Latest release

Australian Health Survey: Nutrition - State and Territory results

State and territory breakdown of average intakes of foods, nutrients and proportion of nutrients from food groups

Reference period
2011-2012
Released
10/06/2015
Next release Unknown
First release

Key findings

This publication summarises eating habits of Australians for each State and Territory. It presents results from a 24 hour dietary recall of foods and beverages from the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS). It contains general information on dietary behaviours, and consumption of selected foods and nutrients.

Foods consumed

How much food was consumed in Australia?

  • In Australia, during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3.1 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up of a wide variety of foods. People from Victoria and Tasmania consumed the least (3kg) while those from the Northern Territory consumed the most (3.7kg).
     

    Foods consumed

    Nationally, 6% of people aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables and 52% of people met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit.¹

    • The proportion of people from each State and Territory who met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables ranged between 9% in Tasmania and 5% in Queensland, the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT).
    • Those most likely to meet the recommendations for fruit were from the ACT and New South Wales (NSW) (54%) and least likely were from Tasmania (48%).
       

    The following are selected food groups showing the State or Territory with the highest and lowest proportion of people consuming:

      Non-alcoholic beverages

      Tea

      • Highest: Tasmanians (41%)
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (28%)
         

      Coffee

      • Highest: South Australians (50%)
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (37%)
         

      Fish and seafood products and dishes

      • Highest: Northern Territorians (22%)
      • Lowest: Tasmanians (13%)
         

      Fruit products and dishes

      • Highest: Canberrans (66%)
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (53%)
         

      Apples and pears

      • Highest: Canberrans (32%)
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (23%) and South Australians (23%)
         

      Citrus fruit

      • Highest: New South Wales (18%)
      • Lowest: Western Australians (10%) and Northern Territorians (10%)
         

      Tropical and subtropical fruit

      • Highest: New South Wales (23%)
      • Lowest: Tasmanians and Northern Territorians (18%)
         

      Milk products and dishes

      • Highest: Queenslanders and Tasmanians (88%)
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (82%)
         

      Yoghurt

      • Highest: Canberrans (19%)
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (11%)
         

      Cheese

      • Highest: South Australians and Tasmanians (36%),
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (25%)
         

      Vegetable products and dishes

      Potatoes

      • Highest: Tasmanians (42%)
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (25%)
         

      Carrots and similar root vegetables

      • Highest: Tasmanians (27%)
      • Lowest: South Australians (15%)
         

      Peas and beans

      • Highest: Tasmanians (17%)
      • Lowest: Northern Territorians (8%)
         

      For the full list of foods consumed see Table 3.1 for each State or Territory.

      Discretionary food

      • Australians obtained over a third (35%) of their total energy from 'discretionary foods'.
      • Canberrans obtained the least energy from 'discretionary foods' at one-third (33%) while Northern Territorians and Tasmanians obtained the most at 38%.
      • Northern Territorian adults derived a higher proportion of their daily discretionary energy from alcoholic beverages when compared to all Australian adults (9% compared with 6%).
      • Northern Territorians had the highest proportion of people who consumed 'soft drink' (33%) however they also had the lowest proportion of people of all the States and Territories who consumed 'confectionary' (20%), 'snack foods'(13%) and 'savoury biscuits' (12%).
      • Tasmanians had the highest proportion of people consuming 'confectionary' (37%).
      • People from NSW were most likely to report consuming 'snack foods' (16%).
      • Victorians were most likely to report consuming 'savoury biscuits' (19%).
      • Canberrans had the lowest proportion of people who reported drinking 'soft drink' (23%).
         

      For more information see Table 5.1 for each State and Territory.

        Energy and nutrients

        Energy

        • Men in all States and Territories had a similar average energy intake to the Australian average (9,954 kilojoules).
        • Women in all States and Territories had a similar average energy intake to the Australian average at 7,420 kilojoules, with the exception of women in Tasmania who consumed more (7769kJ).
        • The total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
        • Similar in all States and Territories, carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for Australians, supplying 45% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (31%), protein (18%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 4% of energy intake for adults in Australia. Each State and Territory was within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (with the exception of SA and WA for carbohydrates) and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
           

        For more information see Table 1.1 and Table 2.1 for each State and Territory.

        Selected macro and micro nutrients

        Alcohol

        In Australia, in 2011-12, almost a third of adults (aged 19 years and over) reported consuming an alcoholic beverage (32%) on the day prior to interview.

        • Western Australians had the highest proportion of adults consuming an alcoholic beverage (39%) while Victoria and Tasmania had the lowest (30%).
        • Northern Territorians had the highest proportion consuming beer (21%) and ACT had the lowest (11%).
        • Canberrans had the highest proportion of people drinking wine (22%) while the Northern Territory had the lowest (13%).
           

        Proportion of adults aged 19 years and over consuming beer, by state and territory, 2011-12

        Proportion of adults aged 19 years and over consuming beer, by state and territory, 2011-12

        Proportion of adults aged 19 years and over consuming beer, by state and territory, 2011-12

        Proportion of adults aged 19 years and over consuming beer, by state and territory, 2011-12

        Map of Australia showing the proportion of adults aged 19 years and over, consuming beer by State and Territory 2011-12.
        Northern Territory - 21%
        Western Australia - 18%
        New South Wales - 14%
        Queensland, South Australia and Tasmania - all 13%
        Victoria - 12%
        Australian Capital Territory - 11%
        Source: National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12

        Source: National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12
         

        Proportion of adults aged 19 years and over consuming wine, by state and territory, 2011-12

        Proportion of adults aged 19 years and over consuming wine, by state and territory, 2011-12

        Proportion of adults aged 19 years and over consuming wine, by state and territory, 2011-12

        Map of Australia showing the proportion of adults aged 19 years and over, consuming wine by state and territory 2011-12.
        Australian Capital Territory - 22%
        Western Australia and South Australia - both 18%
        New South Wales - 17%
        Victoria and Tasmania - both 15%
        Queensland - 14%
        Northern Territory - 13%
        Source: National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12

        Source: National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12
         

        Calcium

        • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over was 745mg. In every State and Territory, calcium intake was below the estimated average requirement (EAR), with the exception of Tasmania (where the average intake of 810mg was similar to the EAR). (The EAR for females aged 19-50 years is 840mg and 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over). For more information, see Table 1.1 for each State and Territory.
           

        Salt

        • Males in all States and Territories had an average salt intake that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg (for all Australian males average salt intake was 2,721mg).
           

        Food avoidance

        • In 2011-12, 17% of Australians aged two years or over reported avoiding a food due to allergy or intolerance.
        • Around 7% of Australians avoided particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
        • Canberrans had the highest proportion of people avoiding a food due to allergy or intolerance (21%).
        • Queensland had the lowest proportion avoiding particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons (4%).
           

        For more information see Table 6.1 for each State and Territory.

        Food security

        Nationally, 4.0% of people lived in a household that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and could not afford to buy more, and 1.5% of all Australians were in a household where someone went without food when they couldn't afford to buy any more. Rates were similar for all States and Territories. For more information see Table 7.1 for each State and Territory.

        Further information

        See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

        Endnote

        1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component).

        New South Wales

        Key facts – food and nutrients, 2011-12

        Foods consumed

        How much food was consumed in NSW?

        • In New South Wales (NSW), during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3.1 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up from a wide variety of foods.
           

        Foods consumed

        In NSW 6% of people aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables and 54% of people met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit which was similar to the national results.¹

        Similar proportions consumed the following foods when compared with the national results:

        • ‘Cereals and cereal products’ (89% for both groups)
        • ‘Cereal based products and dishes’ (72% for both groups)
        • ‘Meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (70% compared with 69%)
        • ‘Vegetable products and dishes’ (76% compared with 75%)
           

        People from NSW were more likely than all Australians to consume:

        • Tea (40% compared with 38%)
        • ‘Fruit products and dishes’ (63% compared with 60%)
           
          • Citrus fruit (18% compared with 15%)
          • Tropical and subtropical fruit (23% compared with 21%)
             

        Children (aged 2-18 years) in NSW were more likely than all Australian children to consume snack foods (34% compared with 29%).

        People from NSW were less likely to consume ‘Milk products and dishes’ (84% compared with 85%) when compared to all Australians.

        For the full list of foods consumed see NSW Table 3.1.

        Discretionary food

        • People in NSW obtained around one-third (34%) of their daily energy from 'discretionary foods'. This was lower than the Australian average (35%).
        • Adults (aged 19 years and over) in NSW obtained 33% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (8.6%), ‘alcoholic beverages’ (5.7%), and ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (3.4%).
        • Children (aged 2-18 years) in NSW obtained 38% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food group contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods was also ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (13.5%) followed by ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (4.8%) and ‘confectionary’ (3.9%).
           

        For more information see NSW Table 5.1.

        Energy and nutrients

        Energy

        • The average energy intake for people aged 19 years and over from NSW was similar to the national average for both males (9,982kJ compared with 9,954kJ) and females (7,475kJ compared with 7,420kJ). Total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
        • Carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for people in NSW (similar to all Australians), supplying 45% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (31%), protein (18%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 4% of energy intake for adults in NSW. These are within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
           

        For more information see Table 1.1 and Table 2.1.

        Selected macro and micro nutrients

        • Almost two in five men (38%) and one in four women (24%) in NSW consumed alcohol on the day before interview (see NSW Table 3.1 for more information).
        • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over in NSW was 752mg. This is below the estimated average requirement (which is 840mg for females aged 19-50 years and 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over). See NSW Table 1.1 for more information.
        • Males in NSW had an average intake of salt (2,651mg) that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg. See NSW Table 1.1 for more information.
           

        Food avoidance

        • In 2011-12, 17% of people from NSW aged two years or over reported avoiding particular foods due to allergy or intolerance.
        • Around 9% of people in NSW avoided particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
           

        See NSW Table 6.1 for more information.

        Food security

        Around 3.3% of people were living in a household in NSW that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and had not been able to afford to buy more and 1.1% went without food when they couldn’t afford to buy any more. See NSW Table 7.1 for more information.

        Further information

        See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

        Endnote

        1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component).

        Victoria

        Key facts – food and nutrients, 2011-12

        Foods consumed

        How much food was consumed in Victoria?

        • In Victoria during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up of a wide variety of foods.
           

        Foods consumed

        In Victoria 6% of people aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables and 52% of people met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit which was similar to the national results.¹

        Similar proportions consumed the following foods when compared with the national results:

        • ‘Fruit products and dishes’ (60% for both groups)
        • ‘Meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (68% compared with 69%)
        • ‘Milk products and dishes’ (84% compared with 85%)
        • ‘Vegetable products and dishes’ (74% compared with 75%)
           

        Victorians were more likely than all Australians to consume:

        • ‘Cereals and cereal products’ (92% compared with 89%)
          • Regular breads and bread rolls (69% compared with 66%)
             
        • ‘Cereal based products and dishes’ (75% compared with 72%)
        • Stone fruit (10% compared with 8%)
        • 'Soup' (12% compared with 10%)
           

        Victorians were less likely than all Australians to consume:

        • Tropical and subtropical fruit (19% compared with 21%)
        • Dairy milk (66% compared with 68%)
        • Potatoes (29% compared with 31%)
        • 'Alcoholic beverages' (30% of Victorian adults compared with 32% of all adult Australians)
           

        Victorian children (aged 2-18 years) were less likely to consume confectionary when compared with all Australian children (40% compared with 45% respectively).

        For the full list of foods consumed see Victoria Table 3.1.

        Discretionary food

        • People in Victoria obtained around one-third (35%) of their daily energy from 'discretionary foods'. This was the same as the Australian average (35%).
        • Adults (aged 19 years and over) in Victoria obtained 34% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (9.4%), ‘alcoholic beverages’ (5.1%) and ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (3.2%).
        • Children (aged 2-18 years) in Victoria obtained 38% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food group contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods was also ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (13.4%) followed by ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (4.5%) and ‘confectionary’ (3.6%).
           

        For more information see Victoria Table 5.1.

        Energy and nutrients

        Energy

        • The average energy intake for people aged 19 years and over from Victoria was similar to the national average for both males (10,070kJ compared with 9,954kJ) and females (7,334kJ compared with 7,420kJ). Total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
        • Carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for Victorians (similar to all Australians), supplying 46% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (31%), protein (18%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 4% of energy intake for adults in Victoria. These are within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
           

        For more information see Victoria Table 1.1 and Victoria Table 2.1.

        Selected macro and micro nutrients

        • Over one-third of all men (35%) and one out of four women (25%) in Victoria consumed alcohol on the day before interview (see Victoria Table 3.1 for more information).
        • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over in Victoria was 736mg. This is below the estimated average requirement (which is 840mg for females aged 19-50 years and 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over). See Victoria Table 1.1 for more information.
        • Both boys (aged 2-18 years) and adult males in Victoria had an average intake of salt (2,717mg and 2,936mg respectively) that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg. See Victoria Table 1.1 for more information.
           

        Food avoidance

        • In 2011-12, 17% of Victorians aged two years or over reported avoiding particular foods due to allergy or intolerance.
        • In Victoria 8.5% of people avoided particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
           

        See Victoria Table 6.1 for more information.

        Food security

        Around 3.7% of people were living in a household in Victoria that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and had not been able to afford to buy more and 1% went without food when they couldn’t afford to buy any more. See Victoria Table 7.1 for more information.

        Further information

        See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

        Endnote

        1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component).

        Queensland

        Key facts – food and nutrients, 2011-12

        Foods consumed

        How much food was consumed in Queensland?

        • In Queensland, during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3.3 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up of a wide variety of foods.
           

        Foods consumed

        In Queensland 5% of people aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables and 52% of people met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit which was similar to the national results.¹

        Similar proportions consumed the following foods when compared with the national results:

        • ‘Cereals and cereal products’ (88% compared with 89%)
        • ‘Cereal based products and dishes’ (72% for both groups)
        • ‘Fruit products and dishes’ (60% for both groups)
        • ‘Meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (71% compared with 69%)
        • ‘Vegetable products and dishes’ (74% compared with 75%)
           

        Queenslanders were more likely than all Australians to consume:

        • 'Fats and oils' (49% compared with 46%)
        • ‘Milk products and dishes’ (88% compared with 85%)
          • Dairy milk (71% compared with 68%)
             
        • Potatoes (36% compared with 31%)
        • 'Sugar products and dishes' (53% compared with 50%)
           

        Queenslanders were less likely than all Australians to consume:

        • Tea (34% compared with 38%)
        • 'Soup' (6% compared with 10%)
        • Dishes where vegetable is the major component (19% compared with 22%)
        • Wine (14% of Queensland adults compared with 16% of all Australian adults)
           

        For the full list of foods consumed Queensland Table 3.1.

        Discretionary food

        • Queenslanders obtained 37% of their energy from 'discretionary foods'. This was higher than the Australian average of 35%.
        • Adults (aged 19 years and over) in Queensland obtained 36% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (9.5%), ‘alcoholic beverages’ (6.1%) and ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (4.0%).
        • Children (aged 2-18 years) in Queensland obtained 41% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food group contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods was also ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (13.5%) followed by ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (5.2%) and ‘confectionary’ (4.0%).
           

        For more information see Queensland Table 5.1.

        Energy and nutrients

        Energy

        • The average energy intake for people aged 19 years and over from Queensland was similar to the national average for both males (9,977 kJ compared with 9,954kJ) and females (7,351 kJ compared with 7,420 kJ). Total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
        • Carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for Queenslanders (similar to all Australians), supplying 45% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (31%), protein (18%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 4% of energy intake for adults in Queensland. These are within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
           

        For more information see Queensland Table 1.1 and Queensland Table 2.1.

        Selected macro and micro nutrients

        • Just over two in five men (42%) and just under one in four women (24%) in Queensland consumed alcohol on the day before interview (see Queensland Table 3.1 for more information).
        • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over in Queensland was 720mg. This is below the estimated average requirement (which is 840mg for females aged 19-50 years and 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over). See Queensland Table 1.1 for more information.
        • Males in Queensland had an average intake of salt (2,638mg) that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg. See Queensland Table 1.1 for more information.
           

        Food avoidance

        • In 2011-12, 17% of Queenslanders aged two years or over reported avoiding particular foods due to allergy or intolerance.
        • Queenslanders were less likely to avoid particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons when compared with the national results (4% compared with 7%).
           

        See Queensland Table 6.1 for more information.

        Food security

        Around 5.2% of people were living in a household in Queensland that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and had not been able to afford to buy more and 2.4% went without food when they couldn’t afford to buy any more. See Queensland Table 7.1 for more information.

        Further information

        See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

        Endnote

        1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component).

        South Australia

        Key facts – food and nutrients, 2011-12

        Foods consumed

        How much food was consumed in South Australia?

        • In South Australia (SA) during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3.1 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up of a wide variety of foods.
           

        Foods consumed

        In South Australia 6% of people aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables, which is similar to the national results. However, fewer South Australians met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit when compared to all of Australia (49% compared with 52%).¹

        Similar proportions consumed the following foods when compared with the national results:

        • ‘Cereals and cereal products’ (89% for both groups)
        • ‘Cereal based products and dishes’ (70% compared with 72%)
        • ‘Meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (69% for both groups)
        • ‘Milk products and dishes’ (87% compared with 85%)
        • ‘Vegetable products and dishes’ (77% compared with 75%)
           

        South Australians were more likely than all Australians to consume:

        • Coffee (50% compared with 46%)
        • 'Fats and oils' (50% compared with 46%)
        • Dairy milk (72% compared with 68%)
        • Cheese (36% compared with 32%)
        • Potatoes (35% compared with 31%)
        • 'Confectionary' (36% compared with 31%)
           

        South Australians were less likely than all Australians to consume:

        • ‘Fruit products and dishes’ (57% compared with 60%)
          • Apples and pears (23% compared with 26%)
          • Citrus fruit (12% compared with 15%)
             
        • Yoghurt (14% compared with 16%)
        • Carrot and similar root vegetables (15% compared with 18%)
           

        For the full list of foods consumed see SA Table 3.1.

        Download
        1. Confectionery and cereal/nut/fruit/seed bars
          Source(s): National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12
           

        Discretionary food

        • People in South Australia obtained around one-third (36%) of their daily energy from 'discretionary foods'. This was similar to the Australian average (35%).
        • Adults (aged 19 years and over) in SA obtained 36% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (8.9%), ‘alcoholic beverages’ (6.7%) and ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (3.9%).
        • Children (aged 2-18 years) in SA obtained 39% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food group contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods was also ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (12.1%) followed by ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (4.8%) and ‘confectionary’ (4.5%).
           

        For more information see SA Table 5.1

        Energy and nutrients

        Energy

        • The average energy intake for people aged 19 years and over from SA was similar to the national average for both males (9,578kJ compared with 9,954kJ) and females (7,372kJ compared with 7,420kJ). Total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
        • Carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for South Australians (similar to all Australians), supplying 44% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (31%), protein (18%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 5% of energy intake for adults in South Australia. These are within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (with the exception of carbohydrates - 44% compared with 45%) and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
           

        For more information see SA Table 1.1 and SA Table 2.1.

        Selected macro and micro nutrients

        • Almost two in five men (39%) and just over one in four women (26%) in SA consumed alcohol on the day before interview (see SA Table 3.1 for more information).
        • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over in South Australia was 761mg. This is below the estimated average requirement (which is 840mg for females aged 19-50 years and 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over). See SA Table 1.1 for more information.
        • Males in SA had an average intake of salt (2,662mg) that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg. See SA Table 1.1 for more information.
           

        Food avoidance

        • In 2011-12, 19% of South Australians aged two years or over reported avoiding particular foods due to allergy or intolerance.
        • Around 5% of people in South Australia avoided particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
           

        See SA Table 6.1 for more information.

        Food security

        Around 3% of people were living in a household in South Australia that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and had not been able to afford to buy more and 1.5% went without food when they couldn’t afford to buy any more. See SA Table 7.1 for more information.

        Further information

        See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

        Endnote

        1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component).

        Western Australia

        Key facts – food and nutrients, 2011-12

        Foods consumed

        How much food was consumed in Western Australia?

        • In Western Australia (WA), during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3.3 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up of a wide variety of foods.
           

        Foods consumed

        In Western Australia 7% of people aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables and 53% of people met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit, which was similar to the national results.¹

        Similar proportions consumed the following foods when compared with the national results:

        • ‘Cereal based products and dishes’ (72% for both groups)
        • ‘Meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (69% for both groups)
        • 'Milk products and dishes’ (86% compared with 85%)
        • ‘Vegetable products and dishes’ (73% compared with 75%)
           

        Western Australians were more likely than all Australians to consume:

        • Mixed dishes where cereal is the major ingredient (e.g. savoury pasta/noodle dishes, burgers, pizza etc.) (38% compared with 35%)
        • Dishes where vegetable is the major component ( 25% compared with 22%)
        • ‘Alcoholic beverages’ (39% of WA adults compared with 32% of all Australian adults)
          • Beer (18% of WA adults compared with 14% of all Australian adults)
             

        Western Australians were less likely than all Australians to consume:

        • ‘Cereals and cereal products’ (87% compared with 89%)
        • Sweet biscuits ( 22% compared with 24%)
        • Savoury biscuits (14% compared with 17%)
        • ‘Fruit products and dishes’ (58% compared with 60%)
          • Citrus fruit (10% compared with 15%)
             
        • Cheese (30% compared with 32%)
        • Peas and beans (8% compared with 10%)
        • 'Sugar products and dishes'(47% compared with 50%)
           

        For the full list of foods consumed see WA Table 3.1.

        Discretionary food

        • Western Australians obtained 36% of their energy from 'discretionary foods'. This was similar to the Australian average of 35%.
        • Adults (aged 19 years and over) from WA obtained 36% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (8.9%), ‘alcoholic beverages’ (8.2%) and ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (3.7%).
        • Children (aged 2-18 years) from WA obtained 38% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food group contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods was also ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (13.2%) followed by ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (4.9%) and ‘confectionary’ (3.7%).
           

        For more information see WA Table 5.1.

        Energy and nutrients

        Energy

          • The average energy intake for people aged 19 years and over from WA was similar to the national average for both males (9,818kJ compared with 9,954kJ) and females (7,525kJ compared with 7,420kJ). Total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
          • Carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for Western Australians (similar to all Australians), supplying 44% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (31%), protein (18%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 6% of energy intake for adults in Western Australia. These are within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (with the exception of carbohydrates - 44% compared with 45%) and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
             

          For more information see WA Table 1.1 and WA Table 2.1.

          Selected macro and micro nutrients

          • Almost half of all men (46%) and nearly one in three females (32%) in WA consumed alcohol on the day before interview (see WA Table 3.1 for more information).
          • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over in WA was 765mg. This is below the estimated average requirement (which is 840mg for females aged 19-50 years and 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over). See WA Table 1.1 for more information.
          • Both boys and adult males in WA had an average intake of salt (2,732mg and 2,713mg respectively) that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg. See WA Table 1.1 for more information.
             

          Food avoidance

          • In 2011-12, 19% of Western Australians aged two years or over reported avoiding particular foods due to allergy or intolerance.
          • Around 8% of people in Western Australia avoided particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
             

          See WA Table 6.1 for more information.

          Food security

          Around 4.8% of people were living in a household in WA that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and had not been able to afford to buy more and 2.1% went without food when they couldn’t afford to buy any more. See WA Table 7.1 for more information.

          Further information

          See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

          Endnote

          1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component).

          Tasmania

          Key facts – food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Foods consumed

          How much food was consumed in Tasmania?

          • In Tasmania during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up of a wide variety of foods.
             

          Foods consumed

          A higher proportion of Tasmanians aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables when compared to the national results (9% compared with 6%). However, a lower proportion of Tasmanians met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit when compared to the national results (48% compared with 52%). ¹

          Similar proportions consumed the following foods when compared with the national results:

          • ‘Cereals and cereal products’ (88% compared with 89%)
          • ‘Cereal based products and dishes’ (75% compared with 72%)
          • ‘Fruit products and dishes’ (58% compared with 60%)
          • ‘Meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (69% for both groups)
          • ‘Vegetable products and dishes’ (73% compared with 75%)
             

          Tasmanians were more likely than all Australians to consume:

          • Tea (41% compared with 38%)
          • Coffee (49% compared with 46%)
          • Regular breads and bread rolls (70% compared with 66%)
          • 'Fats and oils' (55% compared with 46%)
          • Milk products and dishes’ (88% compared with 85%)
            • Dairy Milk (76% compared with 68%)
            • Cheese (36% compared with 32%)
               
          • Potatoes (42% compared with 31%)
          • Carrots and other root vegetables (27% compared with 18%)
          • Cabbage, cauliflower and similar brassica vegetables (14% compared with 10%)
          • Peas and beans (17% compared with 10%)
          • 'Sugar products and dishes' (57% compared with 50%)
          • 'Confectionary' (37% compared with 31%)
             

          Tasmanians were less likely than all Australians to consume:

          • Soft drinks (24% compared with 29%)
          • Mixed dishes where cereal is the major ingredient (e.g. savoury pasta/noodle dishes, burgers, pizza etc.) (32% compared with 35%)
          • 'Fish and seafood products’ (13% compared with 17%).
          • Citrus fruit (11% compared with 15%)
          • Dishes where vegetable is the major component (16% compared with 22%)
             

          For the full list of foods consumed see Tasmania Table 3.1.

          Download
          1. Cabbage, cauliflower and similar brassica
          2. Carrot and similar root vegetables
          3. Dishes where vegetable is the major component
            Source(s): National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12
             

          Discretionary food

          • Tasmanians obtained 38% of their energy from 'discretionary foods'. This was higher than the Australian average (35%).
          • Adults (aged 19 years and over) in Tasmania obtained 38% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (10.7%), ‘alcoholic beverages’ (5.9%) and ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (4.0%).
          • Children (aged 2-18 years) in Tasmania obtained 38% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food group contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods was also ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (13.1%) followed by ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (5.6%), and ‘confectionary‘(4.3%).
             

          For more information see Tasmania Table 5.1.

          Energy and nutrients

          Energy

          • Men in Tasmania consumed a similar amount of kilojoules when compared with all Australian men (10,143kJ compared with 9,954kJ), however women consumed more when compared with all Australian women (7,769kJ compared with 7,420kJ). Total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
          • Carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for Tasmanians (similar to all Australians), supplying 46% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (31%), protein (17%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 4% of energy intake for Tasmanian adults. These are within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
             

          For more information see Tasmania Table 1.1 and Tasmania Table 2.1.

          Selected macro and micro nutrients

          • Over one third of all men (36%) and one in four women (24%) in Tasmania consumed alcohol on the day before interview (see Tasmania Table 3.1 for more information).
          • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over in Tasmania was 810mg. This was similar to the estimated average requirement (EAR) of 840mg for females aged 19-50 years, however it was below the EAR of 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over.
          • Tasmanians aged two years and over had a higher average calcium intake when compared with all Australians (872mg compared with 805mg for all Australians). Differences in food consumed may help to explain this difference. See Tasmania Table 1.1 for more information.
          • Both boys (aged 2-18 years) and adult males in Tasmania had an average intake of salt (2,792mg and 2,843mg respectively) that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg. See Tasmania Table 1.1 for more information.
             

          Food avoidance

          • In 2011-12, 20% of Tasmanians aged two years or over reported avoiding particular foods due to allergy or intolerance.
          • Around 8% of people in Tasmania avoided particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
             

          See Tasmania Table 6.1 for more information.

          Food security

          Around 5.8% of people were living in a household in Tasmania that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and had not been able to afford to buy more and 2.4% went without food when they couldn’t afford to buy any more. See Tasmania Table 7.1 for more information.

          Further information

          See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

          Endnote

          1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component).

          Northern Territory

          Key facts – food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Foods consumed

          How much food was consumed in the Northern Territory?

          • In the Northern Territory (NT), during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3.7 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up of a wide variety of foods.
             

          Foods consumed

          In the Northern Territory, 5% of people aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables and 49% of people met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit, which was similar to the national results.¹

          Similar proportions consumed the following foods when compared with the national results:

          • ‘Cereals and cereal products’ (87% compared with 89%)
          • ‘Meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (71% compared with 69%)
          • ‘Milk products and dishes’ (82% compared with 85%)
          • ‘Vegetable products and dishes’ (72% compared with 75%)
             

          Northern Territorians were more likely than all Australians to consume:

          • ‘Fish and seafood products’ (22% compared with 17%)
          • Beer (21% of adults in NT compared with 14% of all Australian adults)
             

          Northern Territorians were less likely than all Australians to consume:

          • Tea (28% compared with 38%)
          • Coffee (37% compared with 46%)
          • Regular breads and bread rolls (62% compared with 66%)
          • ‘Cereal based products and dishes’ (68% compared with 72%)
            • Sweet biscuits (21% compared with 24%)
            • Savoury biscuits (12% compared with 17%)
               
          • 'Fats and oils' (38% compared with 46%)
          • ‘Fruit products and dishes’ (53% compared with 60%)
            • Apples and pears (23% compared with 26%)
            • Citrus fruit (10% compared with 15%)
               
          • Dairy milk (60% compared with 68%)
          • Yoghurt (11% compared with 16%)
          • Cheese (25% compared with 32%)
          • Potatoes (25% compared with 31%)
          • Cabbage, cauliflower and similar brassica vegetables (8% compared with 10%)
          • Peas and beans (8% compared with 10%)
          • 'Confectionary' (20% compared with 31%)
          • Wine (13% of adults in NT compared with 16% of all Australia adults)
             

          For the full list of foods consumed see NT Table 3.1.

          Download
          1. Confectionery and cereal/nut/fruit/seed bars
            Source(s): National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12
             

          Discretionary food

          • Northern Territorians obtained 38% of their energy from 'discretionary foods'. This was higher than the Australian average of 35%.
          • Adults (aged 19 years and over) obtained 38% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘alcoholic beverages’ (8.5%), ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (7.5%), and ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (5.3%).
          • Northern Territorian adults derived a higher proportion of their daily discretionary energy from alcoholic beverages when compared with all Australian adults (9% compared with 6%).
          • Children (aged 2-18 years) obtained 39% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (13.5%) followed by ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (5.8%) and ‘meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (3.2%).
             

          For more information see NT Table 5.1.

          Energy and nutrients

          Energy

          • The average energy intake for people aged 19 years and over from NT was similar to the national average for both males (10,078kJ compared with 9,954kJ) and females (7,359kJ compared with 7,420kJ). Total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
          • Carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for Northern Territorians (similar to all Australians), supplying 45% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (30%), protein (19%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 5% of energy intake for adults in the NT. These are within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
             

          For more information see NT Table 1.1 and NT Table 2.1

          Selected macro and micro nutrients

          • Almost half of all men (47%) and nearly one in four women (24%) in the Northern Territory consumed alcohol on the day before interview (see NT Table 3.1 for more information).
          • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over in the NT was 695mg. This is below the estimated average requirement (which is 840mg for females aged 19-50 years and 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over). See NT Table 1.1 for more information.
          • Males in the Northern Territory had an average intake of salt (2,705mg) that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg. See NT Table 1.1 for more information.
             

          Food avoidance

          • In 2011-12, 17% of Northern Territorians aged two years or over reported avoiding particular foods due to allergy or intolerance.
          • Around 6% of people in NT avoided particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
             

          See NT Table 6.1 for more information.

          Food security

          Around 4.7% of people were living in a household in the NT that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and had not been able to afford to buy more and 2.6% went without food when they couldn’t afford to buy any more. See NT Table 7.1 for more information.

          Further information

          In the Northern Territory around 23% of the population are living in Very Remote areas. As Very Remote areas of Australia and discrete Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities (and the remainder of the Collection Districts in which these communities were located) were excluded, this may have an effect on aggregate estimates produced for this Territory. See Explanatory Notes in the Methodology for more information. Also refer to the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (NATSINPAS).

          See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

          Endnote

          1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component).

          Australian Capital Territory

          Key facts – food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Foods consumed

          How much food was consumed in the ACT?

          • In the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), during 2011-12, people aged two years and over consumed an estimated 3.1 kilograms of foods and beverages (including water) per day, made up of a wide variety of foods.
             

          Foods consumed

          In the ACT 5% of people aged two years and over met the recommended usual daily intake of vegetables and 54% of people met the recommended usual daily intake of fruit, which was similar to the national results.¹

          Similar proportions consumed the following foods when compared with national results:

          • ‘Cereal based products and dishes’ (75% compared with 72%)
          • ‘Meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (69% for both groups)
          • ‘Milk products and dishes’ (87% compared with 85%)
          • ‘Vegetable products and dishes’ (77% compared with 75%)
             

          Canberrans were more likely than all Australians to consume:

          • ‘Cereals and cereal products’ (92% compared with 89%)
          • ‘Fruit products and dishes’ (66% compared with 60%)
            • Apples and pears (32% compared with 26%)
               
          • Yoghurt (19% compared with 16%)
          • 'Soup' (13% compared with 10%)
          • Wine (22% of ACT adults compared with 16% of all Australian adults).
             

          Canberrans were less likely than all Australians to consume:

          • Soft drinks (23% compared with 29%)
          • Potatoes (26% compared with 31%)
          • Cabbage, cauliflower and similar brassica vegetables (8% compared with 10%)
          • Beer (11% of ACT adults compared with 14% of all Australian adults)
             

          For the full list of foods consumed see ACT Table 3.1.

          Download

          Source(s): National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, 2011-12
           

          Discretionary food

          • Canberrans obtained one-third (33%) of their energy from 'discretionary foods'. This was lower than the Australian average of 35%.
          • Adults (aged 19 years and over) in the ACT obtained 33% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food groups contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods were ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (10%), ‘alcoholic beverages’ (5.4%) and ‘non-alcoholic beverages’ (2.9%).
          • Children (aged 2-18 years) in the ACT obtained 34% of daily energy from discretionary foods. The main food group contributing to the total energy consumed from discretionary foods was also ‘cereal based products and dishes’ (9.6%) followed by ‘confectionary’ (4.6%) and ‘meat, poultry and game products and dishes’ (3.8%).
             

          For more information see ACT Table 5.1.

          Energy and nutrients

          Energy

          • The average energy intake for people aged 19 years and over from the ACT was similar to the national average for both males (9,593kJ compared with 9,954kJ) and females (7,626kJ compared with 7,420kJ). Total energy intake is likely to be an under-estimate due to under-reporting.
          • Carbohydrates contributed the largest proportion of total energy for Canberrans (similar to all Australians), supplying 45% on average with the balance of energy coming from fat (31%), protein (18%) and dietary fibre (2%). Alcohol also provided 5% of energy intake for adults in Canberra. These are within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges and within the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommended alcohol intake.
             

          For more information see ACT Table 1.1 and ACT Table 2.1

          Selected macro and micro nutrients

          • Almost two in five men (39%) and three in ten women (30%) in the ACT consumed alcohol on the day before interview (see ACT Table 3.1 for more information).
          • In 2011-12, the average daily consumption of calcium for women aged 19 years and over in the ACT was 781mg. This is below the estimated average requirement (which is 840mg for females aged 19-50 years and 1100mg for females aged 51 years and over). See ACT Table 1.1 for more information.
          • Both boys and adult males in Canberra had an average intake of salt (2,733mg and 2,713mg respectively) that exceeded the adult upper level of intake of 2,300mg. See ACT Table 1.1 for more information.
             

          Food avoidance

          • In 2011-12, 21% of Canberrans aged two years and over reported avoiding particular foods due to allergy or intolerance, a higher proportion than when compared with all Australians (21% compared with 17%).
          • Around 8% of Canberrans avoided particular foods for cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
             

          See ACT Table 6.1 for more information.

          Food security

          Around 3.6% of people were living in a household in the ACT that, in the previous 12 months, had run out of food and had not been able to afford to buy more and 1.5% went without food when they couldn’t afford to buy any more. See ACT Table 7.1 for more information.

          Further information

          See Further information for definitions and more detailed explanations relating to this analysis.

          Endnote

          1. The proportion of persons meeting the recommended intakes for fruit and vegetables were sourced from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 (2011-12 Core component)

          Further information

          About the survey

          The 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) is a component of the 2011–12 Australian Health Survey (AHS), the largest and most comprehensive health survey ever conducted in Australia. The National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey involved the collection of detailed information on dietary intake and foods consumed from over 12,000 participants across Australia. The nutrition component is the first national nutrition survey of adults and children (aged 2 years and over) conducted in over 15 years.

          Information for the nutrition component of the NNPAS was gathered using a 24-hour dietary recall on all foods and beverages consumed on the day prior to the interview. Where possible, at least 8 days after the first interview, respondents were contacted to participate in a second 24-hour dietary recall via telephone interview. This publication presents results from the first interview, with information on food, beverages and dietary supplements, as well as some general information on dietary behaviours.

          Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges

          Reference ranges known as Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) form part of the recommendations for optimising diets to lower chronic disease risk while ensuring adequate micronutrient status.¹

          Age groups used in this publication

          The terms 'children', 'boys' and 'girls' are for people aged 2-18 years, and 'adults', 'men' and 'women' refer to people aged 19 years and over.

          Alcohol

          In the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS), alcohol refers to pure alcohol (or ethanol), which, as a macronutrient, contributes 29 kJ per gram.

          Alcohol intake - recommended

          Alcohol can also contribute to dietary energy. Alcohol intakes below about 5% of dietary energy are recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council.¹

          Alcoholic beverages

          The 'Alcoholic beverages' food group includes beers, wines, spirits, cider and other alcoholic beverages.

          Calcium

          Calcium is a mineral required for the growth and maintenance of the bones and teeth, as well as the proper functioning of the muscular and cardiovascular systems. Low intake of calcium is associated with osteoporosis, a low bone density condition particularly affecting post-menopausal women.²

          NHMRC, Estimated Average Requirements - calcium

          The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) describes the Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for calcium, which are the daily levels of calcium estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.

          Estimated Average Requirement

          Age group (years)Males Females 
          mg/daymg/day
          2-3360360
          4-8520520
          9-11800800
          12-181 0501 050
          19-50840840
          51-708401 100
          71 years and over1 1001 100
          Source: National Health and Medical Research Council 2006, Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand, Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council http://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/calcium

           

          Dietary supplements

          Intakes from supplements are not included in this publication or Australian Health Survey: Nutrition Second Results - Usual Nutrient Intakes (cat. no 4364.0.55.008). For information on selected supplements, see Australian Health Survey: Nutrition - Supplements (cat. no. 4364.0.55.010) for more information.

          Discretionary foods

          The 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines describes discretionary foods as being: “foods and drinks not necessary to provide the nutrients the body needs, but that may add variety. However, many of these are high in saturated fats, sugars, salt and/or alcohol, and are therefore described as energy dense. They can be included sometimes in small amounts by those who are physically active, but are not a necessary part of the diet”.

          The Australian Dietary Guidelines Summary lists examples of discretionary choices as including: "cakes, biscuits; confectionary, chocolate; pastries, pies; ice confections, butter, cream, and spreads which contain predominantly saturated fats; potato chips, crisps and other fatty or salty snack foods; sugar-sweetened soft drinks and cordials, sports and energy drinks and alcoholic drinks." Based on these definitions and the supporting documents which underpin the Australian Dietary Guidelines, foods reported within the NNPAS have been categorised as discretionary or non-discretionary. See User Guide section Discretionary Foods for more information.

          Energy

          Dietary energy is required by the body for metabolic processes, physiological functions, muscular activity, heat production and growth and development.³ Energy requirements vary with age, sex, body size and physical activity, so the amount of energy consumed would be expected to vary considerably throughout the population.

          Energy and nutrient intakes in this publication are derived only from foods and beverages from the first 24-hour recall day. The nutrients from supplements are excluded from this analysis. No adjustment has been made to include information from the second 24-hour recall day to calculate usual intakes, see Australian Health Survey: Nutrition Second Results - Usual Nutrient Intakes (cat. no 4364.0.55.008) for more information.

          Estimated Average Requirement

          The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) is a daily nutrient level estimated to meet the requirements of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group.³

          Food avoidance

          Food avoidance refers to people who avoid particular foods due to:

          • allergy or intolerance of food groups
          • cultural, religious or ethical reasons.
             

          Food groups

          Foods and beverages reported by respondents in the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) were collected and coded at a detailed level, but for output purposes are categorised within a food classification with major, sub-major, and minor group levels. At the broadest level (the Major group) there are 24 groups. These groups were designed to categorise foods that share a major component or common feature. The classification was developed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand, along with the Nutrient Database, specifically for the Australian Health Survey.

          Because many foods are in fact mixtures of different ingredients, the food groups will not exclusively contain the main food of that group. For example, a beef and vegetable casserole will belong within the major group of 'Meat, poultry and game products and dishes', yet will contain vegetables and sauce or gravy.

          'Cereal-based products and dishes' is a particular example of a Major group where there may be a significant proportion of other (non-cereal) ingredients in the foods. While the common feature of this food group is cereal, the foods belonging to this group are very diverse and includes biscuits, cakes, pastries, mixed pasta or rice dishes, burgers, pizza and tacos. The 'Cereal-based products and dishes' should not be confused with 'Cereal and cereal products' which contains more basic foods such as bread, plain rice, plain pasta, breakfast cereals, oats and other grains.

          For more information see Appendix 1: Example foods in Major food groups.

          Food security

          Food security, according to the World Health Organisation definition, requires constant access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.

          This topic collects information on the number of households that have experienced financial barriers in regards to purchasing food. Specifically, this topic focusses on:

          • running out of food and being unable to purchase more due to cost
          • having difficulty ensuring a constant food intake is sustained.
             

          Recommended usual intake of fruit

          In addition to collecting information about the foods actually consumed on the previous day, the AHS also asked respondents the usual number of serves of fruit consumed in a day.
          A serve is equivalent to:

          • one medium piece
          • two small pieces of fruit
          • one cup of diced fruit pieces
          • one quarter of a cup of sultanas
          • four dried apricot halves
             

          In this publication, data about recommended usual intake of fruit is derived from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 ( 2011-12 Core component) as it provides a larger sample. 

          The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend a minimum number of serves of fruit each day, depending on age and sex, to ensure good nutrition and health. The table below outlines the recommended number of serves for children, adolescents and adults. Although the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines specify that fruit should mostly be eaten fresh and raw, other forms of fruit can count towards the daily serves occasionally. A serve is approximately 150 grams of fresh fruit, 125 ml of fruit juice (no added sugar) or 30 grams of dried fruit.*

          Recommended daily serves of fruit, by age**

          Age group (years)Fruit (serves)
          Persons
          2-31
          4-81.5
          9-112
          12-132
          14-182
          19-502
          51-702
          71 years and over2
          *Note, while the NHMRC 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines allow fruit juice to be used occasionally as one of the daily serves of fruit, the AHS only collected usual serves of fruit (excluding juice).
          **The AHS collected whole serves which does not allow strict comparability for the 4-8 year olds, rounding the recommendation up to two serves provides an indication of the proportion who would meet the recommendation. A future Australian Health Survey product will provide further comparisons with the guidelines.

           

          Recommended usual intake of vegetables

          In addition to collecting information about the foods actually consumed on the previous day, the 2011-12 AHS also asked people the usual number of serves of vegetables consumed in a day.

          A serve is equivalent to:

          • half a cup of cooked vegetables
          • half a medium potato
          • 1 cup of salad vegetables
             

          In this publication, data about recommended usual intake of vegetables is derived from the Australian Health Survey 2011-13 ( 2011-12 Core component) as it provides a larger sample.

          The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend a minimum number of serves of vegetables and legumes/beans each day, depending on age and sex, to ensure good nutrition and health. The table below outlines the recommended number of serves for children, adolescents and adults. A serve is approximately half a cup of cooked vegetables or legumes/beans or one cup of salad vegetables - equivalent to around 75 grams.*

          Recommended daily serves of vegetables, by age***

          Age group (years)Vegetable (serves) 
          MalesFemales
          2-32.52.5
          4-84.54.5
          9-1155
          12-135.55
          14-185.55
          19-5065**
          51-705.55
          71 years and over55
          *Note, while the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines include servings of legumes and beans in the recommendations for vegetable intake, the AHS only collected serves of vegetables (excluding legumes).
          **Note, the recommended usual intake of vegetables for breastfeeding women is 7.5 serves and pregnant women is 5 serves, however these population groups have not been separated from the nutrient data output for this data item.
          ***The AHS collected whole serves which does not allow strict comparability with the guidelines (in which some age/sex groups use half serves). The data presented have been derived by rounding the recommendation up to the whole number of serves, it is therefore likely that proportions who would meet the recommendation in particular categories are underestimates. A future Australian Health Survey product will provide further comparisons with the guidelines.

           

          Salt

          Sodium occurs in a number of different forms but is generally consumed as sodium chloride (commonly known as salt). Salt is a naturally occurring mineral needed to maintain adequate blood pressure and electrolyte balance. It is commonly added to foods to enhance flavours and to act as a preservative. High salt intake can raise blood pressure, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, kidney disease, oedema and osteoporosis.

          The amounts reported in this publication include sodium naturally present in foods as well as sodium added during processing, and exclude salt added by consumers either during cooking or at the table. For these reasons, these figures are likely to be an underestimate. See the Interpretation section of the Nutrient Intake chapter of the Australian Health Survey: User's Guide, 2011-13 (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001) for more information.

          NHRMC, sodium, upper level of intake (UL)

          The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) recommends a daily upper level of intake of 2,300mg of salt for adults and between 1,000mg and 2,300mg for children.

          Upper level of intake

          Age group (years)Males Females 
          mg/daymg/day
          2-31,0001,000
          4-81,4001,400
          9-132,0002,000
          14-182,3002,300
          19-502,3002,300
          51-702,3002,300
          71 years and over2,3002,300
          Source: National Health and Medical Research Council, Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand, https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/sodium

           

          Selected micronutrients

          The vitamins and minerals presented for each State and Territory (see Table 1.1 and Table 2.1) are based on Day 1 intakes from foods only, (that is, not adjusted for usual intakes and exclusive of any amounts taken from dietary supplements). Although the data are presented alongside Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) such as Estimated Average Requirements, (EARs), these are for context only and do not indicate the levels of nutrient deficiency/excess intake of the population group in relation to that NRV.

          In order to make assessments about the proportion of the population who are at risk of inadequate intakes over the longer term, it is necessary to consider not only the mean or median intake but also the distribution of longer-term ‘usual’ intake in the population. Usual nutrient intakes are modelled estimates of the proportion of people who usually consume particular amounts of nutrients, as opposed to what they reported eating on the particular day they were surveyed in 2011-12. Usual nutrient intakes information is available in Australian Health Survey: Nutrition Second Results - Usual Nutrient Intakes (cat. no 4364.0.55.008).

          Under-reporting

          In order to assist in the interpretation of data from the 2011-12 NNPAS and particularly in comparisons with the 1995 National Nutrition Survey, there are a few key points that should be noted.

          • It is likely that under-reporting is present in both surveys.
          • There appears to be an increase in the level under-reporting for males between 1995 and 2011-12, especially for males aged 9 - 50.
          • The level of under-reporting by female respondents also appears to have increased, but to a lesser extent than for males.
             

          Please see Australian Health Survey: User's Guide (cat. no. 4363.0.55.001) for more information.

          Upper level of intake

          The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse effects increases.³

          Usual intakes

          Usual nutrient intakes are modelled estimates of the proportion of people who usually consume particular amounts of nutrients, as opposed to what they reported eating on the particular day they were surveyed in 2011-12. Usual nutrient intakes information is available in Australian Health Survey: Nutrition Second Results - Usual Nutrient Intakes (cat. no 4364.0.55.008)

          Endnote

          1. National Health and Medical Research Council, 'Macronutrient Balance', Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand, https://www.nrv.gov.au/chronic-disease/macronutrient-balance <last accessed 01/06/2015>
          2. National Health and Medical Research Council, 'Calcium', Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand, https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/calcium <last accessed 01/06/2015>
          3. National Health and Medical Research Council, 'Introduction', Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand, https://www.nrv.gov.au/introduction <last accessed 01/06/2015>
          4. Better Health Channel, Salt, https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/HealthyLiving/salt <last accessed 01/06/2015>
          5. National Health and Medical Research Council, 'Sodium', Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand, https://www.nrv.gov.au/nutrients/sodium <last accessed 01/06/2015>

          Appendix 1: example foods in major food groups

          Show all

          Major food groupExamples
          Non-alcoholic beveragesTea, coffee, fruit juice, cordial, soft drink, water, electrolyte drink
          Cereals and cereal productsBread, rice, noodles, pasta, breakfast cereal
          Cereal based products and dishesSweet biscuits, savoury biscuits, cake, sweet pastry, savoury pastry, pizza, sandwiches, burgers
          Fats and oilsButter, margarine, oils
          Fish and seafood products and dishesFish, prawns, canned tuna, fish with pasta, fish with rice
          Fruit products and dishesApples, pears, berries, oranges, peaches, bananas, melons, dried fruit, banana split, apple crumble
          Egg products and dishesEggs, omelette, souffle, frittata
          Meat, poultry and game products and dishesBeef, lamb, pork, veal, kangaroo, chicken, ham, dried meats, sausages, casseroles, curries
          Milk products and dishesMilk, yoghurt, cream, cheese, ice cream, dairy desserts, cheesecake
          Dairy & meat substitutesSoy beverages, almond milk, tofu, quorn, tofu stirfry
          SoupCanned soup, homemade soup, dried soup mix
          Seed and nut products and dishesPeanuts, peanut butter, pumpkin seeds, coconut milk
          Savoury sauces and condimentsTomato sauce, chutney, salad dressings, mayonnaise, vinegar, dips
          Vegetable products and dishesPotatoes, carrots, beans, tomato, corn, salads, potato bake
          Legume and pulse products and dishesLentils, soy beans, chickpeas, kidney beans, falafel, dhal
          Snack foodsPotato crisps, popcorn, corn chips, rice crisps, pretzels
          Sugar products and dishesSugar, honey, jam, icing sugar, apple sauce, meringue
          Confectionery and cereal/nut/fruit/seed barsChocolate, muesli bars, fruit bars, lollies, chewing gum
          Alcoholic beveragesBeer, wine, spirits, cocktails, liqueurs
          Special dietary foodsLiquid and powdered meal replacements, protein drinks and powders, oral supplement powder and beverages (excluding electrolyte drinks)
          MiscellaneousYeast, salt, intense sweeteners, herbs, stock, essences, gelatine, spreadable yeast extract
          Infant formulae and foodsToddler formula, rusks, infant cereals, infant fruit, infant custards, infant fruit juices
          Dietary supplementsVitamins and mineral supplements, fish oil supplements, fibre supplements
          Reptiles, amphibia and insectsCrocodile, turtle, goanna

          About the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey

          The 2011–13 Australian Health Survey (AHS) is the largest and most comprehensive health survey ever conducted in Australia. The survey, conducted throughout Australia, collected a range of information about health related issues, including health status, risk factors, health service usage and medications. In 2011–13, the AHS incorporated the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS). It involved the collection of detailed physical activity information using self-reported and pedometer collection methods, along with detailed information on dietary intake and foods consumed from over 12,000 participants across Australia. The nutrition component is the first national nutrition survey of adults and children (aged 2 years and over) conducted in over 15 years.

          The AHS sample included Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people where they were randomly selected in the general population. The AHS also included an additional representative sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NATSINPAS) will provide nutrition and physical activity results for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people at the population level and provides an opportunity to compare results with the non-Indigenous population. Results for the NATSINPAS will be released in the first half of 2015.

          Information for the nutrition component of the NNPAS was gathered using a 24-hour dietary recall on all foods and beverages consumed on the day prior to the interview. Where possible, at least 8 days after the first interview, respondents were contacted to participate in a second 24-hour dietary recall via telephone interview. This publication is the first release of information from the nutrition component of the NNPAS. It presents results from the first interview, with information on food, beverages and dietary supplements, as well as some general information on dietary behaviours.

          Acknowledgements

          The NNPAS has been made possible by additional funding from the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing as well as the National Heart Foundation of Australia, and the contributions of these two organisations to improving health information in Australia through quality statistics are greatly valued.

          The 2011–13 AHS, and particularly the NNPAS component, was developed with the assistance of several advisory groups and expert panels. Members of these groups were drawn from Commonwealth and state/territory government agencies, non-government organisations, relevant academic institutions and clinicians. The valuable contributions made by members of these groups are greatly appreciated.

          Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) was contracted to provide advice throughout the survey development, processing and collection phases of the 2011-12 NNPAS and to provide a nutrient database for the coding of foods and supplements consumed. The ABS would like to acknowledge and thank FSANZ for providing their support, advice and expertise to the 2011-12 NNPAS.

          The ABS gratefully acknowledges and thanks the Agricultural Research Service of the USDA for giving permission to adapt and use their Dietary Intake Data System including the AMPM for collecting dietary intake information as well as other processing systems and associated materials.

          Finally, the success of the 2011–13 AHS was dependent on the very high level of cooperation received from the Australian public. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated; without it, the range of statistics published by the ABS would not be possible. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.

          The structure of the Australian Health Survey

          This publication is one of several ABS releases of results from the 2011-13 Australian Health Survey (AHS). The AHS is the largest, most comprehensive health survey ever conducted in Australia. It combines the existing ABS National Health Survey (NHS) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS) together with two new elements - a National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) and a National Health Measures Survey (NHMS).

          The following diagram shows how the various elements combine to provide comprehensive health information for the overall Australian population. The content for each component survey is listed along with the ages of respondents for which topics were collected.

          Structure of the 2011-13 Australian health survey

          Venn type diagram showing the components and content of the Australian Health Survey

          Structure of the 2011-13 Australian health survey

          A Venn diagram like image showing the components, flow and content of the Australian Health Survey (AHS). The Venn diagram comprises of 4 components:

          The first component relates to the centre circle with arrows pointing left and right. This circle provides information on the AHS Core Content. During this part of the survey, a total of 25,000 households and 32,000 persons were surveyed based on: Household information, Demographics, Self-assessed health status (persons who were 15 years or over were counted), Self-assessed body mass (persons who were 15 years or over were counted), Smoking (persons who were 15 years or over were counted), Physical measures (including: height, weight, waist and Body Mass Index), Physical activity (persons who were 18 years or over were counted), Dietary behaviours blood pressure (persons who were 5 years or over were counted), Female life stage (persons who were 10 years or over were counted), and Selected conditions.

          The second component relates to the left arrow, where it provides information on the 15,500 households who were surveyed during the National Health Survey (NHS). A total of 20,500 persons were surveyed based on: Detailed conditions, Medication and supplements, Health related actions, Days of reduced activity, Social and emotional wellbeing (persons who were 18 years or over were counted), Physical activity (persons who were 15 years or over were counted), Private health insurance status (persons who were 18 years or over were counted), Breastfeeding (persons who were between the age of 0-3 were counted), Disability status, Alcohol consumption (persons who were 15 years or over were counted), Family stressors (persons who were over 15 years or over were counted), Personal income persons who were 15 years or over were counted), and financial stress. From this component, there is a black arrow which points to the fourth, and final component.

          The third component relates to the right arrow, where it provides information on the 9,500 households who were surveyed during the National Nutrition Activity Survey (NNPAS). A total of 12,000 persons were surveyed based on: Food security, Food avoidance, Dietary recall, and Physical activity. This component also includes a box within this square, which provides information on the NNPAS telephone follow-up comprising of: 2nd dietary recall, and 8-day pedometer (persons who were 5 years or over were counted). From this component, there is a black arrow which points to the fourth, and final component.

          The final component relates to the green box which the second and third component refer to. This component relates to the information obtained from the 11,000 persons, who were 5 years or older, surveyed during the National Health Measures Survey (NHMS). The 11,000 volunteers were surveyed based on: Key blood tests (persons who were 12 years or older were counted) and urine tests (persons who were 5 years or older were counted) of nutritional status and chronic disease markers.

          As shown in the above diagram, the AHS is made up of three components:

          • the National Health Survey (NHS)
          • the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS)
          • the National Health Measures Survey (NHMS).
             

          All people selected in the AHS were selected in either the NHS or the NNPAS, however data items in the core were common to both surveys and therefore information for these data items is available for all persons in the AHS. All people were then invited to participate in the voluntary NHMS.

          As indicated in the diagram, 20,500 people participated in the NHS, answering questions about items such as detailed health conditions, health risk factors and medications as well as all items in the core content. For the NHS component (those items collected only in the NHS and not the core), the sample size is similar to that of previous National Health Surveys and therefore the results are comparable. However for those items collected in the core, the sample size (32, 000 people) is approximately 1.5 times that in the past and therefore the estimates for core items such as smoking and Body Mass Index are expected to be more accurate in particular at finer disaggregates than in previous surveys.

          Information for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

          The AHS does not exclude Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people where they are randomly selected in the general population sample. However, the AHS also includes an additional representative sample of around 13,000 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people for which first results were released in November 2013. This is a separate collection of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote and non-remote areas, including discrete communities. The structure is the same as outlined above, comprised of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey component, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity component and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Measures Survey component.

          For more information on future releases see Release schedule.

          Data downloads

          New South Wales, food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Victoria, food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Queensland, food and nutrients, 2011-12

          South Australia, food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Western Australia, food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Tasmania, food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Northern Territory, food and nutrients, 2011-12

          Australian Capital Territory, food and nutrients, 2011-12

          All data cubes

          Previous catalogue number

          This release previously used catalogue number 4364.0.55.009.