The amount receivable by the producer from the purchaser for a unit of a good or service produced as output, minus any tax payable plus any subsidy receivable, on that unit as a consequence of its production or sale; it excludes any transport charges invoiced separately by the producer. See also Purchasers' price.
Business and government tourism consumption
Also referred to as internal tourism consumption by domestic business and government visitors. Consists of the tourism consumption by resident businesses or governments on tourism related products within Australia. See also Tourism consumption and Internal tourism consumption.
Chain price indexes
Annually reweighted chain Laspeyres price indexes referenced to the same year as the chain volume measures. They can be thought of as a series of indexes measuring price change from a base year to the following year using current price values in the base year as weights, linked together to form a continuous time series. In other words, chain price indexes are constructed in a similar fashion to the chain volume indexes.
Chain volume measures
Annually reweighted chain Laspeyres volume indexes referenced to the current price values in a chosen reference year (See also Reference year). Chain Laspeyres volume measures are compiled by linking together (compounding) movements in volumes, calculated using the average prices of the previous financial year, and applying the compounded movements to the current price estimates of the reference year.
Compensation of employees
The total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable by an enterprise to an employee in return for work done by the employee during the accounting period. It is further classified into two sub-components: wages and salaries; and employers’ social contributions. Compensation of employees is not payable in respect of unpaid work undertaken voluntarily, including the work done by members of a household within an unincorporated enterprise owned by the same household. Compensation of employees excludes any taxes payable by the employer on the wage and salary bill (e.g. payroll tax). See also Employers' social contributions and Wages and salaries.
Estimates are valued at the prices of the period to which the observation relates. For example, estimates for 2014-15 are valued using 2014-15 prices. This contrasts to chain volume measures where the prices used in valuation refer to the prices of the previous year.
Direct tourism gross domestic product (GDP)
Is direct tourism gross value added plus net taxes on products that are attributable to the tourism industry (tourism net taxes on products). Direct tourism GDP will generally have a higher value than direct tourism value added. Direct tourism GDP is a satellite account construct to enable a direct comparison with the most widely recognised national accounting aggregate, GDP. While it is useful in this context, the direct tourism gross value added measure should be used when making comparisons with other industries or between countries. See also Direct tourism gross value added and Tourism net taxes on products.
Direct tourism gross value added
The value of direct tourism output at basic prices, less the value of the inputs used in producing these tourism products. This measure is directly comparable with the value added of 'conventional' industries such as mining and manufacturing and should also be used for comparisons across countries. See also Direct tourism output and Direct tourism GDP.
Direct tourism output
The value of goods and services, at basic prices, which are consumed by visitors and produced in Australia by industries in a direct relationship with visitors. See also Basic prices and Direct tourism gross value added.
Domestic tourism consumption
Consists of the tourism consumption by resident visitors on tourism related products within Australia. It is the sum of household tourism consumption and business and government tourism consumption. See also Tourism consumption; Internal tourism consumption; Business and government tourism consumption; Household tourism consumption.
Is a person aged 15 years and over who, during the reference week:
- worked for one hour or more for pay, profit, commission or payment in kind in a job or business, or on a farm (comprising employees, employers and own account workers); or
- worked for one hour or more without pay in a family business or on a farm (i.e. contributing family workers); or
- were employees who had a job but were not at work and were: away from work for less than four weeks up to the end of the reference week; or away from work for more than four weeks up to the end of the reference week and received pay for some or all of the four week period to the end of the reference week; or away from work as a standard work or shift arrangement; or on strike or locked out; or on workers' compensation and expected to return to their job; or
- were employers or own account workers, who had a job, business or farm, but were not at work.
Employers' social contributions
Payments by employers which are intended to secure for their employees the entitlement to social benefits should certain events occur, or certain circumstances exist, that may adversely affect their employees' income or welfare - namely work related accidents and retirement. See also Compensation of employees and Wages and salaries.
Exports of goods and services
The value of goods exported and amounts receivable from non-residents for the provision of services by residents.
Final consumption expenditure - general government
Government final consumption expenditure is current expenditure by general government bodies on services to the community such as defence, education, and public order and safety less any explicit charges for these services. If these are provided free of charge or at charges which cover only a small proportion of costs, the government is considered to be the consumer of its own output. This output has no directly observable market value, and so it is valued in the national accounts at its cost of production. It also includes the value of the portion of market output purchased by the General Government sector on behalf of beneficiaries.
Final consumption expenditure - households
Net expenditure on goods and services by persons and expenditure of a current nature by private non-profit institutions serving households. This item excludes expenditures by unincorporated businesses and expenditures on assets by non-profit institutions (included in gross fixed capital formation). Also excluded is expenditure on maintenance of dwellings (treated as intermediate expenses of private enterprises), but personal expenditure on motor vehicles and other durable goods and the imputed rent of owner occupied dwellings are included. The value of 'backyard' production (including food produced and consumed on farms) is included in household final consumption expenditure and the payment of wages and salaries in kind (e.g. food and lodging supplied free to employees) is counted in both household income and household final consumption expenditure.
Employed persons who usually worked 35 hours or more a week (in all jobs) and those who, although usually working fewer than 35 hours a week, worked 35 hours or more during the reference week. See also Part-time workers.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
Is the total market value of goods and services produced in Australia within a given period after deducting the cost of goods and services used up in the process of production but before deducting allowances for the consumption of fixed capital. Thus gross domestic product, as here defined, is 'at market prices'. It is equivalent to gross national expenditure plus exports of goods and services less imports of goods and services. Farm product is that part of gross domestic product which arises from production in agriculture and services to agriculture. It is equivalent to the value added of ANZSIC 06 subdivision 01 'Agriculture' plus taxes less subsidies on products primary to this subdivision. Non-farm product arises from production in all other industries.
Gross fixed capital formation
Expenditure on fixed assets broken down into dwellings, non-dwelling construction, machinery and equipment, cultivated biological assets, intellectual property products and ownership transfer costs. The machinery and equipment category includes plant, machinery, equipment, vehicles, etc. Expenditure on repair and maintenance of fixed assets is excluded, being chargeable to the production account. Additions to fixed assets are regarded as capital formation. Also included is compensation of employees and other costs paid by private enterprise in connection with own-account capital formation. Expenditure on dwellings, non-dwelling construction, and machinery and equipment is measured as expenditure on new and second-hand assets, less sales of existing assets. Cultivated biological assets includes livestock and orchard growth. Along with Computer software, Mineral and petroleum exploration and Artistic originals, Research and development is now included in the intellectual property products asset type. Ownership transfer costs comprise of stamp duty, real estate agents' fees and sales commissions, conveyancing fees and miscellaneous government charges.
Gross mixed income of unincorporated enterprises
The surplus or deficit accruing from production by unincorporated enterprises. It includes elements of both compensation of employees (returns on labour inputs) and operating surplus (returns on capital inputs).
Gross operating surplus
The operating surplus accruing to all enterprises, except unincorporated enterprises, from their operations in Australia. It is the excess of gross output over the sum of intermediate consumption, compensation of employees, and taxes less subsidies on production and imports. It is calculated before deduction of consumption of fixed capital, dividends, interest, royalties and land rent, and direct taxes payable, but after deducting the inventory valuation adjustment. Gross operating surplus is also calculated for general government and it equals general government's consumption of fixed capital.
Gross value added (GVA)
The value of output at basic prices minus the value of intermediate consumption at purchasers' prices. The term is used to describe gross product by industry and by sector. Basic prices valuation of output removes the distortion caused by variations in the incidence of commodity taxes and subsidies across the output of individual industries. See also Intermediate consumption and Output.
The hours worked by all labour engaged in the production of tourism goods and services, including hours worked by wages and salary earners, employers, self-employed persons, and persons working one hour or more without pay in a family business.
Household tourism consumption
Consists of the tourism consumption by resident households on tourism related products within Australia. See also Tourism consumption and Internal tourism consumption.
Implicit price deflator
The ratio of the current price value of a series to its corresponding chain dollar value, multiplied by 100. Therefore, the tourism gross value added implicit price deflator is the ratio of the current price value of tourism value added to its corresponding chain volume value. This represents the net weighted prices of tourism output less weighted prices of intermediate use. Note that IPDs are subject to revision due to revisions in the relevant current price and/or chain volume estimates.
Imports of goods and services
The value of goods imported and amounts payable to non-residents for the provision of services to residents.
Imputed tourism consumption
Consists of imputations made for the consumption by visitors of certain goods and services for which they do not make a payment. Imputation is confined to a small number of cases where a reasonably satisfactory basis for the valuation of the implied transaction is available, and where their inclusion is consistent with the production boundary in the core national accounts.
An input-output table is a means of presenting a detailed analysis of the process of production and the use of goods and services (products) and the income generated in the production process; they can be either in the form of (a) supply and use tables or (b) symmetric input-output tables.
Consists of the value of the goods and services used as inputs by a process of production, excluding compensation of employees and the consumption of fixed capital. See also Gross value added.
Internal tourism consumption
Consists of all tourism consumption of visitors, both resident and non-resident, within Australia. It is the sum of domestic tourism consumption and international tourism consumption. See also Tourism consumption; Domestic tourism consumption; International tourism consumption.
International tourism consumption
Also referred to as internal tourism consumption by international visitors. Consists of the tourism consumption within Australia by non-residents on tourism related products. See also Tourism consumption and Internal tourism consumption.
Labour productivity estimates
Consist of indexes of real GDP per hour worked. For the whole economy, they have been derived by dividing the chain volume measure of GDP by hours worked. Tourism labour productivity indexes have been derived by dividing the chain volume measure of tourism GVA by the index for hours worked in the tourism industry. Labour productivity indexes reflect not only the contribution of labour to changes in product per labour unit, but are also influenced by the contribution of capital and other factors affecting production.
This is the difference between the resale price of a good and the cost to the retailer or wholesaler of the good sold. A transport margin consists of the transport charges invoiced separately by the producer in the delivery of a good.
Net taxes on products
Also referred to as taxes less subsidies on products. A tax or subsidy on a product is payable per unit of a good or service. The tax or subsidy may be a specific amount of money per unit of quantity of a good or service (quantity being measured either in terms of discrete units or continuous physical variables such as volume, weight, strength, distance, time, etc.), or it may be calculated ad valorem as a specified percentage of the price per unit or value of the goods or services transacted. A tax or subsidy on a product usually becomes payable when the product is produced, sold or imported, but it may also become payable in other circumstances, such as when a good is exported, leased, transferred, delivered, or used for own consumption or own capital formation. See also Other taxes on production and Taxes less subsidies on production and imports.
Additivity refers to an aggregate being the sum of its components. This only exists in volume index estimates when a fixed set of prices is used. As weights of a chain volume index change from year to year, chain volume indexes have no base period in the sense of a fixed weight index base period and therefore non-additivity exists in the chain volume measures. In the context of the tourism chain volume estimates, 'totals' have been chained separately based on deflating the aggregate current price values, rather than summing the component chain volume estimates. Therefore, it is not recommended to calculate the proportion tourism contributes to GDP or gross value added in chain volume terms.
Other taxes on production
Consist of all taxes that enterprises incur as a result of engaging in production, except taxes on products. Other taxes on production include: taxes related to the payroll or workforce numbers excluding compulsory social security contributions paid by employers and any taxes paid by the employees themselves out of their wages or salaries; recurrent taxes on land, buildings or other structures; some business and professional licences where no service is provided by the Government in return; taxes on the use of fixed assets or other activities; stamp duties; taxes on pollution; and taxes on international transactions. See also Taxes less subsidies on production and imports.
Outbound tourism consumption
Also referred to as tourism imports. Consists of the tourism consumption by resident visitors outside of Australia while on an international trip. See also Tourism consumption.
This consists of those goods and services that are produced within an establishment that become available for use outside that establishment, plus any goods and services produced for own final use. See also Gross value added.
Employed persons who usually worked fewer than 35 hours a week (in all jobs) and either did so during the reference week or were not at work during the reference week. See also Full-time workers.
A measure of the price component of the current price value is obtained (usually in the form of a price index) and is divided into the current price value in order to re-value it in the prices of the previous year.
The amount paid by the purchaser, excluding any deductible tax, in order to take delivery of a unit of a good or service at the time and place required by the purchaser. The purchaser’s price of a good includes any transport charges paid separately by the purchaser to take delivery at the required time and place. See also Basic price.
Chain volume estimates need to be expressed in terms of the values of a particular reference year. The reference year for an index series is equal to 100, that is, the chain volume estimates are set equal to the current price values. The reference year chosen for the tourism chain volume estimates is the previous financial year (t-1). This reference year ensures use of the most recent data available for sub-division level industry value added from unpublished Australian National Account’s (ANA) Supply and Use tables as well as consistency with the key macroeconomic aggregates (e.g. GDP) published in the ANA’s annual estimates.
Taxes less subsidies on production and imports
Defined as ‘taxes on products’ plus ‘other taxes on production’ less 'subsidies on products' less 'other subsidies on production'. The taxes do not include any taxes on the profits or other income received by an enterprise. They are payable irrespective of the profitability of the production process. They may be payable on the land, fixed assets or labour employed in the production process, or on certain activities or transactions. See also Other taxes on production and Net taxes on products.
Comprises the activities of visitors. See also Visitor.
Tourism characteristic industries
Are those industries that would either cease to exist in their present form, producing their present product(s), or would be significantly affected if tourism were to cease. Under the international TSA standards, core lists of tourism characteristic industries, based on the significance of their link to tourism in the worldwide context, are recommended for implementation to facilitate international comparison. In the Australian TSA, for an industry to be a country-specific tourism characteristic industry, at least 25 per cent of its output must be consumed by visitors.
Tourism characteristic products
These are defined in the international TSA standards as those products which would cease to exist in meaningful quantity, or for which sales would be significantly reduced, in the absence of tourism. Under the international TSA standards, core lists of tourism characteristic products, based on the significance of their link to tourism in the worldwide context, are recommended for implementation to facilitate international comparison. It is also recommended in the international TSA standards that country-specific tourism characteristic products are identified. In the Australian TSA, for a product to be a country-specific tourism characteristic product, at least 25 per cent of the total output of the product must be consumed by visitors.
Tourism connected industries
Are those, other than tourism characteristic industries, for which a tourism related product is directly identifiable (primary) to, and where the products are consumed by visitors in volumes which are significant for the visitor and/or the producer. All other industries are classified as non-tourism industries, though some of their products may be consumed by visitors and are included in the calculation of direct tourism gross value added and direct tourism GDP.
Tourism connected products
Are those that are consumed by visitors but are not considered as tourism characteristic products. All other products in the supply and use table not consumed by visitors are classified as 'all other goods and services' in the TSA.
Consists of tourism expenditure plus imputed consumption by resident and non-resident visitors on tourism related products, including those sold at prices that are not economically significant. See also Tourism expenditure.
Consists of the amount paid by a visitor or on behalf of a visitor for and during his/her trip and stay at the destination. See also Tourism consumption.
Tourism industry ratio
This is the proportion of the total value added of an industry which is related to tourism.
Tourism net taxes on tourism products
Consists of taxes paid less subsidies received on tourism related products which is attributable to productive activity of tourism related industries that are in a direct relationship with visitors. In the case of goods purchased by visitors, only the net taxes attributable to the value of retail trade services on those goods will be included.
Tourism product ratio
This is the proportion of the total supply of a product which is consumed by visitors.
This is defined in the international TSA standards as those trips which are taken by visitors.
This is made up of one or more areas in which a person undertakes their regular activities such as their residence, place of work, place of study and other places frequently visited. The usual environment criteria has two dimensions. Frequency means places that are visited on a routine basis (at least once a week) are considered part of a person's usual environment, even if the place visited is located a considerable distance from place of residence. Distance means locations close (up to 40 kilometres from home for overnight trips and up to 50 kilometres from home (round trip) for day trips) to the place of residence of a person are also included in their usual environment.
A visitor is defined as any person 'taking a trip to a main destination outside his/her usual environment, for less than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a resident entity in the country or place visited'.
Measures growth in the volume of production and expenditures on products between any two periods of interest. Where there is more than one type of product, it is necessary to apply some kind of weighting. This is possible by valuing products at their prices in one or other period and dividing the total value of their combined production in the second period by that in the first. The same prices must be used for both periods to ensure the index reflects only changes in quantities produced. Chain linked volume indexes take account of changes to price relativities that occur from one year to the next. It is the price relativities that determine the weight given to each component of a volume index.
Wages and salaries
Consist of amounts payable in cash including the value of any social contributions, income taxes, fringe benefits tax, etc., payable by the employee even if they are actually withheld by the employer for administrative convenience or other reasons and paid directly to social insurance schemes, tax authorities, etc., on behalf of the employee. Wages and salaries may be paid as remuneration in kind instead of, or in addition to, remuneration in cash. Separation, termination and redundancy payments are also included in wages and salaries. Wages and salaries are also measured as far as possible on an accrual rather than a strict cash basis.