4159.0 - General Social Survey: Summary Results, Australia, 2014 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 29/06/2015   
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Ability to raise $2,000 within a week for something important

A person's perception of whether they or other members of the household could obtain $2,000 for something important within a week.

Acceptance of other cultures

Designed to gauge community acceptance of diverse cultures. The question asks the respondent the extent to which they agree or disagree with the statement that 'It is a good thing for a society to be made up of people from different cultures.'

Access to motor vehicle(s) to drive

Access that a person has to any motor vehicle to drive. Such motor vehicles include vehicle(s) which they wholly or jointly own, vehicle(s) belonging to another member of the household, and company or government vehicle(s) which they have access to for personal use.


The age of a person on their last birthday.

Cash flow problem

Includes experiencing one or more of the following due to a shortage of money:

  • could not pay electricity, gas or telephone bills on time
  • could not pay mortgage or rent payments on time
  • could not pay for car registration or insurance on time
  • could not make minimum payment on credit card
  • pawned or sold something because you needed cash
  • went without meals
  • were unable to heat or cool your home
  • sought financial assistance from friends or family
  • sought assistance from welfare or community organisations.

A person of any age who is a natural, adopted, step, or foster son or daughter of a couple or lone parent, usually resident in the same household, and who does not have a child or partner of his/her own usually resident in the household.

Children living outside the household

Includes children aged 0-24 years.

Civic and political groups

In this topic the question refers to whether the respondent has been actively involved in a civic or political group in the last 12 months, or taken part in an activity they organised.

Examples of civic or political groups include:
  • trade union, professional / technical association
  • political party
  • civic group or organisation
  • environmental or animal welfare group
  • human and civil rights group
  • body corporate or tenants' association
  • consumer organisation
  • other civic or political organisation.
Civic participation

Involvement in activities reflecting interest and engagement with governance and democracy.

Community support

Involvement in activities that are directed at providing assistance to other individuals, groups and the wider community.

Community support groups

In this topic the question refers to whether the respondent has been actively involved in a community support group in the last 12 months or taken part in an activity they organised.

Examples of community support groups include:
  • service clubs
  • welfare organisations
  • education and training
  • parenting / children / youth
  • health promotion and support
  • emergency services
  • international aid and development
  • other community support groups.
Consumer debt

Debt or liabilities usually associated with the purchase of consumables, such as clothing, electrical goods or cars, incurred by way of credit or store card and which are not completely paid off, car or personal loans, interest free purchases and hire purchase agreements.

Investment loans, lines of credit, overdue bills for telephone/electricity etc., outstanding fines or Higher Education Contribution Scheme (HECS)/Higher Education Loan Program (HELP) debts are excluded.

Contact with family or friends living outside the household

Refers to face to face contact, or other types of contact such as telephone, mail and email, which a person has had with family or friends who do not live with them.


Two people in a registered or de facto marriage, who usually live in the same household.

Cultural venues or events

Refers to venues or events which people attend for leisure purposes. Types of venues or events included are:
  • a public library
  • a museum or art gallery
  • a botanic garden, zoo or aquarium
  • a movie theatre
  • a concert, theatre or other performing arts event.
Dependent child/ren/Dependants

All persons aged under 15 years; and people aged 15-24 years who are full-time students, have a parent in the household and do not have a partner or child of their own in the household.


A disability exists if a limitation, restriction, impairment, disease or disorder, had lasted, or was likely to last for at least six months, and which restricted everyday activities.

It is classified by whether or not a person has a specific limitation or restriction. Specific limitation or restriction is further classified by whether the limitation or restriction is a limitation in core activities or a schooling/employment restriction only.

There are four levels of core activity limitation (profound, severe, moderate and mild) which are based on whether a person needs help, has difficulty, or uses aids or equipment with any of the core activities (self care, mobility or communication). A person's overall level of core activity limitation is determined by their highest level of limitation in these activities.

The four levels are:
  • profound - always needs help/supervision with core activities
  • severe - does not always need help with core activities
  • moderate - has difficulty with core activities
  • mild - uses aids to assist with core activities.
Persons are classified as having only a schooling/employment restriction if they have no core activity limitation and are aged 15 to 20 years and have difficulties with education, or are aged 15 to 64 years and have difficulties with employment.


Discrimination may happen when people are treated unfairly because they are seen as being different from others. People who had experienced discrimination were asked whether they thought it was because of any of the following:
  • their skin colour
  • their nationality, race or ethnic group
  • the language they speak
  • the way they dress or their appearance
  • their gender
  • their age
  • a disability or health issue
  • their marital status
  • their family status
  • their sexual orientation
  • their occupation
  • their religious beliefs
  • their political position.
Dissaving action

Any action where spending is greater than income, thereby reducing already accumulated savings or leading to borrowing to finance the expenditure. Examples of dissaving actions include:
  • reducing home loan repayments
  • drawing on savings or term deposits
  • increasing balance owed on credit cards by $1000 or more
  • entering into a loan agreement with family or friends
  • selling shares or other assets
  • taking out a personal loan.
Employment restriction

An employment restriction is determined for persons with one or more disabilities if, because of their disability, they have any difficulties with employment such as:
  • type of job they can do
  • number of hours they can work
  • finding suitable work
  • needing time off work
  • permanently unable to work.
This information was collected for persons aged 15 to 64 years with one or more disabilities.

Equity in dwelling

Calculated as the value of the dwelling less the amount owing on mortgages or secured loans against the dwelling.

Equivalised gross household income

Gross household income adjusted using an equivalence scale. For a lone person household it is equal to gross household income. For a household comprising more than one person, it is an indicator of the gross household income that would need to be received by a lone person household to enjoy the same level of economic well-being as the household in question.

Equivalised gross household income quintiles

These are groupings of 20% of the total population when ranked in ascending order according to equivalised gross household income. The population used for this purpose includes all people living in private dwellings, including children and other persons under the age of 18 years.


Two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household. The basis of a family is formed by identifying the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship. Some households will, therefore, contain more than one family.

Feelings of safety

How safe a person feels in various circumstances (i.e. when home alone after dark or when walking alone through their local area after dark) was reported on a five point scale, from very safe to very unsafe. If the respondent indicated that they were never home alone or never walked alone after dark this response was recorded.

Field of study

Describes the field of study for a respondent's current qualification or the highest completed non-school qualification.

Financial exclusion

The extent to which a person is excluded from mainstream banking and financial services, for example being denied an application for a credit card.

Financial resilience

This includes actions taken to improve a person's ability to control their current financial situation or manage in a situation involving a major loss of income. Actions covered included: paying off more than the minimum required on loans or credit cards; following a budget; obtaining financial advice or making additional contributions to superannuation.

Financial stress

Three measures aimed at identifying households that may have been constrained in their activities because of shortage of money. The measures are the ability to raise 'emergency money', whether had cash flow problems and whether had taken dissaving actions. One person in the household was asked to provide these assessments of the household's financial situation.

Government support

Cash support from the government in the form of pensions, benefits or allowances.

Gross household income

All current receipts that are usually or regularly received by the household or by individual members of the household, and which are available for, or intended to support, current consumption. This includes receipts from wages and salaries (including salary sacrificed income), profit or loss from own unincorporated business (including partnerships), net investment income (e.g. interest, rent, dividends), government pensions and allowances, and private transfers (e.g. superannuation, workers' compensation, income from annuities, child support and financial support from family members not living in the same household). Gross household income is the sum of the income from all these sources before income tax, the Medicare levy and the Medicare levy surcharge are deducted.

Healthcare delays

Ever delayed seeking medical attention or buying prescribed medicines for own health because of cost.

Highest year of school completed

The highest level of primary or secondary education which a person has completed, irrespective of the type of institution or location where that education was undertaken.


Refers to whether a person has ever previously been without a 'permanent place to live' for reasons other than one (or more) of the following only: saving money; work related reasons; building or renovating their home; travelling/on holiday; house-sitting or having just moved back to a town or city. People who had ever previously been without a permanent place to live for other reasons (e.g. family/relationship breakdowns, financial problems, tight rental/property markets etc.) were counted in the survey as having had an experience of homelessness.

As the GSS only enumerates usual residents of private dwellings, it will not include: people currently living in shelters; people sleeping rough; people 'couch surfing' (staying temporarily with other households); nor people staying in boarding houses. It may include some people staying in Transitional Housing Management (THM) properties, if the adult staying there at the time of the survey considered that it was their usual residence at that time (THMs have been included in researcher estimates of the homeless). The GSS does not attempt to measure the prevalence of homelessness in Australia. Instead the survey sought information about a person's previous experience of being without a permanent place to live. That is, whether a person has ever experienced being without a permanent place to live at some point in their lives.


One or more persons usually resident in the same private dwelling.

Household tenure type

The nature of a household's legal right to occupy the dwelling in which they usually reside. In this publication, households are grouped into one of four broad tenure categories:
  • owner without a mortgage - the dwelling is owned by a resident of the household and there are no outstanding mortgages or loans secured against the dwelling
  • owner with a mortgage - a household where an outstanding mortgage or loan amount secured against the dwelling, for the purposes of housing, is greater than zero
  • renter - a household who pays rent to reside in the dwelling. In this publication, renters are further classified into one of three broad types according to whom rent is paid:
    • state or territory housing authority
    • private landlord - a real estate agent, parent or other relative not in the same household, or another person not in the same household
    • other renter - the owner/manager of a caravan park, Defence Housing Authority employer, an employer (including a government authority), a housing cooperative, community or church group, or any other landlord not included elsewhere
  • other tenure - includes households which are participants of a life tenure scheme, participants in a rent/buy (or shared equity) scheme, living rent-free or are in a tenure arrangement not included elsewhere (e.g. house-sitting, payment in kind for a specific service).
Informal social activities

Refers to recreational activities undertaken with others which have not been organised by an organisation or group with a formal structure. The most common examples are where family and/or friends come together to enjoy themselves.

Jobless households

A jobless household is one in which no usual resident of the household aged 15 years or over is currently employed.

Labour force status

Refers to the situation of respondents in relation to the labour force at the time of the survey. Categories are:
  • employed - had a job or business, or undertook work without pay in a family business in the week prior to the survey, including being absent from a job or business they had
  • full-time - persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week
  • part-time - persons who usually work at least one hour, but less than 35 hours, per week
  • unemployed - not employed and actively looked for work in the four weeks prior to the survey and available to start work in the week prior to the survey
  • not in the labour force
  • retired from work - persons over the age of 44 years who were no longer working and did not intend to work in the future
  • other - other persons who were not employed, unemployed or retired. Includes persons who intend to look for full-time work, intend to look for part time work, or have never worked for two weeks or more and never intend to work. Such persons may be voluntarily inactive such as carers, students or be permanently unable to work.
Level of study

Refers to the highest level of current study or level attained by a person.

Long-term health condition

A long-term health condition is a current disease or disorder that has lasted, or is likely to last, for six months or more. The exception to this is a periodic or episodic condition (e.g. asthma, epilepsy or schizophrenia, where people suffer attacks or relapses at irregular intervals) where the attack or relapse has occurred in the last 12 months. If the condition has not occurred within the last 12 months because it has been controlled by medication, it should still be recorded. Respondents might still be experiencing limitations or restrictions due to these conditions (or due to the medication itself), even though they have not had an attack or a relapse for quite a while. Conditions or restrictions which are expected but not yet apparent, should not be included (e.g. in young children where they are still too young to show). NOTE: This data item was self-reported by the respondent.

Marital status

The marital status of couples within households. This item includes Married in a registered marriage, Married in a de facto marriage and Not married.


The sum of values divided by the number of values.


The middle value of a set of values when the values are sorted in order.

Mental health condition

This data item refers to clinically recognised emotional and behavioural disorders, and perceived mental health problems such as feeling depressed, feeling anxious, stress and sadness. NOTE: This data item was self-reported by the respondent.

Mental health conditions such as depression, feeling depressed, behavioural and emotional disorders, and feeling anxious were included.

Mode of delivery of study

Refers to how study was delivered, such as on-the-job, classroom based or accessed online.


A mortgage is a loan which is secured against a dwelling.

Multiple response

A multiple response category allows respondents to choose more than one answer to a question.

Multiple victimisation

Refers to an individual being the victim of more than one personal or household offence including assault, threatened assault, personal robbery and property damage.

Network size

The number and variety of attachments individuals or groups may have.

Non-dependent child/ren

All persons aged 15 years or over (except those aged 15-24 years who are full-time students) who have a parent in the household and do not have a partner or child of their own in the household.

Non-school qualification

Non-school qualifications are awarded for educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education. They include qualifications at the Postgraduate Degree level, Master Degree level, Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate level, Bachelor Degree level, Advanced Diploma and Diploma level, and Certificates I, II, III and IV levels. Non-school qualifications may be attained concurrently with school qualifications.

Organisation or group

An organisation or group is any body with a formal structure. It may be as large as a national charity or as small as a local book club. Purely ad hoc, informal and temporary gatherings of people do not constitute an organisation.

Organised sport or physical recreational activities

Those sport and physical recreational activities which were organised by a club, association or other organisation. The organisation did not need to be a sporting body; for example, it may have been a work social club, church group or gymnasium.

Other forms of contact

Non face-to-face contact by voice calls (mobile, fixed telephone, internet), text messaging, calls made using a video link (e.g. Skype), web based chat including phone applications, post, email and other forms of contact.

Other migrant

Those born overseas who had arrived before 2004, New Zealand citizens who were born overseas and arrived in 2004 or later, or citizens of another country who were born overseas and arrived in 2004 or later and are planning to stay less than 12 months.

Other relatives living outside the household

Relatives such as elderly parents, children aged 25 years or over, or grandchildren who live outside the household. Excludes own or partner's children aged 0-24 years.

Other renters

Includes people who pay rent to an owner or manager of a caravan park, Defence Housing Authority employer, government employer, other employer landlord, housing cooperative, community or church group and other.

Overall life satisfaction

Overall life satisfaction is a summary measure of subjective wellbeing against a scale ranging from 0 to 10, where 0 means "not at all satisfied" and 10 means "completely satisfied". It measures a person's perceived level of life satisfaction in general and doesn't take into account specific illnesses or problems the person may have.

Participants in sport and physical recreational activities

Participants comprise those people who physically undertook a sport or physical recreational activity in the last 12 months, as well as people involved in 'non-playing roles', such as coaches, officials, umpires and administrators.

Participation rate

For any group, the number of persons who participated in the activity or event at least once in the specified reference period (usually the last 12 months), expressed as a percentage of the population of that group.

Permanent place to live

For the purposes of the GSS, a permanent place to live was left up to the respondent's interpretation. However, if the respondent sought clarification it was defined as a usual address which consists of a self contained residence i.e. the respondent had their own kitchen, bathroom and entrance, and some sort of security of tenure.

Permanent visa

The permission or authority granted by Australia for foreign nationals to live in Australia permanently.

Personal stressors

Any of the following events or circumstances which the person considers have been a problem for themselves or someone close to them in the last 12 months:

  • serious illness
  • serious accident
  • mental illness
  • serious disability
  • death of family member or close friend
  • divorce or separation
  • not able to get a job
  • involuntary loss of job
  • alcohol or drug related problems
  • gambling problem
  • abuse or violent crime
  • witness to violence
  • trouble with the police
  • discrimination because of ethnic or cultural background
  • discrimination for any other reason
  • bullying and/or harassment
  • removal of children
  • other.
Prevalence measure

A measure of how common an occurrence or condition is.

Principal source of household income

The source of income from which the most positive income for the household is received. If total income is nil or negative the principal source is undefined. The household's principal source of income comes from:
  • employee income - cash income received as an employee, i.e. person who works for a public or private employer and receives remuneration in wages or salary, or is paid a retainer fee by his/her employer and works on a commission basis, or works for an employer for tips, piece rates or payment in kind; or, is a person who operates his or her own incorporated enterprise with or without hiring employees
  • unincorporated business income - the profit or loss from own unincorporated enterprise in the previous financial year. Profit or loss consists of the value of the gross output of the enterprise after the deduction of operating expenses (including depreciation). Losses occur when operating expenses are greater than gross receipts and are treated as negative income
  • government cash pensions and allowances - regular payments from government to persons under social security and related government programs. Included are pensions and allowances received by aged, disabled, unemployed and sick persons, families and children, veterans or their survivors, and study allowances for students
  • other sources of household income - income received from sources such as superannuation and annuity funds, property, interest or dividends, child support, and workers' compensation.
Private dwellings

Houses, flats, home units, garages, tents and other structures used as private places of residence at the time of the survey.

Proficiency in spoken English

A self assessment by persons who speak a language other than English at home, of whether they speak English very well, well, not well or not at all.

Recent migrant

Those who were born overseas and arrived in Australia in 2004 or later and have stayed or are planning to stay more than 12 months. These may be Australian citizens or citizens of another country, excluding New Zealand citizens.

Remoteness areas

Broad geographical regions that share common characteristics of remoteness based on the Remoteness Structure of the ABS's Australian Statistical Geographical Standard. In this publication, the categories Major Cities of Australia, and Inner Regional Australia from the Remoteness Structure are presented along with a residual category labelled 'Other areas'. As the GSS did not cover very remote areas of Australia, 'Other Areas', encompasses Outer Regional Australia and Remote Australia.


A payment made periodically by a tenant to an owner or landlord in return for lodgement.

Schooling restriction

A schooling restriction is determined for persons aged 15 to 20 years who have one or more disabilities and, because of their disability, they have any difficulties with education such as:
  • not attending school / further study due to condition
  • need time off school / study
  • attend special classes / school
  • other related difficulties.
Selected assets

Any of the following type of assets:
  • over $1,000 in cash or deposited in financial institutions
  • own incorporated business
  • shares, stocks and bonds
  • investment property (i.e. land and buildings other than the dwelling in which the household resides).
Selected person

In the GSS only one adult (aged 15 years or over) in each dwelling was selected for the survey. This person was randomly chosen after all usual residents of the household were listed.

Self assessed health status

The selected person's general assessment of their own health, against a five point scale from excellent through to poor.

Sense of efficacy

The belief that an individual, group, or community has it in their capacity to produce desired outcomes by their own actions. It also relates to self reliance, initiative, and the degree of influence believed to be held, as well as the ability to draw upon additional resources as required.

Service providers
  • banks or other financial institutions
  • Centrelink
  • disability services
  • dentists
  • doctors
  • employment services
  • Family Assistance Office
  • hospitals
  • legal services
  • Medicare
  • mental health services
  • telecommunication services
  • Motor Vehicle Registry
  • utilities providers
  • housing services.
Sexual orientation

Refers to whether a person identifies as being heterosexual, gay or lesbian, or other. Other includes people identifying as bisexual and sexual orientations other than heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual.

Small favours

Assistance which a person may seek from other people in their day to day lives. Examples of small favours include looking after pets or watering the garden, collecting mail or checking the house, minding a child for a brief period, helping with moving or lifting objects, and borrowing equipment.

Social attachment

'Social attachment' refers to the nature and strength of relationships that people have with each other. It includes the more intimate relationships with family and friends as well as people's associations with individuals and organisations in the wider community.

Social capital

The ABS has adopted the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development definition of social capital: "networks, together with shared norms, values and understandings which facilitate cooperation within or among groups".

Social disorder

Social disorder includes antisocial behaviour and refers to issues which may or may not be criminal offences such as public drunkenness, noisy neighbours, and offensive language or behaviour. It is an important topic because if people feel unsafe in their neighbourhood, this then impacts on their daily lives and they are less likely to take part in community activities, or venture out of their house.

Social groups

In this topic the question refers to whether the respondent has been actively involved in a social group in the last 12 months or taken part in an activity they organised.

Examples of social groups include:
  • sport or physical recreation group
  • arts or heritage group
  • religious or spiritual group or organisation
  • craft or hobby group
  • ethnic / multicultural club
  • social clubs providing restaurants or bars
  • other social groups.
Social inclusion

A state of social inclusion exists where people are able to participate fully in the social and economic life of their community, and have a good network of relationships with family, friends and the wider community.

Social participation

Involvement in activities that are valued in their own right, and reflect personal interests or a desire for individual enjoyment and gratification.

Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)

SEIFA is a product developed especially for those interested in the assessment of the welfare of Australian communities. The ABS has developed four indexes to allow ranking of regions/areas, providing a method of determining the level of social and economic wellbeing in each region.

Each of the indexes summarise different aspects of the socio-economic status of the people living in those areas. The index refers to the attributes of the area in which a person lives, not to the socio-economic situation of a particular individual. The index used in this publication was compiled following the 2011 Census. For further information about the SEIFAs, see Information Paper: Census of Population and Housing - Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas, Australia (cat. no. 2039.0).

The four indexes are:
  • Index of relative socio-economic advantage and disadvantage: includes attributes such as households with low incomes and people with a tertiary education.
  • Index of relative socio-economic disadvantage: includes attributes such as low income, low educational attainment, high unemployment and dwellings without motor vehicles.
  • Index of economic resources: includes attributes such as income, housing expenditure and assets of households.
  • Index of education and occupation: includes attributes relating to the educational and occupational characteristics of communities, like the proportion of people with a higher qualification or those employed in a skilled occupation.
Statistical significance

Differences between population estimates are said to be statistically significant when it can be stated with 95% confidence that there is a real difference between the populations (see Technical Note for more information)

Support for children living outside the household

Support for child(ren) provided by a person (or where specified by a person and their partner) who does not live with them. Support may be provided to the other parent/carer for the child(ren), or to the child themselves. Types of support may be financial, such as child support payments, paying for educational costs, or providing pocket money or an allowance, or non-financial, such as driving them places, letting them borrow the car, or providing food or clothing.

Support for other relatives living outside the household

Types of support provided to relatives, such as elderly parents, children aged 25 years or over, or grandchildren who live outside the household such as these:
  • give money to pay rent and/or other housing costs
  • provide or pay for food
  • provide or pay for clothing
  • let them borrow the car
  • drive them places
  • pay for educational costs or textbooks
  • provide spending money
  • give money to pay bills or meet debt
  • buy or give them money to buy big cost items such as a car, computer, sound system etc.
Support in a time of crisis

Refers to whether there is someone outside the person's household who could be asked for support in a time of crisis. Support could be in the form of emotional, physical or financial help. Potential sources of support could be family members, friends, neighbours, work colleagues and various community, government and professional organisations.

Temporary resident

A person who was born overseas, who arrived in Australia in 2004 or later, was not an Australian citizen on arrival, was not born in New Zealand, does not hold New Zealand citizenship, and has a temporary visa.

Transitional Housing Management

For people in crisis, this can be the most secure type of accommodation that is available. Rent is normally 25 percent of income and includes a lease. Transitional Housing Management is the dominant model of government funded housing for homeless people in Victoria.

Transport difficulties

The person's assessment of how difficult it is for them to travel to places they may need to go to in normal circumstances. Four options were provided:
  • can easily get to the places needed
  • sometimes have difficulty getting to the places needed
  • often have difficulty getting to the places needed
  • can't get to the places needed.
If they indicated that they never go out or are housebound this response was recorded. Difficulties which may have been taken into account are traffic problems, parking and distances, as well as those difficulties not directly related to transport such as poor health or lack of finances.


To ascertain peoples feelings of trust in others, and in some major institutions, they were asked how strongly they agreed or disagreed with the following statements, giving a rating on a 5-point scale:
  • that most people can be trusted?
  • that the healthcare system can be trusted?
  • that police can be trusted?
  • that the justice system can be trusted?
The response categories in the five point scale were: 'strongly agree', 'somewhat agree', 'neither agree nor disagree', 'somewhat disagree' and 'strongly disagree'.

The phrase 'most people' is based on the respondent's interpretation - there is no specific definition. The idea is whether people can go about their affairs confidently, expecting that others will generally deal fairly with them and act in the ways normally expected in our society.

Unemployment rate

The unemployment rate for any group is the number of unemployed persons in that group expressed as a percentage of the labour force (i.e. employed persons plus unemployed persons) in the same group.

Unpaid assistance to persons living outside the household

Provided any of the following types of help to persons living outside the household:
  • domestic work, home maintenance or gardening
  • providing transport or running errands
  • any unpaid child care
  • any teaching, coaching or practical advice
  • providing any emotional support
  • any other help.
Victim of actual or attempted break-in

A person who had experienced a break-in or attempted break-in at any place they had lived in the last 12 months. Break-ins to homes, garages or sheds are included. However, break-ins to cars or gardens are excluded.

Victim of physical or threatened violence

A person who in the last 12 months had physical force or violence used against them or threatened in person to be used against them. It includes violence or threats made by persons known to the respondent.

Voluntary work

The provision of unpaid help willingly undertaken in the form of time, service or skills, to an organisation or group, excluding work done overseas. The following forms of unpaid work are not strictly voluntary and have been excluded:
  • taking part in Community Work under Mutual Obligation
  • work experience or an unpaid work trial
  • a community service order
  • a student placement
  • emergency work during an industrial dispute.
Working conditions allowing for family/community responsibilities

Refers to whether a person has access to working conditions allowing for family or community responsibilities such as carer's leave, flexible working hours or working from home arrangements.