4715.0 - National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey, 2018-19 Quality Declaration 
Latest ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 11/12/2019   
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This document was added or updated on 26/05/2020.

GLOSSARY


The definitions used in this survey may not be identical to those used for the same or similar items in other surveys. For more information about these differences, refer to the Explanatory notes and appendices.

Aboriginal person

A person who identified themselves, or was identified by another household member, as being of Aboriginal origin, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander household

A household where at least one resident has been identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people

People who identified themselves, or were identified by another household member, as being of Aboriginal origin, Torres Strait Islander origin, or both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander origin.

Adult

A person aged 18 years or over.

Age standardisation

A technique used to remove age as a factor when comparing characteristics that are age-related (for example, long-term health conditions) between two or more populations with different age structures. See Explanatory notes.

Alcohol consumption risk level


A risk level assessed using the 2009 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for the consumption of alcohol. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

Arthritis

A long-term health condition involving inflammation of the joints often resulting in pain, stiffness, disability and deformity.

Asthma

A long-term health condition marked by episodes of wheezing, chest tightness and shortness of breath associated with widespread narrowing of the airways within the lungs and obstruction of airflow.

Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED)

A classification, covering all sectors of the education system (schools, vocational education and training, and higher education), comprising two component classifications — Level of Education and Field of Education. See Australian Standard Classification of Education (ASCED), 2001 (cat. no. 1272.0).

Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS)

A framework of statistical areas used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and other organisations to enable the publication of statistics that are comparable and spatially integrated. See Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).

Bachelor Degree or above

Comprises Bachelor Degree, Graduate Diploma, Graduate Certificate and Postgraduate Degree.

Back problems (dorsopathies)


A group of long-term health conditions of the back or spine including sciatica (nerve pain), disc disorders, back pain/problems not elsewhere classified, and curvature of the spine.

Blood pressure

A measurement of the pressure of the blood in the arteries, expressed in the form of, for example, 120/80 mmHg (millimetres of mercury). The higher number is the systolic blood pressure, which measures the pressure in the arteries as the heart pumps blood during each beat. The lower number is the diastolic blood pressure which measures the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes before the next beat. See also High blood pressure (measured), Hypertension (high blood pressure), Physical measurements (appendix) and Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

Body Mass Index (BMI)

An index of weight-for-height, calculated using the formula weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of height (in metres), used to classify people as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

Breastfeeding

Refers to children aged 0–3 years (that is, children up to 3 years and 11 months of age) receiving breast milk (including expressed milk) from the mother, a wet nurse or a breast milk donor. Exclusive breastfeeding refers to children receiving only breastmilk and no other fluids, food or water, with the exception of vitamins, minerals and medicines where necessary. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

Canadian National Occupancy Standard for Housing Appropriateness

A widely used measure of housing utilisation that is sensitive to both household size and composition. See Canadian National Occupancy Standard for information about the criteria used to assess bedroom requirements and households requiring at least one additional bedroom.

Cancer (malignant neoplasms)


A long-term health condition in which the body’s cells grow and spread in an uncontrolled manner. A cancerous cell can arise from almost any cell so cancer can be found almost anywhere in the body.

CDP (Community Development Programme)

A Government initiative assisting job seekers in remote areas to gain the skills, training and capabilities needed to find sustainable employment and contribute to their communities through a range of flexible activities. CDP participants were classified as:

    • employed if they also had a non-CDP job, or
    • unemployed or not in the labour force, depending on their job search activities.

Cerebrovascular disease

A group of long-term health conditions in which the blood flow in the brain is temporarily or permanently affected by blood vessel narrowing or rupture, clot formation or blockage, including stroke.

Child

A person aged 0–17 years.

Chronic bronchitis

A long-term health condition characterised by inflammation of the lining of the airways (bronchial tubes) causing mucus production, coughing and difficulty breathing.

Chronic condition


A long-term health condition selected for reporting in this survey because it is common, poses significant health problems, has been the focus of population health surveillance efforts, and action can be taken to prevent its occurrence. Includes:
    • arthritis
    • asthma
    • back problems (dorsopathies)
    • cancer (malignant neoplasms)
    • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    • diabetes (diabetes mellitus)
    • heart, stroke and vascular disease (heart disease)
    • kidney disease
    • mental and behavioural conditions
    • osteoporosis.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

A group of long-term health conditions which cause narrowing of the airways (bronchial tubes) in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. Includes:
    • emphysema
    • chronic bronchitis
    • severe asthma (where it is difficult to treat and manage the symptoms).

Comorbidity

A term used in this survey to describe the occurrence of two or more long-term health conditions.
    Core activity limitation

    See Limitation.

    Current daily smoker

    A person who reported at the time of interview that they regularly smoked one or more cigarettes, pipes, cigars or other tobacco products per day. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

    Current smoker — less than daily

    A person who reported at the time of interview that they smoked cigarettes, pipes, cigars or other tobacco products less frequently than daily. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

    Deafness

    Partial or total loss of hearing. See also Hearing loss (measured) and Hearing loss (reported).

    Dependent children

    Children aged less than 15 years and full-time secondary or tertiary students aged 15–24 years for whom there is no identified partner or child of their own usually resident in the same household.

    Diabetes (diabetes mellitus)


    A long-term health condition in which blood glucose levels become too high due to the body producing little or no insulin, or not responding to insulin properly. Excludes gestational diabetes.

    Diet drinks

    Includes soft drinks (including those in ready to drink alcoholic beverages), cordials, sports drinks or energy drinks that have been sweetened with artificial sweeteners rather than sugar. Excludes hot tea/coffee sweetened with sugar replacements like ‘Equal’.

    Diet

    Refers to fruit and vegetable consumption and/or sugar sweetened and diet drink consumption.

    Disability

    A person has a disability if they have an impairment which restricts their everyday activities and has lasted, or is expected to last, for at least six months. A person with a disability is classified by whether they have:
      • a specific limitation with any core activities (mobility, communication and self-care)
      • a specific restriction when participating in schooling or employment activities, or
      • no specific limitation with core activities or restriction with schooling or employment activities.

    See Disability in Explanatory notes.

    Discrete Indigenous community

    A geographical location that:
      • is bounded by physical or legal boundaries
      • has 50 or more Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people usually resident
      • is inhabited, or intended to be inhabited, predominantly by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (more than 50% of usual residents)
      • has housing or infrastructure (power, water, sewerage) that is managed on a community basis
      • usually has services such as schools, health clinics, shops and council depots.

    Ear or hearing problems

    A group of long-term health conditions affecting the ear or hearing which include:
      • complete deafness, partial deafness and hearing loss not elsewhere classified (in one or both ears)
      • diseases of the middle ear and mastoid processes
      • diseases of the inner ear
      • other diseases of the ear.

    See also Hearing impairment (measured) and Hearing impairment (reported).

    E-cigarette/vape smoker

    Refers to a person who uses and/or has ever used an electronic cigarette, a battery operated device that resembles tobacco cigarettes, pipes or cigars to inhale nicotine and/or other chemicals in a vapour form rather than smoke. These devices are designed to simulate the act of smoking tobacco cigarettes but do not involve the burning of tobacco. A range of names are used to describe them, including e-cigs, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), e-shisha, e-cigars, e-pipes, e-hookas, hookah-pens, and vape-pipes. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

    Emphysema

    A long-term health condition marked by shortness of breath due to damaged air sacs in the lungs.

    Employed

    Persons aged 15 years and over who had a job or business, or who undertook work without pay in a family business for a minimum of one hour per week. Includes persons who were absent from a job or business.

    Employed full-time

    Employed persons who usually work 35 hours or more per week (in all jobs).

    Employed part-time

    Employed persons who usually worked less than 35 hours per week (in all jobs).

    Exercise

    See Physical activity.

    Exercise for fitness, recreation or sport

    Refers to walking for fitness, recreation or sport. See also Physical activity.

    Ex-smoker

    A person who reported at the time of interview that they did not currently smoke but had either:
      • regularly smoked daily
      • smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, or
      • smoked pipes, cigars or other tobacco products at least 20 times in their lifetime.

    See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

    Eye or sight problems

    A group of long-term health conditions affecting the eye or sight which include:
      • cataract
      • glaucoma
      • disorders of the choroid (the vascular layer of the eye) and retina
      • disorders of the ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction
      • visual disturbances and blindness
      • other diseases of the eye and adnexa (structures involved in protecting and/or supporting the function of the eye, such as the eye socket, eyelids and tear system).

    Family

    Refers to two or more persons, one of whom is at least 15 years of age, who are related by blood, marriage (registered or de facto), adoption, step or fostering, and who are usually resident in the same household. A family is identified by the presence of a couple relationship, lone parent-child relationship or other blood relationship, which means some households contain more than one family.

    Family composition

    Refers to type of family:
      • couple family with no children
      • couple family with children
      • one parent family
      • other family.

    Family composition of household

    A classification of households, based families within the household:
      • one family households
      • multiple family households
      • non-family households (lone person and group households).

    Fruit or vegetable consumption

    Refers to a usual daily intake of fruit or vegetables. Adequate consumption of fruit or vegetables means the usual daily intake meets or exceeds the number of serves recommended for a person’s age and sex in the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

    Health action

    An action taken by a person in the two weeks prior to interview or, for admission to hospital, in the 12 months prior to interview, related to their health, including:
      • admitted to hospital
      • visit to outpatient clinic or casualty/emergency or day clinic
      • consultation with general practitioner (GP) and/or specialist
      • consultation with dental professional
      • consultation with other health professionals (OHP) (see also Other health professional).

    Health risk factors

    Selected behaviours, events and circumstances that impact on health, comprising:
      • alcohol consumption
      • blood pressure (measured)
      • body mass (e.g. overweight or obese)
      • breastfeeding
      • consumption of sugar sweetened and diet drinks
      • fruit and vegetable intake
      • immunisation
      • physical activity
      • physical harm or threatened physical harm
      • removal from natural family
      • smoking
      • substance use
      • unfair treatment
      • waist circumference.

    Hearing impairment (measured)

    Partial or complete loss of hearing in one or both ears based on results of voluntary, self-administered hearing test undertaken by respondents without a cochlear implant at the time of interview. For people with a hearing impairment in both ears, the level of hearing impairment is classified as mild, moderate, or severe or profound based on the ear with the lowest level of impairment. See Hearing data (appendix).

    Hearing impairment (reported)

    A long-term health condition marked by partial or complete loss of hearing in one or both ears. See also Ear or hearing problems.

    Heart, stroke and vascular disease (heart disease)

    A group of long-term health conditions which includes:
      • ischaemic heart disease (including heart attack and angina)
      • cerebrovascular disease (including stroke)
      • heart failure
      • oedema (fluid retention)
      • diseases of arteries, arterioles and capillaries.

    High blood pressure (measured)


    A measured blood pressure reading of 140/90 mmHg (millimetres of mercury) or higher, voluntarily taken at the time of interview and so does not necessarily indicate a long-term condition. In this survey, measured high blood pressure is distinguished from hypertension which is self-reported as a long-term health condition. See also Hypertension (high blood pressure), Physical measurements (appendix) and Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

    High sugar levels

    High sugar levels in blood or urine. See also Diabetes (diabetes mellitus).

    Homelands/traditional country

    An area of land with which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have ancestral and/or cultural links.

    Household

    One or more persons, at least one of whom is aged 18 years or over, usually resident in the same private dwelling.
      Household income

      The sum of the personal cash incomes of all household members aged 15 years and over, presented in dollars and deciles and in reported and equivalised form. See Explanatory notes.

      Household spokesperson

      A person aged 18 years or over who is nominated as the best person to provide information about the household as a whole, such as household income and tenure arrangements. The person does not need to be selected for the survey or be of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin to act as household spokesperson.

      Hypertension (high blood pressure)


      A long-term health condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated, requiring the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood through the blood vessels. In this survey, hypertension is distinguished from high blood pressure (measured), which is a blood pressure reading taken at the time of interview and does not necessarily indicate a long-term health condition. See also Blood pressure.

      ICD–10

      Refers to a classification developed by the ABS for use in ABS health surveys based on the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems. See also Type of condition.

      Immunisation

      Refers to influenza and pneumococcus vaccinations only. According to the Australian Government Department of Health’s Australian Immunisation Handbook:
        • annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged 15 years and over
        • the number of recommended pneumococcal vaccines depends on age, Indigenous status and the presence of a condition(s) associated with an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease.

      Impairment
        A person has an impairment if they have a loss or abnormality in body structure or physiological function, including mental functions. Abnormality refers to a significant variation from established statistical norms. Examples of impairment are loss of sight, loss of a limb, disfigurement or deformity, impairment of mood or emotion, impairment of speech, hallucinations, loss of consciousness, and any other lack of function of body organs. See Disability in Explanatory notes.

        Indigenous Regions (IREGs)

        The highest level of the Indigenous Structure of the 2016 Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). See Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 2 - Indigenous Structure, July 2016 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.002).

        Indigenous status

        Refers to whether the person is of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, as identified by the household spokesperson so not necessarily self-identified. Status is classified as:
          • Aboriginal
          • Torres Strait Islander
          • both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
          • neither Aboriginal nor Torres Strait Islander.

        Ischaemic heart disease

        A long-term health condition, also called coronary artery disease, involving the build-up of plaque (fatty material) in the heart’s arteries, causing them to narrow, reducing blood flow and oxygen to the heart (ischaemia). It includes angina (chest pain and discomfort) and heart attack.

        Kessler 5 (K5) score

        See Psychological distress and Mental health and wellbeing (appendix).

        Kidney disease

        A long-term health condition, also called renal disease, in which a person’s kidney function is reduced or damaged, affecting its ability to filter blood.

        Labour force participation rate

        For any group, the labour force (employed persons plus unemployed persons) expressed as a percentage of the civilian population aged 15 years and over in the same group.

        Labour force status

        Identifies whether a person is employed, unemployed or not in the labour force.

        Lifetime risk (alcohol consumption)

        Refers to the lifetime risk guideline from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines 2009 Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol. A person is considered to have exceeded the guideline if they consumed more than two standard drinks per day on average in the last week. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Limitation

        A person has a limitation if they have difficulty, need assistance from another person, or use an aid or equipment, to do a particular core activity (mobility, communication and self-care). The level of the limitation with core activities is classified as profound, severe, moderate or mild, based on the level of support required. See Disability in Explanatory notes.

        Long sighted (hyperopia)


        A condition of the eye where the light that comes into the eye does not directly focus on the retina but behind it, causing the image of a close object to be out of focus, but that of a distant object to be in focus.

        Long-term health condition

        An illness, injury or disability which has lasted at least six months, or which the person expects to last for six months or more.
          • Asthma is classified as current if the person reported at the time of interview they were having symptoms or treatment. To be current, symptoms of asthma or treatment for asthma must have occurred in the last 12 months.
          • Asthma, arthritis, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes (excluding gestational diabetes), sight and hearing problems are assumed to be long-term.
          • Heart attack, angina, heart failure and stroke are assumed to be both current and long-term.

        See also Chronic condition.

        Measured blood pressure

        See High blood pressure (measured) and Physical measurements (appendix).

        Median

        For any distribution, the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, with half falling below and half exceeding that value. For example, the median height is the height at which half the population is taller and half is shorter.

        Mental and behavioural conditions (mental health conditions)

        A group of long-term health conditions that affect mood, thinking and behaviour which includes:
          • organic mental problems
          • alcohol and drug problems
          • mood (affective) disorders such as depression
          • anxiety-related problems, and
          • other mental and behavioural problems.

        Mesh Block

        The smallest geographical unit in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS). Mesh Blocks form the basis for the larger regions of the ASGS such as Remoteness Areas.

        Metric cup

        A measure of volume, commonly associated with cooking and serving sizes, equal to 250 millilitres.

        Moderate intensity exercise

        Physical activity that causes a moderate increase in the person’s heart rate or breathing, such as gentle swimming, social dancing, and weight lifting. Excludes:
          • walking for transport
          • walking for fitness, recreation or sport
          • household chores, gardening or yard work, and
          • any activity done as part of person’s job.

        See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) score

        A measure of how a person perceives their level of social support from family and friends, derived from a modified version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, which uses six questions instead of 12. The scale is used to derive a family score, a friends score and a total score which indicate whether a person perceives the level of social support from each as low, moderate or high. See Mental health and wellbeing (appendix).

        Neoplasms

        A new growth of abnormal tissue (a tumour) that is either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

        Never smoked


        A person who at the time of interview reported they had:
          • never regularly smoked daily,
          • smoked less than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime, and
          • smoked pipes, cigars or other tobacco products less than 20 times in their lifetime.

        See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Non-remote areas

        Refers to the Major Cities, Inner Regional and Outer Regional Remoteness Areas combined. This grouping is generally used for comparing non-remote areas with remote areas.

        Non-school qualification

        A qualification awarded for educational attainments other than those of pre-primary, primary or secondary education. Includes qualifications at the following levels:
          • Postgraduate Degree
          • Master Degree
          • Graduate Diploma and Graduate Certificate
          • Bachelor Degree
          • Advanced Diploma and Diploma, and
          • Certificates I, II, III and IV.

        Not in the labour force

        Persons who are not employed or unemployed as defined, including persons who:
          • are retired
          • no longer work
          • do not intend to work in the future
          • are permanently unable to work, or
          • have never worked and never intend to work.

        Nutrition

        See Diet.

        Osteoporosis


        A long-term health condition which thins and weakens bone mineral density, generally caused by loss of calcium, and which leads to increased risk of fracture.

        Other health professional

        Health professionals other than dentist, general practitioner (GP) or specialist. Includes:
          • Aboriginal health worker
          • accredited counsellor
          • acupuncturist
          • alcohol and drug worker
          • audiologist/audiometrist
          • chemist (for advice only)
          • chiropodist/podiatrist
          • chiropractor
          • dietitian/nutritionist
          • herbalist
          • hypnotherapist
          • naturopath
          • nurse
          • occupational therapist
          • optician/optometrist
          • osteopath
          • physiotherapist/hydrotherapist
          • psychologist
          • social worker/welfare officer
          • speech therapist/pathologist
          • traditional healer.

        Otitis media

        A middle ear infection.

        Pearlin Mastery Scale score

        A score, derived from a set of seven questions, which measures the extent to which a person feels control over life outcomes. See Mental health and wellbeing (appendix).

        Physical activity — non-remote areas

        Refers to any or all of the following activities:
          • walking for transport (walking that was continuous for at least 10 minutes for the purpose of getting to and from places)
          • walking for fitness, recreation or sport (walking that was continuous for at least 10 minutes for fitness, recreation or sport)
          • moderate intensity exercise
          • vigorous intensity exercise
          • strength or toning activities
          • workplace activity (physical activity undertaken in the workplace on a typical day, categorised as mostly sitting, mostly standing, mostly walking, or mostly heavy labour or physically demanding work).

        See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Physical activity — remote areas

        Refers to any or all of the following activities:
          • playing football/soccer
          • playing netball/basketball
          • playing softball/cricket
          • swimming
          • running
          • hunting/gathering bush foods/fishing
          • dancing (including ceremonial dancing)
          • housework/gardening/heavy yardwork
          • walking to places
          • other.

        Physical Activity Guidelines

        Refers to the ABS’ interpretation of the physical activity (excluding workplace activity) component of the following Department of Health guidelines:
          • National Physical Activity Guidelines for Australian Adults (pre-2014 guidelines).

        See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Physical harm

        Refers to any incident where a person was physically hurt or harmed by someone on purpose, including physical fights. Other forms of abuse (e.g. sexual, emotional, psychological) are excluded. See Physical and threatened physical harm data (appendix).

        Prevalence

        Refers to the number of cases of a particular characteristic (e.g. a specific long-term condition such as cancer) that are present in a population at one point in time. It differs from incidence, which refers to the number of new cases of a particular characteristic that occur within a certain period (e.g. number of new cases of cancer in a calendar year).

        Primary Health Networks (PHNs)

        Primary Health Networks have been established with the key objectives of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of medical services for patients, particularly those at risk of poor health outcomes, and improving coordination of care to ensure patients receive the right care in the right place at the right time. The corresponding geographic areas are referred to as Primary Health Networks. See Australian Government Department of Health Primary Health Networks (PHNs).

        Private dwelling

        Refers to a house, flat, unit or any other structure used as a private place of residence at the time of survey.

        Profound or severe disability

        Refers to a person with a profound or severe limitation when performing selected tasks related to communication, mobility or self-care. See Disability status and Explanatory notes.

        Proxy

        A person who answers the survey questions on behalf of the person selected for the interview when the person selected is:
          • incapable of answering for themselves (e.g. due to illness/injury or cultural considerations)
          • a child aged 14 years or under
          • a child aged 15–17 years when parental consent is not given to interview them personally.

        Psychological distress

        A measure of non-specific psychological distress experienced recently, derived from a modified version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) called the Kessler 5 (K5). See Mental health and wellbeing (appendix).

        Rate ratio

        A ratio calculated by dividing the age standardised proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with a particular characteristic by the age standardised proportion of non-Indigenous people with the same characteristic. See Explanatory notes.

        Remote areas

        Refers to the Remote and Very Remote Remoteness Areas combined. This grouping is generally used for comparing non-remote areas with remote areas.

        Removal from natural family

        Refers to a person and/or any of their relatives who have ever been taken away from their natural family as a child by the government, or been taken away to a mission.

        Remoteness Areas

        A measure of relative access to services which is used to divide Australia into five classes of remoteness:
          • Major Cities
          • Inner Regional
          • Outer Regional
          • Remote, and
          • Very Remote.

        See Australian Standard Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 5 — Remoteness Structure, July 2016 (cat. no. 1270.0.55.005).

        Restriction (schooling or employment)

        A person has an education or employment restriction if they have difficulty participating, need assistance from another person or use an aid or equipment in schooling or employment. See Disability in Explanatory notes.

        Selected chronic conditions

        See Chronic condition.

        Self-assessed health status

        A person's general assessment of their health as excellent, very good, good, fair or poor.

        Short sighted (myopia)

        A condition of the eye where the light that comes into the eye does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it, causing the image of a distant object to be out of focus, but that of a close object to be in focus.

        Single occasion risk (alcohol consumption)

        Refers to the single occasion risk guideline from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) 2009 Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol. A person is considered to have exceeded the guideline if they consumed more than four standard drinks on at least one day in the last 12 months. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Smoker status

        Refers to the extent to which a person was regularly smoking tobacco products at the time of interview. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)

        Refers to four Indexes compiled by the ABS following the 2016 Census of Population and Housing, summarising different aspects of the socio-economic condition of areas. The Index of Relative Socio-economic Disadvantage is the one most frequently used in health analysis. See Census of Population and Housing: Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA), Australia, 2016 (cat. no. 2033.0.55.001).

        Standard drink

        A drink of alcohol containing 12.5 millilitres (mLs) of alcohol.

        Strength or toning activities

        Activities designed to increase muscle strength or tone, such as lifting weights, resistance training, pull ups, push ups, or sit ups. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Stroke

        A long-term health condition that occurs when the blood supply to the brain is restricted by a blockage or bleeding, causing damage to the affected tissue which may cause paralysis, speech impairment, loss of memory and reasoning ability, coma or death.

        Substance use

        The use of substances for non-medical purposes by a person in the 12 months prior to interview including:
          • pain killers or analgesics
          • tranquillisers or sleeping pills
          • amphetamines, ice or speed
          • marijuana, hashish or cannabis resin
          • heroin
          • methadone
          • cocaine
          • hallucinogens (LSD/synthetic/naturally occurring)
          • ecstasy or other designer drugs
          • petrol
          • other inhalants
          • kava
          • other substances.

        Sugar drinks/sugar sweetened drinks

        Includes soft drinks (including those in ready to drink alcoholic beverages), cordials, sports drinks or energy drinks that have been sweetened with sugar. Excludes fruit juice, flavoured milk, ‘sugar free’ drinks, and hot tea/coffee. See also Diet drinks.

        Threatened physical harm

        Refers to threats of physical harm that occurred either face-to-face or non-face-to-face (e.g. via instant message/social networking sites, text message, phone, email, writing). See Physical and threatened physical harm data (appendix).

        Torres Strait Islander person

        A person who identified themselves, or was identified by another household member, as being of Torres Strait Islander origin, or both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal origin.

        Type of condition

        Refers to the type of long-term health condition, which uses a classification developed by the ABS for use in ABS health surveys based on the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems (ICD10).

        Unemployed

        Persons aged 15 years and over who were not employed and actively looking for work in the four weeks prior to the survey, and were available to start work in the week prior to the survey.

        Unemployment rate

        For any group, the number of unemployed people expressed as a percentage of the labour force in the same group.

        Unfair treatment

        Refers to when a person reported they had been treated unfairly because they are of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander origin.

        Use of health services

        See Health action.

        Vigorous intensity exercise


        Physical activity that causes a large increase in the person’s heart rate or breathing, such as jogging, cycling, aerobics, or competitive sport. Excludes:
          • walking for transport
          • walking for fitness, recreation or sport
          • household chores, gardening or yard work, and
          • any activity done as part of a person’s job.

        See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).

        Waist circumference

        A measurement, in centimetres, of a person’s waist. It is based on the midway point between the bottom of a person’s ribs and the top of their hip bone, and used to classify people as at increased risk of developing chronic conditions or not at risk. See Assessing health risk factors (appendix).