Agreement to work flexible hours
An agreement that is either in writing or otherwise. A written agreement can be in the form of, but not limited to, an individual written agreement between an employer and employee, or a Collective Agreement or Certified Agreement (CA) made directly between an employer and a group of employees.
Born in Australia
Includes people born in Australia, Norfolk Island and Australian External Territories.
Continuous duration with current employer/business
The length of the current period of employment people had with their employer or in their own business. The length of time includes periods of paid leave, unpaid leave or strike.
Did not draw a wage or salary
Consists of people who worked in their own incorporated enterprise only i.e. Owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs).
People aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week
- worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind, in a job or business or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers), or
- worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers), or
- were employees who had a job but were not at work and were
- away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week
- away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week
- away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement
- on strike or locked out
- on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job, or
- were employers or own account workers who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.
Contributing family workers in their main job were excluded from the Characteristics of Employment Survey.
Employees are people who
- worked for a public or private employer, and
- received remuneration in wages or salary; or are paid a retainer fee by their employer or worked on a commission basis, for tips, piece-rates or payment in kind.
An employment agency is an organisation which is engaged in personnel search, or selection and placement of people for an employing organisation. The agency or firm may also be engaged in supply of their own employees to other employers, usually on a short-term basis. (See also labour hire firm).
A contract of employment which specifies that the employment will be terminated on a particular date/event.
Full-time workers in main job
People who were employees and usually work 35 hours or more a week in their main job, or usually work fewer than 35 hours but worked 35 hours or more in their main job during the reference week.
Employed people who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and others who, although usually worked less than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week. These people were classified as full-time workers.
The entitlement of an employee to paid holiday, paid vacation or paid recreation leave in their main job.
Hours paid for in main job
The number of hours for which employees and OMIEs were paid in their main job in their last pay, not necessarily the number of hours actually worked during the reference week (e.g. a person on paid leave for the week was asked to report the number of hours for which they were paid).
Hours usually worked
The number of hours usually worked in a week.
The number of hours actually worked during the reference week.
Independent contractors are people who operate their own business and who are contracted to perform services for others without having the legal status of an employee, i.e. people who are engaged by a client, rather than an employer to undertake the work. Independent contractors are engaged under a contract for services (a commercial contract), whereas employees are engaged under a contract of service (an employment contract).
Independent contractors' employment may take a variety of forms, for example, they may have a direct relationship with a client or work through an intermediary. Independent contractors may have employees, however they spend most of their time directly engaged with clients or on client tasks, rather than managing their staff.
An industry is a group of businesses or organisations that undertake similar economic activities to produce goods and/or services. In this publication, industry refers to ANZSIC Division as classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (Revision 2.0).
Labour hire firm
A labour hire firm is an organisation which is engaged in personnel search, or selection and placement of people for an employing organisation. The agency or firm may also be engaged in supply of their own employees to other employers, usually on a short-term basis. (See also employment agency).
Labour hire workers
Labour hire workers are people who found their job through a labour hire firm/employment agency and are paid by the labour hire firm/employment agency.
Level of highest educational attainment
Level of highest educational attainment identifies the highest achievement a person has attained in any area of study. It is not a measurement of the relative importance of different fields of study but a ranking of qualifications and other educational attainments regardless of the particular area of study or the type of institution in which the study was undertaken. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001.
Level of highest non-school qualification
A person's level of highest non-school qualification is the highest qualification a person has attained in any area of formal study other than school study. It is categorised according to the Australian Standard Classification of Education, 2001.
The job in which the most hours were usually worked.
The provision by an employer of paid maternity/paternity leave.
Mean weekly earnings
The amount obtained by dividing the total earnings of a group by the number of people in that group.
Median weekly earnings
The amount which divides the distribution into two groups of equal size, one having earnings above and the other below that amount.
Employed people who, during the reference week, worked in more than one job. Multiple jobholders exclude those who changed employer during the reference week. People who were unpaid voluntary workers or on unpaid trainee/work placement in their second job were excluded from the Multiple jobholder population.
Information on earnings in main job is collected from all multiple jobholders. Information on earnings in second job is only collected from multiple jobholders who were employees or OMIEs in their second job and were an employee or OMIEs in their main job.
An occupation is a collection of jobs that are sufficiently similar in their title and tasks, skill level and skill specialisation which are grouped together for the purposes of classification. In this publication, occupation refers to Major Group and Skill Level as defined by ANZSCO - Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, 2013, Version 1.2.
A shift arrangement, for being available, when not at work, to be contacted to resume work. An allowance may be paid to the employee for being on call.
Work undertaken which is outside, or in addition to, ordinary working hours in main job, whether paid or unpaid.
Owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs)
People who work in their own incorporated enterprise, that is, a business entity which is registered as a separate legal entity to its members or owners (may also be known as a limited liability company). An owner manager of an incorporated enterprise may or may not hire one or more employees in addition to themselves and/or other owners of that business. See Status of Employment for more information.
Owner managers of unincorporated enterprises (OMUEs)
A person who operates his or her own unincorporated enterprise or engages independently in a profession or trade. An owner manager of an unincorporated enterprise may or may not hire one or more employees in addition to themselves and/or other owners of that business. See Status of Employment for more information.
Paid leave entitlements
The entitlement of employees to paid holiday leave or paid sick leave (or both) in their main job.
Part-time workers in main job
People who were employees and usually work fewer than 35 hours a week in their main job, and did so in the reference week.
Employed people who usually worked fewer than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week, or were not at work in the reference week.
The week preceding the week in which the interview was conducted.
A job, other than the main job.
Sector of main job
Sector of main job is used to classify a respondent’s employer as a public or private enterprise. The public sector includes all government units, such as government departments, non-market non-profit institutions that are controlled and mainly financed by government, and corporations and quasi-corporations that are controlled by government.
A system of working whereby the daily hours of operation at the place of employment are split into at least two set work periods (shifts) for different groups of workers. Types of shifts include
- Irregular shifts - Describes shifts that do not follow a set pattern
- Regular shifts - Shifts worked to a set pattern of times. Regular shift times are presented as follows
- morning shifts - between 6.00am and 12.00pm
- afternoon shifts - between 12.00pm and 5.00pm, and
- evening, night or graveyard shift - between 5.00pm and 6.00am.
- Rotating shift - A shift arrangement, in which the shift worked changes periodically from one time period to another, for example from mornings or afternoons to evenings or nights.
- Split shift - Occurs when the worked period is broken by an extended unpaid 'free' period, thereby constituting an extended working day consisting of two (or more) shifts.
The entitlement of an employee to paid sick leave in their main job.
People who are usually waiting to restart work or people who have had to restart work after being recalled, without additional pay and allowances.
Status of employment
Status of employment is determined by an employed person's position in relation to their job, and is in respect of a person's main job if they hold more than one job. Employed people are classified according to the reported relationship between the person and the enterprise for which they work, together with the legal status of the enterprise where this can be established. The groups include
- Owner Managers of Incorporated Enterprises (OMIEs)
- OMIEs with employees
- OMIEs without employees
- Owner Managers of Unincorporated Enterprises (OMUEs)
- OMUEs with employees
- OMUEs without employees, and
- Contributing family workers.
An organisation consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members.
Trade union member
Employed people with membership in a trade union in connection with their main job.
Amount of ‘last total pay’ (i.e. before taxation, salary sacrifice and other deductions had been made) from wage and salary jobs prior to the interview. For people paid other than weekly, earnings were converted to a weekly equivalent. No adjustment was made for any back payment of wage increases, prepayment of leave or bonuses, etc.
With paid leave entitlements
Employees who were entitled to paid holiday leave or paid sick leave (or both) in their main job.
Without paid leave entitlements
Employees who were not entitled to paid holiday leave and paid sick leave, or did not know whether they were entitled to paid holiday leave or paid sick leave in their main job.