3412.0 - Migration, Australia, 2018-19  
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 28/04/2020   
   Page tools: Print Print Page Print all pages in this productPrint All RSS Feed RSS Bookmark and Share Search this Product

NET OVERSEAS MIGRATION

Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration (overseas migrant arrivals) to Australia and emigration (overseas migrant departures) from Australia. The data presented here are annual, for years ending 30 June. For quarterly migration estimates see Australian Demographic Statistics (cat. no. 3101.0).

KEY STATISTICS

Overseas migration to and from Australia in 2019, resulted in a net increase to Australia's population of 239,600 people:

    • There were 537,800 overseas migrant arrivals, a slight increase reversing the decline seen in 2018
    • There were 298,200 overseas migrant departures which is the highest number on record
    • Temporary visa holders were the majority of overseas migrant arrivals (64.3%) and overseas migrant departures (52.8%).


Net Overseas Migration — Australia

While exhibiting a pattern of variability over time, net overseas migration has remained above 180,000 people since 2006. After a 9.5% decrease in 2017-18 migrant numbers remained relatively steady in 2018-19.

In the year ending 30 June 2019 there was:
    • a net gain from overseas migration of 239,600 people. This is a slight increase of 0.6% from 2017-18 (1,400 people)
    • 537,800 overseas migrant arrivals, which was 10,300 more than during 2018
    • 298,200 overseas migrant departures, which was 8,900 more than during 2018.


Graph 3.1 Net Overseas Migration(a) — Australia — 1971-72 to 2018-19 (year end June 30)
Graph 3.1 Net Overseas Migration(a) — Australia — 1971-72 to 2018-19 (year end June 30)
(a) Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Explanatory Notes
Source: Australian Historical Population Statistics (cat. no. 3105.0.65.001); Migration, Australia (cat. no. 3412.0)


Net Overseas Migration — States and Territories

The three largest states, New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, continued to account for the largest contributions to net overseas migration nationally in the year ending 30 June 2019.

The net overseas migration estimates, and change from one year earlier for each state and territory were:
    • New South Wales 86,200 people (with a decrease of -4,500)
    • Victoria 84,500 (decrease of -2,500)
    • Queensland 32,400 (increase of 4,600)
    • South Australia 14,100 (increase of 1,300)
    • Western Australia 15,700 (increase of 3,700)
    • Tasmania 3,000 (increase of 200)
    • Northern Territory 700 (decrease of -40)
    • Australian Capital Territory 3,100 (decrease of -1,500).

When comparing overseas migrant arrivals and overseas migrant departures in 2018-19 to 2018-17:
    • Queensland and Victoria recorded the largest increases in migrant arrivals of 4,600 and 3,900 people respectively
    • The ACT and NSW recorded decreases in migrant arrivals of -1,100 and -800 people respectively
    • Victoria and New South Wales recorded the largest increases in migrant departures of 6,400 and 3,700 people respectively
    • Western Australia recorded the largest decrease in migrant departures of -2,100 people.

Table 3.2 Net Overseas Migration - State & territory - Year to 30 June 2019(a)

Overseas Migrant arrivals
Overseas Migrant departures
Net Overseas Migration
State or territory
'000
%
'000
%
'000
%

NSW
190.7
35.5
104.5
35.1
86.2
36.0
Vic.
165.0
30.7
80.6
27.0
84.5
35.3
Qld
90.0
16.7
57.6
19.3
32.4
13.5
SA
25.5
4.7
11.5
3.8
14.1
5.9
WA
45.8
8.5
30.1
10.1
15.7
6.6
Tas.
5.7
1.1
2.7
0.9
3.0
1.2
NT
5.2
1.0
4.5
1.5
0.7
0.3
ACT
9.8
1.8
6.7
2.3
3.1
1.3
Australia(b)
537.8
100.0
298.2
100.0
239.6
100.0

(a) Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Explanatory Notes
(b) Includes Other Territories.


Net Overseas Migration by Visa Groupings and Australian Citizens

Temporary visa holders were the majority of overseas migrant arrivals (64.3%) and overseas migrant departures (52.8%) in the year ending 30 June 2019.
    • There were 346,000 migrant arrivals on temporary visas including nearly 173,000 international students (32.2% of all migrant arrivals)
    • Arrivals on temporary work skilled visas increased from a year ago by 18.1% to 31,800 people
    • Migrant departures on temporary visas increased by 9.7% to 157,000 people.

For permanent visa holders in 2019, overseas migrant arrivals declined while migrant departures increased from one year earlier.
    • 15.4% of all migrant arrivals were permanent visa holders
    • Permanent visa holders arriving decreased from a year ago to 82,600 people (down 6.0%)
    • Permanent visa holders departing decreased from a year ago to 21,100 people (down 2.1%)
    • 7.1% of all migrant departures were permanent visa holders.

For Australian and New Zealand citizens (who do not require a visa for migration to Australia), in the year ending 30 June 2019:
    • 30,200 New Zealand citizens moved to Australia to live, however in the same year, 22,200 left Australia to live overseas
    • 74,900 Australian citizens returned to Australia after living overseas but in the same year 86,700 decided to move overseas to live.

Table 3.3 Net Overseas Migration by major groupings and visa(a) - Australia - Year to 30 June 2019(b)

Overseas Migrant arrivals
Overseas Migrant departures
Major groupings and visa
'000
%
'000
%

Temporary visas
Vocational education and training sector
21.9
4.1
16.5
5.5
Higher education sector
117.6
21.9
34.6
11.6
Student other
33.3
6.2
9.1
3.1
Temporary work skilled
31.8
5.9
15.4
5.2
Visitor(c)
77.5
14.4
24.5
8.2
Working holiday
50.3
9.3
24.8
8.3
Other temporary visas
13.6
2.5
32.7
10.9
Total temporary visas
346.1
64.3
157.5
52.8
Permanent Visas
Family
23.4
4.4
5.6
1.9
Skill
37.6
7.0
7.5
2.5
Special eligibility and humanitarian
15.2
2.8
0.1
0.0
Other permanent visas
6.4
1.2
7.8
2.6
Total permanent visas
82.6
15.4
21.1
7.1
New Zealand citizen (subclass 444)
30.2
5.6
22.2
7.4
Australian citizen (no visa)
74.9
13.9
86.7
29.1
Other(d)
4
0.7
10.9
3.6
Total
537.8
100.0
298.2
100.0

(a) Represents the number of visas based on the visa type at the time of a traveller's specific movement. It is this specific movement that has been used to calculate net overseas migration. Therefore the number of visas in this table should not be confused with information on the number of visas granted by Home Affairs.
(b) Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Explanatory Notes
(c) Visitor visas include tourists, business visitors, medical treatment and other.
(d) Includes residents returning (i.e. non Australian citizens who have a permanent resident visa) and visa unknown.


Net Overseas Migration by Country of Birth and Age

In the year ending 30 June 2019, people aged 20 to 24 years made up the largest proportion of overseas migrant arrivals, while those aged 25 to 29 made up the largest proportion of overseas migrant departures. The proportion of overseas-born migrants is much higher than Australian-born migrants for both arrivals and departures for almost all age groups. This is mainly due to the ebb and flow of temporary migration into and out of the country. The exception to this is migrant departures for the 0 to 4 year old age group, where almost four fifths were Australian born.
    • The 20 to 24 age group had the largest proportion of arrivals at 22.7%. Of this age group 95.8% were born overseas
    • The 25 to 29 age group had the largest proportion of departures at 24.4%. Of this age group 84.3% were born overseas.

Graph 3.4 Migrant arrivals and departures — Australia, Country of birth(a) by age — year to 30 June 2019(b)
Graph 3.4 Migrant arrivals and departures — Australia, Country of birth by age — year to 30 June 2019
(a) Australian-born and overseas-born persons as a proportion of Australia's total annual migration for the year to 30 June 2019.
(b) Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Explanatory Notes


Overseas Migrant Arrivals by Region of Birth

The regions of the world where Australia's incoming migrants are born can change considerably over time. The five years to 30 June 2019 has seen such changes, with a continued shift away from Europe and Oceania towards the regions of Asia. Migrant arrivals from South and Central Asia and North-East Asia are now higher than Oceania, with South & Central Asia clearly the highest region for immigration in 2019.

Graph 3.5 Overseas Migrant Arrivals — Australia — Region of Birth — year to 30 June 2014 and 2019(a)
Graph 3.5 Migrant Arrivals — Australia — Region of Birth — year to 30 June 2014 and 2019
(a) Estimates from December quarter 2018 onwards are preliminary - see Overseas migration in paragraph 9 of the Explanatory Notes



New ABS website

The ABS will be launching a new website in 2020. You will soon be able to see how this release will appear on the new website by exploring our Beta site. Regular users of this information are encouraged to explore the Beta site and consider if this will affect the way you access and consume ABS data and information. If you would like more information on the new ABS website, or want to discuss how the transition to the new site might impact you, please email newABSwebsite@abs.gov.au.