8104.0 - Research and Experimental Development, Businesses, Australia, 2017-18 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 20/09/2019   
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Gross Expenditure on R&D (GERD)

Gross expenditure on R&D (GERD) represents the total expenditure devoted to R&D by the Business, Government, Higher Education and Private Non-Profit sectors.

Commencing in 2010-11, estimates of GERD expenditure has been modelled. Refer to the Modelled estimates of GERD section of the Explanatory Notes for more information.

Due to continued interest in understanding total expenditure on R&D across the Business, Government, Higher Education and Private Non-Profit sectors, the following estimates have been modelled.

GERD for Australia is estimated at $33,062 million, an increase of $1,883 million (6%) over a two year period.

GERD, by sector

2008-09
2010-11
2011-12
2013-14
2015-16
2017-18
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m
$m

Business
17 291
18 007
18 321
18 849
16 659
17 438
Government
3 420
(a) 3 833
r3 549
(a) 3 752
(a) 3 959
(a) 3 329
Higher education
6 844
8 161
(a) 8 885
(a) 9 919
(a) 9 549
(a) 11 235
Private non-profit
744
(a) 914
r944
(a) 952
(a) 1 011
(a) 1 060
Total(b)
28 299
(a) 30 915
(a) r31 699
(a) 33 472
(a) 31 179
(a) 33 062

r revised
(a) These estimates have been modelled.
(b) Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between the sum of the component items and totals.


GERD and Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

GERD as a proportion of GDP decreased from 1.88% to 1.79%.

GERD, as a proportion of GDP(a)

2008-09
2010-11
2011-12
2013-14
2015-16
2017-18
%
%
%
%
%
%

GERD/GDP
2.25
2.18
2.11
2.09
1.88
1.79

(a) Refer to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Gross State Product (GSP) section of the Explanatory Notes for details.