusted and trend series have been revised due to the incorporation of revised estimates and the incorporation of estimates for the latest quarter.

In seasonally adjusted terms, the revisions increased the volume surplus on goods and services by $1,041m for the March quarter 2019.

Data in this issue aligns with the data in the June quarter 2019 issue of Australian National Accounts: National Income, Expenditure and Product (cat. no. 5206.0) to be released on 4 September 2019.

Changes in forthcoming issues

Annual seasonal re-analysis

The seasonally adjusted and trend estimates of goods, services, primary income and secondary income will be revised in the September quarter 2019 issue of this publication as a result of the annual seasonal re-analysis. This re-analysis reviews the seasonal and trading day factors in more detail than is possible in the quarterly processing cycle and assesses the appropriateness of any prior corrections.

New base year and re-referencing of chain volume estimates and implicit price deflators

A new base year 2017-18 will be introduced into chain volume estimates and implicit price deflators in the September quarter 2019 issue. As a result, the chain volume estimate series and implicit price deflators series will be re-referenced to 2017-18.

Value adjustments

Goods credits data presented in this publication are based on information provided by exporters to the Department of Home Affairs (Home Affairs). At the time of initial reporting to Home Affairs, the final prices at which transactions take place are not known for some commodities. Final quantity and/or unit price information is updated progressively in international merchandise trade data as exporters revise the information provided to Home Affairs.

For commodities such as iron ore and coal, newly negotiated contract prices are not fully reflected in data first reported to Home Affairs. When additional information on quantity and/or unit price for these commodities is available, the ABS may adjust the data to reflect actual transaction values.

Iron ore adjustments are applied on an international merchandise trade basis at the Australian Harmonized Export Commodity Classification (AHECC) level. Coal, coke and briquettes are adjusted on a balance of payments basis in original current price terms. When actual final transaction prices become available estimates are replaced with these data.

In most instances, transfer of ownership occurs when goods cross the customs frontier. In certain circumstances the ownership of large value capital expenditure items can occur prior to the items crossing the customs frontier. The ABS may adjust the relevant balance of payments series to record the timing when transfer of ownership was effected.

    Exports on an international merchandise trade basis

    Iron ore (in original terms)

    • adjustments have been applied to iron ore lump in the March quarter (+$10m) and the June quarter (+$315m) 2019. Adjustments have been applied to iron ore fines in the December quarter (+$5m) 2018, the March quarter (+$15m) and the June quarter (+$950m) 2019. When actual final transaction prices become available estimates are replaced with these data.
       

    Goods credits on a balance of payments basis

    Coal (in original terms)

    • adjustments have been applied to coal, coke and briquettes in the balance of payments series for the June quarter (+$250m) 2019. All previous adjustments have been removed.
       

    Capital expenditure (in original terms)

    • the balance of payments goods debits component capital goods n.e.s. includes an estimate of expenditure on capital goods that have changed ownership but have not yet crossed the customs frontier.

    Related releases

    Characteristics of Australian exporters

    The publication Characteristics of Australian Exporters, 2017-18 (cat. no. 5368.0.55.006) was released on the ABS website on 21 August 2019.

    Data downloads

    All time series spreadsheets

    Table 1. Balance of payments, summary: original - quarter

    Table 2. International Investment Position: by net foreign equity and net foreign debt - quarter

    Table 3. Foreign assets and liabilities: by equity and debt - quarter

    Table 4. Current account transactions: seasonally adjusted and trend estimates - quarter

    Table 5. Goods and services: chain volume measures and indexes - quarter

    Table 6. Goods credits

    Table 7. Goods debits

    Table 8. Services credits

    Table 9. Services debits

    Table 10. Income credits - quarter

    Table 11. Income debits - quarter

    Table 12. Capital account: original - quarter

    Table 13. Financial account - quarter

    Table 14. International investment: foreign assets - quarter

    Table 15. International investment: foreign liabilities - quarter

    Table 16. Foreign debt levels - quarter

    Table 17. Gross external debt liabilities: levels - quarter

    Table 18. Currency and residual maturity of foreign debt - quarter

    Table 19. Exchange rates - quarter

    Table 20. Foreign assets and liabilities by industry - quarter

    Table 21. Goods and services credits by state on a balance of payments basis - quarter

    Table 22. Goods and services debits by state on a balance of payments basis - quarter

    Table 23. Selected international accounts ratios: seasonally adjusted - quarter

    Table 24. Quarterly combined current price seasonal adjustment factors

    Table 25. Exports by SITC division on a balance of payments basis - quarter

    Table 26. Imports by broad economic category on a balance of payments basis - quarter

    Table 27. International investment: directional principle - quarter

    Table 28. Summary of revisions - quarter

    Table 29. International Investment Position: historical summary - quarter

    Table 30. Balance of payments, summary: original - financial year

    Table 31. Selected services, chain volume measures and implicit price deflators: original - quarter