3302.0.55.003 - Life Tables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2015-2017  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 29/11/2018   
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LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH OF ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER AUSTRALIANS

Table 1.1 presents life expectancy at selected ages for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians. At all ages, for both males and females, life expectancy for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is lower than for non-Indigenous Australians.


1.1 LIFE EXPECTANCY AT SELECTED AGES, Australia(a) - 2015-2017(b)

LIFE EXPECTANCY
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Non-Indigenous
Total
Difference between non-Indigenous and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy(c)
years
years
years
years

MALES

0
71.6
80.2
80.0
8.6
1
71.1
79.4
79.2
8.3
5
67.2
75.5
75.3
8.3
25
47.9
55.8
55.7
7.9
50
26.7
32.1
32.0
5.4
65
15.8
19.0
18.9
3.1
85
4.4
4.7
4.7
0.3

FEMALES

0
75.6
83.4
83.2
7.8
1
75.2
82.6
82.5
7.5
5
71.2
78.7
78.5
7.5
25
51.7
58.9
58.7
7.2
50
29.0
34.6
34.5
5.6
65
17.1
20.8
20.7
3.7
85
4.5
4.8
4.8
0.3

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES

0
-4.0
-3.2
-3.3
. .
1
-4.0
-3.2
-3.2
. .
5
-4.0
-3.2
-3.2
. .
25
-3.8
-3.0
-3.1
. .
50
-2.3
-2.5
-2.5
. .
65
-1.2
-1.8
-1.8
. .
85
-0.1
-0.1
-0.1
. .

. . not applicable
(a) These life expectancy estimates are calculated taking age-specific identification rates into account.
(b) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census.
(c) Differences are based on unrounded estimates.


Ratio of mortality rates

Life expectancy estimates reflect the rates of mortality at different ages within a population. Graph 1.2 illustrates the differences in mortality rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians for 2015-2017.

For males, the largest differences were in the 40-44 year and 45-49 year age groups, where mortality rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males were around four times higher than rates for non-Indigenous males. For females, the largest differences were in the 30-34 year and 35-39 year age groups, where mortality rates for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females were over four times higher than rates for non-Indigenous females.

Graph Image for 1.2 Ratio of mortality rates(a), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians(b), 2015-2017(c)

Footnote(s): (a) Ratio of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mortality rate (qx) to non-Indigenous mortality rate. (b) Headline estimates for Australia are calculated taking age-specific identification rates into account. (c) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census.

Source(s): Life Tables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2015-2017 (cat. no. 3302.0.55.003).


State and territory life expectancy at birth

State and territory estimates are calculated on a different methodological basis to the headline Australia estimates (at which level it is possible to account for differing rates of mortality for different age groups). For this reason, a comparable Australia level series has been calculated without an age-specific adjustment and is included in the table below. Life expectancy at birth for people differs across the four states and territory for which estimates could be produced. For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males, life expectancy at birth was highest in Queensland (72.0 years) and lowest in the Northern Territory (66.6 years). A similar pattern exists for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander females, with the highest life expectancy at birth in Queensland (76.4 years) and the lowest in the Northern Territory (69.9 years).

Differences in life expectancy at birth estimates between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous Australians were largest for males in Western Australia (13.4 years lower) and for females in the Northern Territory (12.8 years lower).


1.3 LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, Indigenous status - 2015-2017(a)

LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Non-Indigenous
Total(b)
Difference between non-Indigenous and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy at birth(c)
years
years
years
years

MALES

NSW
70.9
80.2
80.0
9.4
Qld
72.0
79.8
79.6
7.8
WA
66.9
80.3
79.9
13.4
NT
66.6
78.1
75.3
11.5
Aust.(d)(e)
70.0
80.2
80.0
10.3

FEMALES

NSW
75.9
83.5
83.3
7.6
Qld
76.4
83.2
83.0
6.7
WA
71.8
83.8
83.4
12.0
NT
69.9
82.7
78.7
12.8
Aust.(d)(e)
74.4
83.5
83.2
9.0

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES

NSW
-5.0
-3.3
-3.3
. .
Qld
-4.4
-3.4
-3.4
. .
WA
-4.9
-3.5
-3.6
. .
NT
-3.2
-4.6
-3.4
. .
Aust.(d)(e)
-4.5
-3.2
-3.3
. .

. . not applicable
(a) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census.
(b) Estimates of life expectancy at birth for the total population presented in this release differ from estimates in Life Tables, States, Territories and Australia, 2015-2017 (cat. no. 3302.0.55.001). See paragraph 24 of the Explanatory Notes for more information.
(c) Differences are based on unrounded estimates.
(d) These life expectancy estimates are calculated without taking age-specific identification rates into account.
(e) Includes all states and territories


Graph Image for 1.4 Life expectancy at birth, 2015-2017(a), males

Footnote(s): (a) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census. (b) These estimates are not the headline estimates for Australia, because they are calculated without an age-adjustment, but are provided to enable effective comparisons with the state and territory, and remoteness area estimates. (c) Includes all states and territories.

Source(s): Life Tables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2015-2017 (cat. no. 3302.0.55.003).


Graph Image for 1.5 Life expectancy at birth, 2015-2017(a), females

Footnote(s): (a) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census. (b)These estimates are not the headline estimates for Australia, because they are calculated without an age-adjustment, but are provided to enable effective comparisons with the state and territory, and remoteness area estimates. (c) Includes all states and territories.

Source(s): Life Tables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2015-2017 (cat. no. 3302.0.55.003).




Confidence intervals for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy

Life expectancy estimates are presented together with their 95% confidence intervals below, to highlight that estimates have a margin of error attached to them. The 95% confidence interval indicates a range of values in which users can be 95% certain that the true life expectancy estimates lie within the interval. If the confidence intervals of two estimates do not overlap, then the estimates are statistically significant at 95% confidence level.

See Appendix 1, table A1.1 for a comparison of life expectancy estimates and associated confidence intervals from 2010-2012 to 2015-2017.


Graph:


(a) Estimates are statistically significant at 95% confidence level if their confidence intervals do not overlap.
(b) Significantly different from 2010-2012 estimate at 95% confidence level.
(c) These life expectancy estimates are calculated without taking age-specific identification rates into account.
(d) Includes all states and territories.
(e) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2010-2012 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2011 based on the 2011 Census.
(f) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census.


Graph:

(a) Estimates are statistically significant at 95% confidence level if their confidence intervals do not overlap.
(b) Significantly different from 2010-2012 estimate at 95% confidence level.
(c) These life expectancy estimates are calculated without taking age-specific identification rates into account.
(d) Includes all states and territories.
(e) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2010-2012 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2011 based on the 2011 Census.
(f) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census.



Improvement in life expectancy during 2010-2012 and 2015-2017

During the five-year period from 2010-2012 to 2015-2017, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy at birth estimates for Australia (headline) increased by 2.5 years for males and 1.9 years for females.

The largest improvement was in Queensland (3.3 years for males and 2.0 years for females), followed by the Northern Territory (3.2 years for males and 1.2 years for females) and Western Australia (1.9 years for males and 1.7 years for females). The lowest improvement was in New South Wales (0.4 years for males and 1.3 years for females). While Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander life expectancy increased in all states/territory for which estimates were produced, increases were only statistically significant for males in Queensland, and both males and females at the Australia comparison level.


Life expectancy by remoteness areas and SEIFA

Due to insufficient data for some RAs to be published individually, particularly at lower ages, the ABS has produced life expectancy at birth for only three categories of remoteness. These are Major Cities, Inner Regional and Outer Regional combined and Remote and Very Remote combined. Remoteness categories were grouped together according to the similarity of their mortality characteristics. Similarly, for life expectancy estimates by SEIFA (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage), the two least disadvantaged quintiles have been grouped together due to insufficient data.

Life expectancy was significantly lower for both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males and females in Remote and Very Remote areas combined (65.9 and 69.6) than for those who lived in Major Cities (72.1 and 76.5 respectively). The difference between life expectancy estimates for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and the non-Indigenous populations was also more marked in these remote and very remote areas (13.8 years for males and 14.0 years for females) than in Major Cities (8.6 years and 7.2 years respectively).

This is consistent with the estimates presented in table 1.10 which show that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in the most disadvantaged areas, a higher proportion of whom were living in remote Australia, have the lowest life expectancy (68.2 years for males and 72.8 years for females. This represented 41% of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males and females, a third of whom lived in Remote and Very Remote areas. This compared with a life expectancy at birth estimate of 77.9 years for non-Indigenous males and 82.0 years for non-Indigenous females living in areas in the most disadvantage quintile, which represented around 17% of non-Indigenous males and females, of whom 2% were living in Remote and Very Remote areas.



1.8 LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, Remoteness Areas - 2015-2017(a)(b)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Non-Indigenous
Total
Difference between non-Indigenous and Aboriginal and
Torres Strait Islander life expectancy at birth(c)

MALES

Major Cities
72.1
80.7
80.6
8.6
Inner and Outer Regional
70.0
79.1
78.7
9.1
Remote and Very Remote
65.9
79.7
76.3
13.8

FEMALES

Major Cities
76.5
83.7
83.6
7.2
Inner and Outer Regional
74.8
82.8
82.5
8.0
Remote and Very Remote
69.6
83.6
79.6
14.0

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MALES AND FEMALES

Major Cities
-4.4
-3.0
-3.1
. .
Inner and Outer Regional
-4.8
-3.7
-3.8
. .
Remote and Very Remote
-3.8
-3.9
-3.3
. .

. . not applicable
(a) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census.
(b) These life expectancy estimates are calculated without taking age-specific identification rates into account.
(c) Differences are based on unrounded estimates.



Graph:

(a) Estimates are statistically significant at 95% confidence level if their confidence intervals do not overlap.
(b) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census.
(c) These life expectancy estimates are calculated without taking age-specific identification rates into account.
(d) Difference between male and female estimates in 2015-2017 are statistically significant at 95% confidence level.



1.10 LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH, Indigenous Status and Sex by Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage(a) - 2015-2017(b)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
Non-Indigenous Australians


Life expectancy
% of population in this quintile
% of people in this quintile
living in
Remote and
Very Remote areas
Life expectancy
% of population in this quintile
% of people in this quintile
living in
Remote and
Very Remote areas

Males
Most disadvantaged 20%
68.2
40.6
32.2
77.9
17.6
2.2
Second most disadvantaged 20%
70.3
24.4
7.0
79.1
19.1
2.5
Middle 20%
69.9
18.0
15.2
80.4
21.3
2.4
Least disadvantaged 40%
72.4
17.0
5.5
81.7
42.0
0.6
Females
Most disadvantaged 20%
72.8
41.3
32.2
82.0
17.4
1.7
Second most disadvantaged 20%
75.5
24.7
6.5
82.7
19.1
2.2
Middle 20%
74.3
18.2
15.9
83.5
21.2
2.2
Least disadvantaged 40%
76.6
15.8
5.4
84.4
42.3
0.4

(a) These life expectancy estimates are calculated without taking age-specific identification rates into account.
(b) Based on the average number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander deaths registered in 2015-2017 adjusted for under/over identification of Indigenous Status in registrations, and final Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population estimates for 30 June 2016 based on the 2016 Census.