A Guide to the Consumer Price Index: 17th Series methodology

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Appendix - 17th series CPI, expenditure and weights

17th series CPI, average weekly expenditure and weights(a)

   Average weekly expenditure for the Weighted average of eight capital cities in September quarter 2017Percentage contribution to the All groups CPI in September quarter 2017
Group, Sub-group, Expenditure class$$$%%%
 Bread and cereal products 23.68  1.49 
  Bread  8.56  0.54
  Cakes and biscuits  10.42  0.65
  Breakfast cereals  2.06  0.13
  Other cereal products  2.63  0.17
 Meat and seafoods 34.86  2.19 
  Beef and veal  7.52  0.47
  Pork  4.91  0.31
  Lamb and goat  3.50  0.22
  Poultry  6.82  0.43
  Other meats  5.88  0.37
  Fish and other seafood  6.23  0.39
 Dairy and related products 15.83  0.99 
  Milk  5.78  0.36
  Cheese  4.70  0.29
  Ice cream and other dairy products  5.34  0.34
 Fruit and vegetables 37.54  2.35 
  Fruit  17.11  1.07
  Vegetables  20.43  1.28
 Food products n.e.c. 35.24  2.21 
  Eggs  1.96  0.12
  Jams, honey and spreads  2.13  0.13
  Food additives and condiments  4.68  0.29
  Oils and fats  2.68  0.17
  Snacks and confectionery  14.95  0.94
  Other food products n.e.c.  8.84  0.55
 Non-alcoholic beverages 15.72  0.99 
  Coffee, tea and cocoa  3.71  0.23
  Waters, soft drinks and juices  12.01  0.75
 Meals out and take away foods 93.69  5.88 
  Restaurant meals  52.94  3.32
  Take away and fast foods  40.76  2.56
 Alcoholic beverages 71.50  4.49 
  Spirits  13.46  0.84
  Wine  28.35  1.78
  Beer  29.69  1.86
 Tobacco 41.51  2.60 
  Tobacco  41.51  2.60
 Garments 35.38  2.22 
  Garments for men  9.64  0.60
  Garments for women  20.23  1.27
  Garments for infants and children  5.51  0.35
 Footwear 8.55  0.54 
  Footwear for men  2.26  0.14
  Footwear for women  5.08  0.32
  Footwear for infants and children  1.20  0.08
 Accessories and clothing services 12.64  0.79 
  Accessories  10.76  0.68
  Cleaning, repair and hire of clothing and footwear  1.88  0.12
HOUSING361.49  22.68  
 Rents 115.12  7.22 
  Rents  115.12  7.22
 New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers 124.07  7.78 
  New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers  124.07  7.78
 Other housing 57.64  3.62 
  Maintenance and repair of the dwelling  34.25  2.15
  Property rates and charges  23.39  1.47
 Utilities 64.66  4.06 
  Water and sewerage  16.28  1.02
  Electricity  34.57  2.17
  Gas and other household fuels  13.81  0.87
 Furniture and furnishings 27.06  1.70 
  Furniture  22.19  1.39
  Carpets and other floor coverings  4.86  0.31
 Household textiles 7.87  0.49 
  Household textiles  7.87  0.49
 Household appliances, utensils and tools 24.80  1.56 
  Major household appliances  6.58  0.41
  Small electric household appliances  5.28  0.33
  Glassware, tableware and household utensils  6.84  0.43
  Tools and equipment for house and garden  6.10  0.38
 Non-durable household products 42.18  2.65 
  Cleaning and maintenance products  4.13  0.26
  Personal care products  17.01  1.07
  Other non-durable household products  21.04  1.32
 Domestic and household services 47.71  2.99 
  Child care  21.51  1.35
  Hairdressing and personal grooming services  14.80  0.93
  Other household services  11.40  0.72
HEALTH86.57  5.43  
 Medical products, appliances and equipment 18.82  1.18 
  Pharmaceutical products  16.49  1.03
  Therapeutic appliances and equipment  2.33  0.15
 Medical, dental and hospital services 67.75  4.25 
  Medical and hospital services  59.49  3.73
  Dental services  8.25  0.52
TRANSPORT164.51  10.32  
 Private motoring 152.78  9.58 
  Motor vehicles  44.38  2.78
  Spare parts and accessories for motor vehicles  11.65  0.73
  Automotive fuel  44.39  2.78
  Maintenance and repair of motor vehicles  30.83  1.93
  Other services in respect of motor vehicles  21.53  1.35
 Urban transport fares 11.73  0.74 
  Urban transport fares  11.73  0.74
COMMUNICATION42.70  2.68  
 Communication 42.70  2.68 
  Postal services  1.33  0.08
  Telecommunication equipment and services  41.37  2.59
 Audio, visual and computing equipment and services 30.56  1.92 
  Audio, visual and computing equipment  19.44  1.22
  Audio, visual and computing media and services  11.13  0.70
 Newspapers, books and stationery 11.61  0.73 
  Books  3.92  0.25
  Newspapers, magazines and stationery  7.69  0.48
 Holiday travel and accommodation 92.91  5.83 
  Domestic holiday travel and accommodation  42.67  2.68
  International holiday travel and accommodation  50.24  3.15
 Other recreation, sport and culture 67.52  4.24 
  Equipment for sports, camping and open-air recreation  9.37  0.59
  Games, toys and hobbies  12.84  0.81
  Pets and related products  7.09  0.44
  Veterinary and other services for pets  5.90  0.37
  Sports participation  15.60  0.98
  Other recreational, sporting and cultural services  16.73  1.05
EDUCATION68.05  4.27  
 Education 68.05  4.27 
  Preschool and primary education  14.72  0.92
  Secondary education  27.09  1.70
  Tertiary education  26.25  1.65
 Insurance 18.89  1.19 
  Insurance  18.89  1.19
 Financial services 73.61  4.62 
  Deposit and loan facilities (direct charges)  9.56  0.60
  Other financial services  64.04  4.02
ALL GROUPS CPI1 594.181 594.181 594.18100.00100.00100.00

a. Any discrepancies between totals and sums of components in this Appendix are due to rounding.

Appendix - goods and services priced in the CPI

Examples of goods and services priced in the 17th series CPI

The following table gives an indication of the types of items that are priced and where particular items are classified in the CPI structure (e.g. soy milk is classified as belonging to the expenditure class Milk).
The mention of an item in the table does not necessarily mean that there is a specific price sample for that item, nor does it mean that all the price samples are specifically listed.

Food and non-alcoholic beverages

GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Food and non-alcoholic beverages
Bread and cereal products
BreadBread and bread rolls, fresh or packaged
Cakes and biscuitsBiscuits, gingerbread, wafers, waffles, sweet muffins, cakes and tarts
Breakfast cerealsCornflakes; muesli; oats
Other cereal productsRice in all forms, including rice flour; maize, wheat, barley, oats, rye and other cereals in the form of grain; pasta products in all forms
Meat and seafoods
Beef and vealFresh, chilled or frozen beef and veal meat
PorkFresh, chilled or frozen meat of swine; bacon and ham
Lamb and goatFresh, chilled or frozen meat of lamb and goat
PoultryFresh, chilled or frozen meat of poultry (chicken, duck, goose, turkey, guinea fowl)
Other meatsDried, salted or smoked meat and edible offal (sausages, salami); minced meat
Fish and other seafoodFresh, chilled or frozen fish and seafood (crustaceans and other shell fish); dried, smoked or salted fish and seafood
Dairy and related products
MilkPasteurized or sterilized milk; condensed, evaporated or powered milk
CheeseCheese and curd
Ice cream and other dairy productsIce-cream, yoghurt, cream, milk-based desserts and beverages
Fruit and vegetables
FruitFresh, chilled or frozen fruit; dried and canned fruit
VegetablesFresh, chilled, frozen or dried vegetables; preserved or processed vegetables
Food products n.e.c.
EggsEggs; caged and free range
Jams, honey and spreadsJams, marmalades, fruit purees and pastes; natural and artificial honey
Food additives and condimentsSugar (unrefined, refined, powdered or cane sugar), artificial sugar substitutes; salt; spices, culinary herbs; sauces, condiments and seasonings
Oils and fatsButter and butter products; margarine and other vegetable fats; edible oils; edible animal fats
Snacks and confectioneryCorn and potato chips; nuts; chocolates, lollies; gum; water based ice confectionery
Other food products n.e.c.Baby food; prepared meals (tinned food, frozen food or meals); prepared baking powders, baker’s yeast, soups, broths and stocks.
Non-alcoholic beverages
Coffee, tea and cocoaCoffee including decaffeinated and instant coffee, roasted or ground; tea; cocoa and chocolate-based powder
Waters, soft drinks and juicesMineral or spring waters; soft drinks; fruit and vegetable juices
Meals out and take away foods
Restaurant mealsMeals eaten in restaurants, hotels and cafes offering full table service
Take away and fast foodsTake away, delivered meals and fast food suitable for immediate consumption

Alcohol and tobacco

GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Alcohol and tobacco
Alcoholic beverages
SpiritsSpirits and liqueurs including pre-mixed spirits purchased in a bar, club, bottle shop or restaurant
WineWine from grapes, wine from other fruits, fortified wines and cider purchased in a bar, club, bottle shop or restaurant
BeerAll kinds of beer such as ale and lager including low-alcoholic beer purchased in a bar, club, bottle shop or restaurant
TobaccoCigarettes and cigarette tobacco

Clothing and footwear

GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Clothing and footwear
Garments for menGarments for men in all materials for everyday wear, sport or work including men’s suits, jumpers, jeans, business and casual shirts, t-shirts and swimwear; men’s briefs, pyjamas and socks
Garments for womenGarments for women in all materials for everyday wear, sport or work including dresses, blouses, suits, jeans and coats; women’s bras, briefs, nightwear, lingerie and hosiery
Garments for infants and childrenGarments for infants and children in all materials for everyday wear or sport including baby clothes, children’s jeans, shorts, t-shirts, socks and underwear
Footwear for menAll footwear for men including sports footwear for everyday leisure wear; excludes game specific footwear such as ski boots or football boots
Footwear for womenAll footwear for women including sports footwear for everyday leisure wear; excludes game specific footwear such as ski boots or football boots
Footwear for infants and childrenAll footwear for children and infants including sports footwear for everyday leisure wear; excludes game specific footwear such as ski boots or football boots
Accessories and clothing services
AccessoriesItems complementary to clothing including hats, wallets, non-prescription sunglasses, watches, luggage and jewellery
Cleaning, repair and hire of clothing and footwearClothing and footwear services including dry cleaning, shoe repairs and dressmaking


GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
RentsRentals actually paid to private or government landlords, including housing authorities, by tenants or subtenants occupying unfurnished or furnished premises as their main residence
New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiers
New dwelling purchase by owner-occupiersNew dwellings (excluding land) and major improvements to existing dwellings and fixed appliances such as cooling and/or heating systems, dishwashers, hot water systems and ovens
Other housing
Maintenance and repair of the dwellingProducts and materials, such as paints and varnishes, renderings, plaster etc., purchased for minor maintenance and repair of the dwelling; services of plumbers, electricians, carpenters, painters etc. engaged for minor maintenance and repair of the dwelling
Property rates and chargesState and local council property based rates and charges except water and sewerage
Water and sewerageWater supply and sewerage charges
ElectricityElectricity supply and usage charges
Gas and other household fuelsSupply and usage charges for mains and bottled gas, and other household fuels such as firewood.

Furnishings, household equipment and services

GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Furnishings, household equipment and services
Furniture and furnishings
FurnitureSofas, couches, tables, chairs, beds, mattresses, chests of drawers, bookshelves, wardrobes
Carpets and other floor coveringsLoose carpets, fitted carpets, linoleum, timber floorboards, tiles; excludes bathroom mats, rush mats and door mats
Household textiles
Household textilesFurnishing fabrics, curtains, fabric blinds; bed linen such as sheets, pillowcases, blankets and table linen and bathroom linen, such as tablecloths and towels
Household appliances, utensils and tools
Major household appliancesPurchase, hire and repair of all major household appliances not permanently fixed such as refrigerators, freezers, washing machines and dryers.
Small electric household appliancesPurchase, hire and repair of all smaller household appliances such as food processing appliances, coffee machines, kettles, irons, toasters and grills, juice extractors and deep fryers
Glassware, tableware and household utensilsGlassware, crystal ware, ceramic ware and china ware; cutlery; non-electric utensils (saucepans, frying pans, pressure cookers); non-electric household articles such as containers, waste bins and laundry baskets
Tools and equipment for house and gardenMotorized and hand tools such as electric drills, saws, lawnmowers, screwdrivers, wrenches and spanners; garden tools such as wheelbarrows, spades, shovels; ladders; door fittings (hinges, handles and locks)
Non-durable household products
Cleaning and maintenance productsDetergents, dishwashing detergents and tablets, disinfectant, bleaches, softeners, stain remover; floor wash and polishes; general purpose cleaners
Personal care productsNon-electric appliances such as razors, nail files, combs, hairbrushes, toothbrushes; products for personal hygiene including soap, shampoo and bathing products, nappies and body deodorants; beauty products such as makeup and nail varnish
Other non-durable household productsCloths, kitchen paper, toilet paper, baking parchment roll, aluminium foil; garbage bags; matches; batteries; clothes pegs and clothes hangers; garden supplies such as fertiliser and potting mix
Domestic and household services
Child careFull-time and part-time care of children by either community, private or family based day care
Hairdressing and personal grooming servicesServices of hairdressing salons, barbers; facial beauty treatments, manicures, pedicures, saunas; tattoo and piercing services
Other household servicesDomestic services supplied by paid staff such as butlers, cooks, maids, drivers and gardeners; household services such as window cleaning, disinfecting and pest extermination


GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Medical products, appliances and equipment
Pharmaceutical productsPrescription medicines, vaccines and treatments, cold-relief products, vitamins, band-aids, antiseptic, sunscreen and skin treatment
Therapeutic appliances and equipmentCorrective eyeglasses and contact lenses, hearing aids, neck braces, crutches and electronic and other devices for monitoring blood pressure etc.; repair of such articles; includes dentures but not fitting costs
Medical, dental and hospital services
Medical and hospital servicesConsultations of physicians in general or specialist practice and hospital charges; medical insurance
Dental servicesServices of dentists, oral hygienists and other dental auxiliaries including fitting costs of dentures


GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Private motoring
Motor vehiclesPurchase of new cars and motor cycles, including long term hire/lease; service fee for the transfer of cars such as stamp duty fees
Spare parts and accessories for motor vehiclesTyres (new or used), inner tubes, spark plugs, batteries, shock absorbers, filters, pumps and other spare parts or accessories purchased separately
Automotive fuelUnleaded petrol, premium unleaded, ethanol blended, diesel and LPG
Maintenance and repair of motor vehiclesServices purchased for the maintenance and repair of motor vehicles (includes the cost of labour and the cost of materials)
Other services in respect of motor vehiclesMotor vehicle registration, roadworthiness tests, driver licence fees, parking fees, driving lessons and tollway charges
Urban transport fares
Urban transport faresBus, train, ferry, tram, taxi and ride-sharing fares, not for holiday travel


GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Postal servicesPayments for the delivery of letters, postcards and parcels; private mail and parcel delivery (includes stamps and prepaid postage envelopes)
Telecommunication equipment and servicesPurchases of telephones and mobile phones including smart phones; devices with several functions but mainly used for telephone functionalities such as smart watches; installation and subscription costs of telephone equipment; local, regional, national and international calls from fixed and mobile telephones (includes voice, video calls, written and image messages); internet and broadband services

Recreation and culture

GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Recreation and culture
Audio, visual and computing equipment and services
Audio, visual and computing equipmentTelevision sets; DVD player; home theatre systems; radios, portable sound and vision devices, cameras; desktop and laptop computers, tablets, printers; calculators
Audio, visual and computing media and servicesMedia including pre-recorded DVDs, CDs, memory cards and sticks; discs for photographic use; computer software; pay television; repair of audio, visual and computer equipment, photographic services
Newspapers, books and stationery
BooksFiction, non-fiction, hardback, paperback and electronic books
Newspapers, magazines and stationeryNewspapers (print and digital subscriptions); magazines; printed matter such as greeting cards; stationery and drawing materials
Holiday travel and accommodation
Domestic holiday travel and accommodationAir, sea, road and rail travel, car hire, accommodation and package charges for holidays in Australia
International holiday travel and accommodationAir, sea. and rail travel, accommodation and package charges for holidays overseas
Other recreation, sport and culture
Equipment for sports, camping and open-air recreationSports equipment such as balls, rackets and golf clubs; fishing rods and other equipment for fishing; equipment for beach and camping; boats and caravans
Games, toys and hobbiesConsole games, toys, board games and hobby materials
Pets and related productsPets, pet foods, and other items for the housing and care of pets
Veterinary and other services for petsServices to care for animals, including veterinary, kennel and stable fees
Sports participationFees and charges for playing sport including lessons, ground gees, gym fees and equipment hire
Other recreational, sporting and cultural servicesAdmission fees to cinemas, theatres, concerts, museums, amusement parks and sporting events


GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Preschool and primary educationPrivate and government preschool and primary education fees
Secondary educationPrivate and government secondary education fees
Tertiary educationPrivate and government tertiary education fees

Insurance and financial services

GroupSub-groupExpenditure classItem examples
Insurance and financial services
InsuranceComprehensive insurance for dwellings and motor vehicles, compulsory third party motor vehicle insurance services
Financial services
Deposit and loan facilities (direct charges)Actual charges for the financial services of banks and similar financial institutions; includes ATM fees, account keeping fees
Other financial servicesCommissions or fees charged by stockbrokers and real estate agents; taxes on transfers for real estate; fees for legal services; fees for accounting services


Show all

Acquisitions approach

The acquisitions approach defines the basket of goods and services as consisting of all those consumer goods and services actually acquired by households during the base period. See also Cost of Use approach and Outlays approach.


The process of combining lower level price indexes to produce higher level indexes.

All groups

This is commonly known as the 'headline' CPI and is the highest level of the CPI, containing all the groups, sub-groups and expenditure classes.


Arithmetic mean of price relatives, also known as the Carli index formula - refer to 4.18 for the formula.


A specified set of quantities of goods and services consumed by an average household. The CPI basket of goods and services refers to the goods and services in the basket; how much of each good or service is in the basket; and a specified level of quality of each good or service

Cost-of-living index

A measure of the change in household income required to maintain a constant level of utility.

Cost of use approach

The cost of use approach defines the basket as consisting of all those consumer goods and services actually consumed (or used up) in the base period, regardless of when they were acquired or paid for. See also Acquisitions approach, Outlays approach.


Consumer Price Index - a general indicator of the rate of change in prices paid by households for consumer goods and services.

CPI basket

A commonly used term for the goods and services priced for the purpose of compiling the CPI.

CPI population group

The subset of the Australian population to which the CPI specifically relates. For the 17th series CPI this is all metropolitan private households.

Elementary aggregate

The lowest level of commodity classification in the CPI and the only level for which index numbers are constructed by direct reference to price data. The range of goods and services covered by an elementary aggregate should be as homogeneous as possible.

Expenditure aggregate

The current cost in dollars per year of purchasing the same quantity of goods or services as was purchased in the weighting base period by the CPI population group.

Expenditure class

A group of similar goods or services. The level at which weights are fixed for the life of an index series and the lowest level for which indexes are regularly published. There are 87 expenditure classes in the 17th series CPI.


Geometric mean, also known as the Jevons index formula - refer to 4.19-4.21 for the formula.

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

An ad valorem tax applied to supplies (goods and services produced or delivered) by registered suppliers engaged in taxable activity. The GST is effectively only paid by final consumers. The current legislated rate of GST is 10 per cent.


The first level of disaggregation of the CPI. There are 11 groups in the 17th series CPI.

Household Expenditure Survey (HES)

A sample survey conducted by the ABS to determine the expenditure patterns of private households. Data from the 2015-16 HES was the primary source of information for the expenditure weights for the 17th series CPI.

Household Final Consumption Expenditure (HFCE)

Household Final Consumption Expenditure measures expenditure by resident households on goods and services, whether the expenditure is made within the domestic territory or by Australian residents abroad, and expenditure by Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households (NPISH). Conceptually, the measurement of HFCE aligns closely with the HES. Both HFCE and HES data cover expenditure by Australian households only and exclude expenditure by non-residents in Australia.

Index reference period

The period in which the CPI is given a value of 100.0. The CPI is currently on an index reference period of 2011-12.


The periodic adjustment of a money value according to changes in a price index.

Inflation (deflation)

A term commonly used to refer to changes in price levels. A rise in prices is called inflation, while a fall is called deflation.

Link factor

A ratio used to join a new index series to an old index series to form a continuous series.

Living cost index

A living cost index reflects changes over time in the purchasing power of the after-tax incomes of households. It measures the impact of changes in prices on the out-of-pocket expenses incurred by households to gain access to a fixed basket of consumer goods and services.

Matched sample

In a matched sample, items that are priced from period to period are identical in all respects.


For purposes of the CPI, ‘metropolitan’ refers to the six State capital cities, as well as the Territory capitals of Darwin and Canberra.

Multilateral price index

Multilateral index numbers are often used for spatial price and output comparisons across economic entities (e.g. countries). In a temporal context, multilateral index numbers make price comparisons across more than two time periods.

Outlays approach

The outlays (or payments) approach defines the basket in terms of the actual amounts paid out by households during the base period to gain access to consumer goods and services. See also Acquisitions approach, Cost of use approach.

Price index

A composite measure of the prices of items expressed relative to a defined base period.

Price levels

Actual money values at a particular period of time.

Price movements

Changes in price levels between two or more periods. Movements can be expressed in money values, as price relatives or as percentage changes.

Price reference period

The period that provides the prices to which the prices in other periods are compared. The price reference period for the 17th series CPI is the September quarter 2017.

Price relative

A measure of price movements; the ratio of the price level in one period to the price level in another.

Private households

Households living in private dwellings. Private dwellings exclude prisons, non self-care units for the aged, defence establishments, hospitals and other communal dwellings.

Pure price change

The change in the price of a good or service of which the characteristics are unchanged; or the change in the price after adjusting for any change in quality.

Quality adjustment

The elimination of the effect that changes in the quality or composition of an item have on the price of that item in order to isolate the pure price change.


Relative of arithmetic mean of prices, also known as the Dutot index formula - refer to 4.17 for the formula.


A technique used to introduce new items or respondents into the index calculations so that the level of the index is not affected.


A collection of related expenditure classes. There are 33 sub-groups in the 17th series CPI.

Transaction prices

The prices actually paid by consumers to acquire goods or services.

Transactions data

Also known as scanner data. An economic flow that is an interaction between institutional units by mutual agreement. In the case of the CPI, transactions data are the prices actually paid by consumers to acquire goods and services

Unit value

Calculated by dividing a product's revenue by the quantity sold. A product's unit value represents the average price paid by consumers over a certain period of time, e.g. one month


Often defined as the satisfaction derived from consumption of a good or service.


The measure of the importance of an item relative to the other items within the index. Weights can be expressed in either quantity or value terms. Value weights are used in the CPI.

Weight reference period

The period of which the expenditures serve as weights for the index. The weight reference period for the 17th series CPI is 2015-16.

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