2021 Census overview

The 2021 Census was held on Tuesday 10 August 2021.

The 2021 Census was held on Tuesday 10 August 2021. People were invited to participate from July to September 2021. 

How people completed

Most households received instructions in the mail to complete online. Some households received a paper form. People living in remote areas and people experiencing homelessness had help from one of our Census staff.

As of Tuesday 28 September, more than 10 million forms have been completed in the 2021 Census.

The response rate, the official completion measure, will be published with the first release of Census data in June 2022.


Online form

The ABS successfully kept people’s information safe, secure, and protected from cyber-attacks. Security and privacy were key factors in designing all elements of the 2021 Census particularly the Census Digital Service, which included the online form.

The ABS implemented state of the art cyber-security protections informed by the Australian Cyber Security Centre and other experts. All information collected in the Census was securely hosted in Australia and encrypted end-to-end.

Ahead of the 2021 Census, the Digital Transformation Agency confirmed the Census Digital Service was compliant with the Digital Service Standards for Australian Government services.

National advertising campaign

A national advertising campaign ran on television, radio, print, outdoor channels, digital and social media. The campaign included translations for multicultural communities and for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

The campaign was based on the idea that the Census isn’t just numbers, but what those numbers tell us – every stat tells a story.

Census data on the number of people in remote areas tells doctors where life-saving help is needed most. The Census is coming this August. Look out for instructions on what to do.

Census questions

The 2021 Census contained new questions on long-term health conditions and service with the Australian Defence Force.

The changes allowed the Census to collect data on long-term health conditions, such as heart disease, arthritis and diabetes, to inform health policy and planning for community services.

Collecting information about Australian Defence Force service will provide a better understanding of the circumstances of Australia’s veteran community and support better provision of services for this group.

This data will be released in June 2022.

Window to complete

This Census households had several days to complete, rather than a single night. Households were encouraged to start the Census as soon as receiving instructions if they knew where they’d be on Tuesday 10 August.

Census staff

We recruited Census staff in cities, towns and regional areas across all states and territories to help deliver the 2021 Census.

Census staff were a crucial workforce that helped people throughout Australia to participate by:

  • delivering Census instructions and forms and visiting households that had not responded
  • promoting Census participation and answering peoples’ questions
  • helping members of the public who needed special support to complete the Census.


The 2021 Census was undertaken during a period when a number of areas were under lockdown restrictions. 

The health and safety of the community and our staff is our highest priority. We actively adapted our approach to suit local circumstances including lockdowns.

This included provision of alternative online and telephone support, mail-out of additional forms and extending the period during which we provided support for communities in some areas.

For more info see COVID-19 and the Census



We wanted to make sure as many people as possible could complete their Census form themselves. We also provided a range of help and support options to assist people to complete their form.

We provided information about the Census in different ways, including easy-to-read accessible formats.

The Census website and online form were created to ensure they were accessible for as many people as possible. Our website was designed to work with screen readers, keyboard navigation and a range of assistive technologies. The Census form also filtered questions so that only items relevant were are shown.

The Census website and online Census form aimed to meet the WCAG 2.0 Level AA online accessibility standards. We included options for people to be able to log in and complete their form even if they could not use the letter we sent – you could get a Census number and complete your form when you were ready.

We provided resources for people in the deaf/hard of hearing and blind/low vision communities, including:

  • forms, help guides and information available in Braille (grade 1 and 2) and large print
  • additional customer service channels for ordering Braille and large print forms including a 24 hour telephone line
  • option to complete the Census over the phone
  • audio help guides
  • videos in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) and video guides with closed captions and transcripts
  • help via the National Relay Service.

In-language assistance

We provided a range of supports and resources in place to help migrants, refugees, and international visitors to complete the Census, including:

  • hiring Census staff who speak additional languages and reflect the diversity of local communities
  • fill-in-the-form sessions around the country to provide face-to-face support to complete the Census
  • in-language video guides to support communities within lockdown areas
  • supporting organisations across Australia, such as Migrant Resource Centres and community information hubs, to help community members understand and complete the Census
  • offering Census lesson plans to organisations around the country that teach English to migrants
  • encouraging people to call the Translating and Interpreting Service (TIS National) for in-language support
  • translated resources on our website in 40 languages, and advertising in 29 languages.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities

In remote areas, the Census is conducted over an extended period. This is so remote teams can cover vast areas and visit multiple communities.

For people living in remote communities, Census staff helped people to complete the Census through face-to-face interviews or over the phone in some areas.

National radio advertising for the Census was translated into 19 Indigenous languages to support awareness in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities.


Release of Census data

The ABS will release data from the 2021 Census in three phases:

  • in June 2022, key demographic, cultural diversity and health data will be released
  • in October 2022, employment, educational qualifications and internal migration data will be released
  • in early to mid-2023, complex data such as distance to work, socio-economic indexes for areas (SEIFA) and counts for people experiencing homelessness will be released.