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Australian National Accounts: Input-Output Tables methodology

Reference period
2016-17
Released
27/06/2019

Explanatory notes

A glossary of the main terms used in the Input-Output (I-O) tables is in the link on the left. The links below contain fuller discussion of the I-O structure and compilation methods.

Explanatory notes covering the basic structure of I-O and associated tables, special treatments adopted in compiling I–O tables, and using I–O tables for analysis are shown in Australian System of National Accounts: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 5216.0), Chapter 22, Input-Output Tables.

The I–O tables contain data formatted for presentation in millions of dollars. For use by some analysts and modellers, the data in some Excel spreadsheets contain additional decimal places to facilitate loading into other applications. Note that in the compilation of I-O tables, various modelling techniques are used to populate the tables because directly collected information is not available for every cell. As a consequence of these modelling techniques, relatively small values may be estimated in certain cells but the statistical accuracy of these data cannot be verified to a sufficient degree. Where values less than $1 million are shown, they are solely to facilitate reconciliation, row and column balancing and do not carry any economic meaning.

See also the Input–Output Quality Declaration for discussion of compilation sources and methods.

Departures from the 2008 version of the System of National Accounts (2008 SNA)

I-O tables depart from the 2008 SNA and from the rest of the Australian national accounts in one main respect - namely the definition of output at basic prices. The departure relates to the treatment of charges incurred in moving goods from their point of production to the final user, where delivery charges relating to delivery by a third party operator arranged by the producer and paid for by the producer and not separately charged to the end user are treated differently in 2008 SNA.

Under the 1968 version of the System of National Accounts (1968 SNA) these charges were excluded from the basic price valuation of the good concerned while under the 2008 SNA treatment the basic price valuation of the good includes these delivery charges. The ABS considers that the change in definition was inappropriate from an analytical point of view and would result in the same product being valued differently depending on whether or not the producer charged separately for the delivery of the product. The ABS therefore applies an adjustment to the I-O tables to reallocate delivery charges separably invoiced to transport, so including them in transport margins and reducing basic prices.

In the 2016-17 I-O tables the value of this adjustment is $45.1b. It is applied to industries and products in agriculture, mining and manufacturing and modelled based on questions on collection forms about invoicing arrangements and transport expenses.

The following section explains the content and structure of the data in each table

Table 1. Australian production by product group by industry

This table shows Australian production at basic prices by Input–Output Product Group (IOPG) and by Input–Output Industry Group (IOIG). A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group.

For example, the row representing the product group Agriculture, forestry and fishing support services shows that $486m of this product was produced by the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $145m of this product was produced by the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $9,657m of this product being produced by all industries.

The column representing the industry group Other agriculture shows that $145m of Agriculture, forestry and fishing support services was produced by this industry, $99m of Meat and meat product manufacturing was produced by this industry and so on, resulting in a total of $27,277m of various products being produced by the Other agriculture industry.

Table 2. Input by industry and final use category and imports by product group

This table shows intermediate use by using industries (IOIG) and final use by final use categories of products (IOPG) at basic prices with indirect allocation of imports. See the Glossary for an explanation of indirect allocation of imports.

A row in the first quadrant of this table represents a product group. A row in the third quadrant represents either a primary input, Australian production, total uses, gross value added or gross domestic product. A column in this table represents either an industry group, a final use or total use category. In a balanced table, total use equals total supply. Hence the column that represents the total use (last column in the table) is termed total supply.

For example, the row representing the product group Other agriculture shows that $2,359m of domestic plus imported Other agriculture was used by the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $813m of domestic plus imported Other agriculture was used by the Other agriculture industry and so on resulting in a total of $17,188m of domestic plus imported product being used intermediately by all the industries.

In the final use categories, $8,910m of domestic plus imported Other agriculture was used by the household sector, $137m of domestic plus imported product was used from inventories and so on, resulting in a total of $11,391m of domestic plus imported Other agriculture being used in all final use categories.

In summary $17,188m of domestic plus imported Other agriculture was used intermediately by industries and $11,391m of domestic plus imported product was used by final use categories resulting in a total use of $28,579m of this product. Therefore, total supply of this product of $28,579m is reflected in the last column of this table.

Table 3. Imports - supply by product group and inputs by industry and final use category

This table shows intermediate use by using industries (IOIG) and final use by final use categories of imported products at basic prices. 

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category. 

For example, the row representing the product group Other agriculture shows that $20m of imported Other agriculture was used by the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $71m of imports of this product was used by the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $666m of this imported product being used intermediately by all the industries.

In the final use categories, $731m of imported Other agriculture was used by the household sector.

Table 4. Reconciliation of flows at basic prices and purchasers' prices by product group

This table show flows at purchasers' prices reconciled with basic prices. Trade and transport margins, and net taxes on products are added to basic prices to derive purchasers' prices for intermediate and all final use categories, and total supply. Imports are indirectly allocated in this table.

A row in the first quadrant of this table represents a product group. A row in the third quadrant represents either a primary input, Australian production, total uses, gross value added or gross domestic product.

For example, the row representing the product group Other agriculture shows that domestic plus imported Other agriculture valued at $17,188m at basic prices was used by industries intermediately. Net taxes on products and trade and transport margins associated with this intermediate use were $62m and $4,699m respectively. Therefore, domestic plus imported Other agriculture used intermediately by all the industries was $21,949m valued at purchasers' prices.

Table 5. Industry by industry flow table (direct allocation of imports)

This table shows the allocation of Australian produced industry outputs to industries and to all final use categories. This table is similar to Table 2. Unlike Table 2 however, it has industry by industry dimensions and imports are treated differently. In this table imports are directly allocated meaning they are allocated to the industries which use them and are included with the primary inputs to these industries in deriving the total production. With this method the intermediate and final use contain only the use of the domestic production and so the intermediate use matrix does not reflect the full input structure of industries. 

A row in quadrants 1 and 2 or a column in quadrants 1 and 3 of this table represents an industry group. A row in quadrants 3 and 4 represents a primary input, Australian production, value added or gross domestic product. A column in quadrants 2 and 4 represents a final use category. 

For example, the row representing the industry group Other agriculture shows that $2,411m of output from the industry Other agriculture was used by the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $764m of output from this industry was used by the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $16,662m of output produced by the Other agriculture industry being used intermediately by all industries.

In the final use categories, $7,832m of output produced by the Other agriculture industry was used by the household sector, $2m was used by the government sector and so on, resulting in a total of $10,615m of output from the Other agriculture industry being used by all final use categories. 

Table 6. Direct requirement coefficients (direct allocation of imports)

This table shows values in a particular column representing the direct input requirements from each industry (Australian production) and from all primary inputs when Australian output of the industry or final use category, represented by the column, increases by $100.

A row in quadrants 1 and 2, or a column in quadrants 1 and 3 of this table represents an industry group. A row in quadrants 3 and 4 represents a primary input or Australian production. A column in quadrants 2 and 4 represents a final use category. 

For example, the column representing the industry Other agriculture shows that this industry requires $1.25 of output from the Sheep, grains, dairy and beef cattle industry, $0.55 of output from the Poultry and other livestock industry and so on, resulting in total requirements of $43.42 output from all industries, $10.22 of compensation of employees, $40.46 of gross operating surplus & mixed income and so on to produce $100 of output.

Table 7. Total requirement coefficients (direct allocation of imports)

This table shows values in a particular column representing the total input requirements of Australian production from each industry represented by a row, by the industry represented by that column when the Australian output of the industry increases by $100.

A row or column in this table represents an industry group. 

The values in Table 6 represent the direct requirements coefficients for each industry when its output is increased by $100. When an industry increases its output, apart from the direct requirements from the industries, there are also indirect requirements from the industries. The values in Table 7 represent the total requirements (i.e. initial + direct + indirect requirements) from all the industries when each industry's output is increased by $100. Another important difference between Tables 6 and 7 is that Table 7 is a square matrix whereas Table 6 is not. Because the initial effect is $100 for each industry, the total requirements coefficients in the top left to bottom right diagonal of this square table will be greater than or equal to 100.

For example the column representing the industry Other agriculture shows that the total requirements by this industry from the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry is $1.72 of output, $0.65 of output is required from the Poultry and other livestock industry and so on to increase its output by $100.

Table 8. Industry by industry flow table (indirect allocation of imports)

This table is similar to Table 5. Unlike Table 5 however, it describes the allocation of products, inclusive of imports, but excluding re–exports, from industry to industry and to all final use categories. That is, in Table 5, imports are directly allocated to the industries which use them and are included with the primary inputs to these industries deriving the total production. In this table imports are indirectly allocated and are included in the intermediate use of industries and in final use categories without distinguishing the imports from the products with which they compete, allowing the intermediate use matrix to fully reflect the input structures of industries. The imports in this table are indirectly allocated based on the industry to which the import is primary and the re-exports are included with the exports.

A row in quadrants 1 and 2, or a column in quadrants 1 and 3 of this table represents an industry group. A row in quadrants 3 and 4 represents a primary input or Australian production. A column in quadrants 2 and 4 represents a final use category.

For example, the row representing the industry group Other agriculture shows that $2,431m of output from the industry Other agriculture was used by the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $835m of output from this industry was used by the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $17,328m of output produced by the Other agriculture industry being used by all industries intermediately.

In the final use categories, $8,563m of output produced by the Other agriculture industry was used by the household sector, $2m was used by the government sector and so on, resulting in a total of $11,346m of output from the Other agriculture industry being used by all final use categories.

Table 9. Direct requirement coefficients (indirect allocation of imports)

This table is similar to Table 6. However, the values in this table factor in imports, whereas the values in Table 6 do not. The values in a particular column of this table represent the direct requirements of supply from the industry represented by the row, when the Australian output of the industry represented by the column increases by $100.

A row in quadrants 1 and 2, or a column in quadrants 1 and 3 of this table represents an industry group. A row in quadrants 3 and 4 represents a primary input or Australian production. A column in quadrants 2 and 4 represents a final use category. 

For example, the column representing the industry Other agriculture shows that this industry directly requires $1.26 of supply from the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $0.55 of supply from the Poultry and other livestock industry and so on, resulting in the requirements of a total supply of $47.61 to produce $100 of output. 

To produce $100 of output the Other agriculture industry directly requires $10.22 of compensation of employees, $40.46 of gross operating surplus & mixed income and so on.

Table 10. Total requirement coefficients (indirect allocation of imports)

This table is similar to Table 7. However, the values in this table factor in imports whereas the values in Table 7 do not. The values in a particular column of this table represent the total supply requirements from the industry represented by the row, when the Australian output of the industry represented by the column increases by $100.

A row or column in this table represents an industry group. 

The values in Table 9 represent the direct requirement coefficients for each industry when its output is increased by $100. When an industry increases its output, apart from the direct requirements from the industries, there are also indirect requirements from the industries. The values in Table 10 represent the total requirements (i.e. initial + direct + indirect requirements) from all the industries when each industry's output is increased by $100. Another important difference between Tables 9 and 10 is that Table 10 is a square matrix whereas Table 9 is not. As the initial effect is $100 for each industry, the total requirement coefficients in the top left to bottom right diagonal of this square table will be greater than or equal to 100.

For example, the column representing the industry Other agriculture shows that the total requirements by this industry from the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry is $1.91 of output and imports, $0.67 of output and imports from the Poultry and other livestock industry and so on to increase its output by $100.

Table 17. Primary input content (total requirements) per $100 of final use by industry

This table shows values that represent the requirements of compensation of employees, gross operating surplus and mixed income, taxes less subsidies on products, other taxes less subsidies on production and imports by the industry represented by that row, when that industry uses a total of $100 of these primary inputs in the production process.

It is important to note that this takes into account the total output requirements (that is initial+direct+indirect effects) from all industries, by an industry, when this industry increases its output.

For example, $100 of total use of primary inputs by the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry consists of $26.40 of compensation of employees, $58.63 of gross operating surplus and mixed income, $1.21 of taxes less subsidies on products, $2.79 of other taxes less subsidies on production and $10.98 of imports.

Table 19. Specialisation and coverage ratios by industry

The first column in this table shows the specialisation ratios for an industry. An industry may produce a number of products, some of which may be primary to that industry and some of which may be primary to other industries. The specialisation ratio shows the proportion of an industry's output that is primary to that industry.

For example, 93.8% of the output of the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry is attributed to the output primary to this industry, 96.1% of the output of the Other agriculture industry is attributed to the output primary to this industry and so on.

The second column in this table shows the coverage ratios for a product. A product may be supplied by more than one industry. The coverage ratio shows what proportion of the total domestic supply of a product is produced by the industry to which the product is primary.

For example, the entire Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle product is produced by the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry to which the product is primary, 92.4% of Agriculture, forestry and fishing support services is produced by the Agriculture, forestry and fishing support services industry to which the product is primary and so on.

Table 21. Composition of supply of products containing margins

This table shows the composition of margin and non–margin commodities in the supply of relevant products. 

For example, the total Gas Supply was $4,639m, of which $3,181m was margin commodity. Of the total $121,730m supply of Wholesale Trade, $116,288m was margin commodity and $5,442m was non–margin commodity.

Table 23. Wholesale margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the wholesale margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories. 

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category. 

For example, $138m of wholesale margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $232m of wholesale margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $3,046m of wholesale margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $2,897m of wholesale margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the household sector for final consumption and so on, resulting in a total of $3,355m of wholesale margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture to all the final use categories.

Table 24. Retail margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the retail margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories. 

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category. 

For example, $89m of retail margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $537m of retail margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $5,617m of retail margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the household sector for final consumption.

Table 25. Restaurants, hotels and clubs margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the restaurants, hotels and clubs margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories. 

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category. 

For example, $533m of restaurants, hotels and clubs margin is associated with the supply of Sugar and confectionary manufacturing to the household sector for final consumption and so on, resulting in a total of $3,043m of restaurants, hotels and clubs margin being associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to the household sector.

Table 26. Road transport margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the road transport margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories. 

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category. 

For example, $143m of road transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $87m of road transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $1,065m of road transport margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $1,257m of road transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the household sector for final consumption and so on, resulting in a total of $1,457m of road transport margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture to all the final use categories.

Table 27. Rail transport margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the rail transport margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $4m of rail transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $1m of rail transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the Poultry and other livestock industry and so on, resulting in a total of $27m rail transport margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $29m of rail transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to the household sector for final consumption and so on, resulting in a total of $35m of rail transport margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to all the final use categories.

Table 28. Pipeline transport margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the pipeline transport margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $46m of pipeline transport margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to the Oil and gas extraction industry, $47m of pipeline transport margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to the Coal mining industry and so on, resulting in a total of $1,460m of pipeline transport margin being associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $804m of pipeline transport margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to the household sector for final consumption.

Table 29. Water transport margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the water transport margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $65m of water transport margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to the Petroleum and coal product manufacturing industry, $19m of water transport margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to the Wholesale trade industry and so on, resulting in a total of $84m of water transport margin being associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $53 m of water transport margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to exports (including re–exports) for final demand.

Table 30. Air transport margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the air transport margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $2m of air transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $1m of air transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $25m of air transport margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $24m of air transport margin is associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to the household sector for final consumption and so on, resulting in a total of $27m of air transport margin being associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to all the final use categories.

Table 31. Port handling margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the port handling margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $6m of port handling margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to the Petroleum and coal product manufacturing industry, $2m of port handling margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to the Wholesale Trade industry and so on, resulting in a total of $7m of port handling margin being associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $15m of port handling margin is associated with the supply of Oil and gas extraction products to exports (including re–exports) for final consumption.

Table 32. Marine insurance margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the marine insurance margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

A total of $2m of marine insurance margin was associated with the supply of Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle products to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $1m of marine insurance margin is associated with the supply of Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle products to exports (including re–exports).

Table 33. Gas margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the gas margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories. In this case the supplied products are entirely in the Coal mining product group.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $77m of gas margin is associated with the supply of Coal mining products to the Coal mining industry, $60m of gas margin is associated with the supply of Coal mining products to the Oil and gas extraction industry and so on, resulting in a total of $1,956m of gas margin being associated with the supply of Coal mining products to all industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $1,197m of gas margin is associated with the supply of Coal mining products to the household sector for final consumption and $28m was associated with exports (including re-exports) resulting in a total of $1,225m of gas margin being associated with the supply of gas margin products to all final use categories.

Table 34. Electricity margin on supply by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the electricity margin associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories. In this case the supplied products are entirely in the product group Electricity generation.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $155m of electricity margin is associated with the supply of Electricity generation products to the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $144m of electricity margin is associated with the supply of Electricity generation products to the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $14,556m of electricity margin being associated with the supply of Electricity generation products to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $7,249m of electricity margin is associated with the supply of Electricity generation products to the household sector for final consumption

Table 35. Net taxes on products by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the net taxes, that is taxes less subsidies, associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $4m of net taxes is associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to the Other agriculture industry, $9m of net taxes is associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to the Agriculture, forestry and fishing support services industry and so on, resulting in a total of $62m of net taxes being associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to all the industries for intermediate use.

A total of $324m of net taxes being associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to all the final use categories.

Table 36. Goods and services tax on products by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the Goods and Services Tax (GST) associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $59m of GST is associated with the supply of Professional, scientific and technical services to the Finance industry, $13m of GST is associated with the supply of Professional, scientific and technical services to the Ownership of Dwellings industry and so on, resulting in a total of $176m of GST being associated with the supply of Professional, scientific and technical services to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $517m of GST is associated with the supply of Professional, scientific and technical services to the household sector for final consumption and so on, resulting in a total of $573m of GST being associated with the supply of Professional, scientific and technical services to all the final use categories.

Table 37. Duty on products by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows the imports duty associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $1m of duty is associated with the supply of Other food product manufacturing to the Dairy product manufacturing industry, $1m of duty is associated with the supply of Other food product manufacturing to the Fruit and vegetable product manufacturing industry and so on, resulting in a total of $7m of duty being associated with the supply of Other food product manufacturing to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $7m of duty is associated with the supply of Other food product manufacturing products to the household sector for final consumption.

Table 38. Taxes on products nei by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows taxes (including excise taxes) not elsewhere identified (nei) associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $4m of taxes nei on products are associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the Other agriculture industry, $9m of taxes nei on products are associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the Agriculture, forestry and fishing support services industry and so on, resulting in a total of $60m of taxes nei on products being associated with the supply of Other agriculture to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $42m of taxes nei on products are associated with the supply of Other agriculture to the household sector for final consumption and so on resulting in a total of $42m of taxes nei on products being associated with the supply of Other agriculture products to all the final use categories.

Table 39. Subsidies on products by product group by using industry and final use category

This table shows subsidies associated with the supply of domestic and imported products to intermediate usage and final use categories. By convention subsidies are shown as negative values in the table.

A row in this table represents a product group and a column represents an industry group or final use category.

For example, $345m of subsidies are associated with the supply of Petroleum and coal product manufacturing to the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry, $289m of subsidies are associated with the supply of Petroleum and coal products to the Other agriculture industry and so on, resulting in a total of $5,063m of subsidies being associated with the supply of Petroleum and coal products to all the industries for intermediate use.

In the final use categories, $1,104m of subsidies are associated with the supply of Petroleum and coal products to the household sector for final consumption and so on, resulting in a total of $1,151m of subsidies being associated with the supply of Petroleum and coal products to all the final use categories.

Table 40. Industry and product concordances

IOIG(2015) to ANZSIC06

In the IOIG(2015) to ANZSIC06 table, IOIG(2015) codes are shown in column A and IOIG(2015) descriptors are shown in column B of the table. ANZSIC codes are shown in column C and ANZSIC descriptors are shown in column D. The ANZSIC codes shown in this table are ANZSIC Class codes.

For example, IOIG 0101, the Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle industry is mapped to ANZSIC codes 0141 (Sheep Farming (Specialised)), 0142 (Beef Cattle Farming (Specialised)), 0143 (Beef Cattle feedlots (specialised)), 0144 (Sheep–Beef Cattle Farming), 0145 (Grain–Sheep or Grain–Beef Farming), 0146 (Rice Growing), 0149 (Other Grain Growing) and 0160 (Dairy Cattle Farming).

IOIG(2005) to IOIG(2009)

In the IOIG(2005) to IOIG(2009) table, the 2005 IOIG codes are shown in column A with the 2005 IOIG descriptors in column B. The 2009 IOIG codes are in column C with the 2009 IOIG descriptors shown in column E. Column D indicates whether a 2005 IOIG is mapped partially to a 2009 IOIG and is indicated by a 'p' in the column.

For example, the 2005 IOIG 0102 (Grains) is mapped partially to the 2009 IOIG's 0101 (Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle) and 0103 (Other agriculture).

IOPC(2005) to IOPC(2009)

The IOPC(2005) to IOPC(2009) table shows the 2005 IOPC code in column A with the 2005 IOPC descriptor shown in column B. Column C shows the 2009 IOPC code with the 2009 IOPC descriptor in column E. Column E indicates whether a 2005 IOPC is mapped partially to a 2009 IOPC and is indicated by a 'p' in the column.

For example, the 2005 IOPC 01110010 (Plant nurseries (incl turf)) is mapped partially to the 2009 IOPCs 01110010 (Plants grown undercover), 01120010 (Plants grown outdoors) and 01130010 (Turf).

IOPC(2015) to IOPC(2017)

The IOPC(2015) to IOPC(2017) table shows the 2015 IOPC code in column A with the 2015 IOPC descriptor shown in column B. Column C shows the 2017 IOPC code with the 2017 IOPC descriptor in column D.

IOPC(2017) to IOPC(2018)

The IOPC(2017) to IOPC(2018) table shows the 2017 IOPC code in column A with the 2017 IOPC descriptor shown in column B. Column C shows the 2018 IOPC code with the 2018 IOPC descriptor in column D. Most of the changes between IOPC(2017) and IOPC(2018) are minor corrections to the IOPC descriptors to improve their coherence.

IOPC(2018) to CPI(17th series)

The IOPC(2018) to CPI(17th series) table shows the 2018 IOPC code in column A with the 2018 IOPC descriptor shown in column C. Column D shows the CPI 17th series code with the CPI 17th series descriptor in column F. Column G indicates whether a 2018 IOPC is mapped partially to a CPI 17th series code and is indicated by a 'p' in the column.

For example, the 2018 IOPC 01110010 (Plants grown undercover) is mapped uniquely to the CPI 17th series code 543 (Other non-durable household products).

IOPG(2015) to HEC(2015-16)

The IOPG(2015) to HEC(2015-16) table shows the 2015 IOPG code in column A with the 2015 IOPG descriptor shown in column C. Column D shows the partial split of corresponding 2015-16 HEC codes within a 2015 IOPG code.
Where it shows a 'p', the 2015-16 HEC code is split between different 2015 IOPG codes. Column E shows the HEC(2015-16) code with the HEC(2015-16) descriptor in column G.

For example, 2015-16 HEC 1001060101 (Crash repairs) and 1001060201 (Vehicle servicing (including parts and labour)) are proportionally split within 2015 IOPG 9401 Automotive repair and maintenance.
Where it shows a 'p' in Column D, the 2015-16 HEC code 0302030104 (Other lamb and mutton nec) is split between 2015 IOPG 0101 (Sheep, grains, beef and dairy cattle) and 2015 IOPG (1101 Meat and meat product manufacturing).

There are a number of factors to take into account when using this table. It should only be applied to data at Purchasers prices as it was based on the Household Expenditure Survey (HES) which is collected at Purchasers Prices.
The table was compiled from the 2015-16 HES and may not align well to data in earlier years due to the changing nature of Household expenditure and the economic conditions prevailing at the time. 

Where individual Household expenditure items do not correlate to one Input-Output product group, weights have been calculated using the best data available. Correspondences for some IOPGs have not been included due to confidentiality issues. 

Data from the HES, classified by the HEC does not correlate directly to HFCE data as published in the National Accounts due to the following reasons:

  • The scope of the HES excludes residents of remote areas and those living in non-private dwellings (hotels, boarding houses and institutions);
  • HFCE data includes expenditure by Non-Profit Institutions Serving Households units that are not included in HES; 
  • HFCE uses additional data sources including the Retail and Wholesale industry surveys;
  • HES data is not used to compile HFCE data for Gambling as it collects data on a different basis;
  • HES data is not used to compile Financial and insurance services as HES measures the total cost paid for insurance, and HFCE only captures the Insurance service charge;
  • HES data is not used to compile the Actual rent paid on dwellings, and HFCE also includes an imputed value for rent for owner- occupied dwellings;
  • HES estimates for Health include only out of pocket expenses, and do not include nursing home fees;
  • For Education services, HES excludes expenditure on the Higher education loan program; 
  • HFCE estimates for Repairs and maintenance are included in the Intermediate Usage of the Ownership of Dwellings industry and could not be concorded to HES data; and
  • HFCE estimates include an imputed value for the Financial Intermediation Services Indirectly Measured which is measured differently in HES.
     

IOPC(2018)

The IOPC(2018) table shows the 2018 IOPC code in column A with the 2018 IOPC descriptor shown in column C. Column D shows the corresponding IOPG(2015) code.

IOIG(2015)

The IOIG(2015) table shows the 2015 IOIG code in column A with the 2015 IOIG descriptor shown in column B. Column C shows the corresponding ANZSIC Division code

Glossary

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Glossary of frequently used terms in the Input-Output tables

Australian production

Australian production refers to the value at basic prices of goods and services produced in Australia.

Basic price

The basic price is the amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output minus any tax payable, and plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale. It excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer. Output sold at prices that are not economically significant (see also Economically significant prices) is not valued at these prices. Rather, such output is valued at its cost of production.

Changes in inventories

Changes in inventories represent the difference in value between inventories held at the beginning and end of the reference period by enterprises and general government. For national accounting purposes, physical changes in inventories should be valued at the prices current at the times when the changes occur. For these purposes, changes in inventories are obtained after adjusting the increase in book value of inventories by the inventory valuation adjustment. The need for the latter arises because the changes in the value of inventories as calculated from existing business accounting records do not meet national accounting requirements. The inventory valuation adjustment is the difference between the change in (book) value of inventories and the physical changes valued at current prices. The physical changes at average current quarter prices are calculated by applying average quarterly price indexes to the changes in various categories of inventories in volume terms.

Compensation of Employees (CoE)

Compensation of employees is the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the employee during the accounting period. It is further classified into two sub-components: wages and salaries; and employers’ social contributions. Compensation of employees is not payable in respect of unpaid work undertaken voluntarily, including the work done by members of a household within an unincorporated enterprise owned by the same household. Compensation of employees excludes any taxes payable by the employer on the wage and salary bill (e.g. payroll tax).

Competing imports

Competing imports are those products which are both produced domestically and imported, so that substitution between the two sources of supply is possible.

Coverage ratio (for a product)

A product may be produced by more than one industry. The coverage ration shows what proportion of the total domestic supply of a product is produced by the industry to which the product is primary.

Direct allocation of imports

The direct allocation method of recording imports involves allocating imports to the industries which use them and including them with the primary inputs to these industries in deriving the total production. With this method the intermediate consumption and final demand matrices contain only the use of domestic production, and so the intermediate use matrix does not reflect the full input structure of industries.

Direct requirements coefficients

Direct requirement coefficients refer to the proportion of inputs directly required from industries by industries to produce $100 of output. In calculating the direct requirements coefficients, the flow on effects on industries are not taken into account.

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

The GST is a tax of 10 per cent on the price of most goods and services in Australia, including those that are imported. It does not apply to sales of goods or services that are either exempt (GST-free) or input-taxed.

Government Final Consumption Expenditure (GFCE)

Net expenditure on goods and services by public authorities, other than those classified as public corporations, which does not result in the creation of fixed assets or inventories or in the acquisition of land and existing buildings or second-hand assets. It comprises expenditure on compensation of employees (other than those charged to capital works, etc.), goods and services (other than fixed assets and inventories) and consumption of fixed capital. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of roads is included. Fees, etc., charged by general government bodies for goods sold and services rendered are offset against purchases. Net expenditure overseas by general government bodies and purchases from public corporations are included. Expenditure on defence assets is classified as gross fixed capital formation.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Gross domestic product is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production, but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services.

Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF)

Expenditure on new fixed assets plus net expenditure on second-hand fixed assets and including both additions and replacements.

Gross Mixed Income (GMI)

Gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises is the term reserved for the surplus accruing to owners of unincorporated enterprises from processes of production (as defined for gross operating surplus) before deducting any explicit or implicit interest, rents or other property incomes payable on the financial assets, non-produced non-financial natural resource assets (such as land) required to carry on the production and before deducting consumption of fixed capital. However, GMI is measured after the deduction of FISIM and the insurance service charge. The owners, or other members of their households, may work without receiving any wage or salary. Mixed income therefore includes both gross operating surplus for unincorporated enterprises and returns for the proprietors' own labour (akin to wages and salaries). In practice, all unincorporated enterprises owned by households that are not quasi-corporations are deemed to fall into this category, except owner-occupiers in their capacity as producers of housing services for own final consumption, and households employing paid domestic staff (an activity which is deemed to generate zero surplus).

Gross Operating Surplus (GOS)

Gross operating surplus is a measure of the surplus accruing to owners from processes of production before deducting any explicit or implicit interest charges, rents or other property incomes payable on the financial assets, non-produced non-financial natural resource assets (such as land) required to carry on the production and before deducting consumption of fixed capital. However, GOS is measured after the deduction of FISIM and the insurance service charge. It excludes gross mixed income which is the surplus accruing to owners of unincorporated enterprises. Gross operating surplus is also calculated for general government, where it equals general government's consumption of fixed capital.

Gross Value Added (GVA)

Gross value added is defined as the value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries.

Household Final Consumption Expenditure (HFCE)

Net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutions serving households. This item excludes expenditures by unincorporated businesses and expenditures on assets by non-profit institutions (included in gross fixed capital formation). Also excluded are maintenance of dwellings (treated as intermediate expenses of private enterprises), but personal expenditure on motor vehicles and other durable goods and the imputed rent of owner-occupied dwellings are included. The value of 'backyard' production (including food produced and consumed on farms) is included in household final consumption expenditure and the payment of wages and salaries in kind (e.g. food and lodging supplied free to employees) is counted in both household income and household final consumption expenditure.

Indirect allocation of imports

The indirect allocation method of recording imports includes those imports in the intermediate use of industries and in the final use categories without distinguishing the imports from the products with which they compete. This allows the intermediate use matrix to fully reflect the input structures of industries. With this method the imports are also listed under the industries’ use of primary inputs, but after deriving total production.

Indirect requirement

The chain of calculations of output requirements can be continued beyond the direct requirements of an industry. For example, in order to produce output from the chemicals industry, inputs are required directly from the mining industry. To produce this direct requirement of the mining industry, the chemical industry needs, in turn, additional output from the mining industry, and so on in a convergent infinite series. The example has been confined to two industries directly dependent on each other, but indirect requirements can arise even in the absence of direct dependence. For example, the mining industry may not directly require any inputs from agriculture, but it requires inputs from chemicals which cannot be satisfied without input from agriculture. Therefore, there is an indirect requirement by mining for agricultural input.

Input Output Industry Group (IOIG)

IOIGs are based on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC) and the I-O tables are published at this level of industry.

Input Output Product Classification (IOPC)

The IOPC is the detailed level product classification, organised according to the industry to which each product is primary. I-O tables are compiled at this level of product classification.

Input Output Product Group (IOPG)

IOPGs are groups of IOPCs aggregated to the IOIGs to which they are primary. I-O tables are published at this level of product classification.

Intermediate consumption

Intermediate consumption consists of the value of the goods and services consumed as inputs by a process of production, excluding the consumption of fixed capital.

Intra–industry flows

Intra-industry flows refer to the production by units in an industry and use of that production by other units within the same industry. Australian I-O tables include the values of these flows.

Inventories

Inventories consist of stocks of outputs that are held at the end of a period by the units that produced them prior to their being further processed, sold, delivered to other units or used in other ways, and stocks of products acquired from other units that are intended to be used for intermediate consumption or for resale without further processing.

Margins

If the transactions are valued at basic prices, the margins are recorded as intermediate consumption (e.g. transport, wholesale trade) of the intermediate users or final buyers. If transactions are valued at purchasers’ prices the value of margins in included, along with taxes less subsidies on products with the purchasers’ price of the good to which the margin relates.

Other subsidies on production

Other subsidies on production consist of all subsidies, except subsidies on products, which resident enterprises may receive as a consequence of engaging in production. Other subsidies on production include: subsidies related to the payroll or workforce numbers (including subsidies payable on the total wage or salary bill), on numbers employed, or on the employment of particular types of persons, e.g. persons with disabilities or persons who have been unemployed for a long period.

Other taxes on production

Other taxes on production consist of all taxes that enterprises incur as a result of engaging in production, except taxes on products. Other taxes on production include: taxes related to the payroll or workforce numbers excluding compulsory social security contributions paid by employers and any taxes paid by the employees themselves out of their wages or salaries; recurrent taxes on land, buildings or other structures; some business and professional licences where no service is provided by the Government in return; taxes on the use of fixed assets or other activities; stamp duties; taxes on pollution; and taxes on international transactions

Primary input content

The primary input content per $100 of use by an industry shows the ultimate content (resulting from total requirements) of each primary input in $100 of that industry’s use.

Primary inputs

Primary inputs include compensation of employees, gross operating surplus and gross mixed income, taxes less subsidies on products, other taxes less subsidies on production and imports.

Purchasers' price

The purchaser's price is the amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place.

Quadrants in an Input–Output table

The following link Input output table diagram contains a simplified input–output table for illustration purposes. In this illustration, Quadrant 1 represents the industry (row) by industry (column) dimension, quadrant 2 represents the industry by final demand dimension, quadrant 3 represents primary input by industry dimension and quadrant 4 represents the primary input by final demand dimension.

  • Quadrant 1
    Flows between domestic industries are shown in Quadrant 1. This is usually referred to as the inter–industry quadrant. Each column in this quadrant shows the intermediate inputs into an industry in the form of goods and services produced by other industries, and each row shows those parts of an industry's output which have been absorbed by other industries. For example, the cell at the intersection of row i and column j shows how much output of industry i has been absorbed by industry j for current production.
  • Quadrant 2
    Disposition of output to categories of final demand is shown in Quadrant 2. Quadrants 1 and 2 together show the total usage of the goods and services supplied by each industry.
  • Quadrant 3
    Quadrant 3 shows entries usually referred to as primary inputs: compensation of employees; gross operating surplus and gross mixed income; imports; and various types of taxes on production.
  • Quadrant 4
    Quadrant 4 shows primary inputs to final demand. In the Australian Input Output Tables, only the primary input 'Taxes less subsidies on products' has values in this quadrant.

     

Re–exports

Re-exports are goods imported into Australia and then exported without having been used or transformed in any way.

Specialisation ratio (for an industry)

An industry may produce a number of products, some of which may be primary to that industry and some of which may be primary to other industries. The specialisation ratio shows the proportion of an industry’s output that is primary to that industry.

Subsidies on products

A subsidy on a product is a subsidy payable per unit of a good or service. The subsidy may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service, or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit. A subsidy may also be calculated as the difference between a specified target price and the market price actually paid by a purchaser. A subsidy on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a product is exported, leased, transferred, delivered or used for own consumption or own capital formation.

Taxes on products

A tax on a product is a tax that is payable per unit of some good or service. The tax may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit or value of the goods or services transacted. A tax on a product usually becomes payable when it is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation.

Total requirements coefficients

A total requirement coefficient at the intersection of a row i and column j of a table represents the value of output of industry i required directly and indirectly to produce 100 units of output absorbed by final demand (i.e. final output) of industry j.

Trade margin

Trade margin is defined as the difference between the actual or imputed price realised on a good purchased for resale and the price that would have to be paid by the distributor to replace the good at the time it is sold or otherwise disposed of.

Transport margin

Transport margins include any transport charges invoiced separately. The costs arising through the transport of goods from a producer to a purchaser by a third party even without separate invoice is excluded from the basic price of the good being transported and is recorded as a transport margin. The latter treatment is adopted for the I-O tables only and is a deviation from the treatment outlined in the 2008 SNA and applied in the ABS S-U tables.

Abbreviations

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ABARESAustralian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences
ABSAustralian Bureau of Statistics
ANZSIC93Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 1993
ANZSIC06Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification 2006
CGEComputable General Equilibrium Model
CoECompensation of Employees
CPCCentral Product Classification
GDPGross Domestic Product
GFCEGovernment Final Consumption Expenditure
GFCFGross Fixed Capital Formation
GMIGross Mixed Income
GOSGross Operating Surplus
GSTGoods and Services Tax
GVAGross Value Added
HFCEHousehold Final Consumption Expenditure
I–OInput-Output
IOIGInput–Output Industry Group
IOPCInput–Output Product Classification
IOPGInput–Output Product Group
ISICInternational Standard Industry Classification
NPISHNon–profit Institutions Serving Households
OECDOrganisation for Economic Co–operation and Development
SNASystem of National Accounts
SNA68System of National Accounts 1968
SNA93System of National Accounts 1993
SNA08System of National Accounts 2008
S–USupply–Use