1 This publication contains final estimates for data items collected in the 2019-20 Rural Environment and Agricultural Commodities Survey (REACS). Included are statistics on land use, crop and horticultural area and production and livestock numbers.
2 National and state/territory level estimates are presented in this release. Data at sub-state levels including Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) (2016 edition) Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4) and Natural Resource Management (NRM) regions will be released as data cubes (Excel xlsx) and comma separated value (csv) files attached to the publication.
3 The survey is conducted annually in the years between the five-yearly Agricultural Census.
4 The majority of estimates in this publication were compiled from information obtained from the survey for the financial year ended 30 June 2020. Administrative data from non-Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) sources were also used to supplement reported data.
Scope and coverage
5 The scope of the survey was all businesses undertaking agricultural activity recorded on the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Business Register (ABSBR) above a minimum threshold applied to the estimated value of their agricultural operations.
6 The ABSBR is based on the Australian Business Register (ABR). Most businesses and organisations in Australia are required to obtain an Australian Business Number (ABN) from the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) for their business operations. The ABR stores details about businesses and organisations when they register for an ABN.
7 For the purposes of REACS, a business (statistical unit) is identified as undertaking agricultural activity if any of the primary or secondary productive activities of that business fall within the Agriculture Subdivision (Subdivision 01) as defined by the 2006 edition of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC). For more information, please refer to Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (cat. no. 1292.0).
8 Estimated Value of Agricultural Operations (EVAO) was used to determine whether an agricultural business operation was in-scope for the 2019-20 REACS. EVAO is an ABS construct used to estimate the relative size of agricultural activity undertaken by a business. Three-year average weighted prices are applied to livestock sales and livestock numbers on the farm, and to area and production data for crops. The resultant aggregation of these commodity values is the EVAO. It is not an indicator of the value of receipts of individual farms (turnover) but rather an indicator of the size or extent of agricultural activity. A three year average weight price is used to minimise the effects of both large movements in commodity prices and seasonal conditions which may otherwise unduly influence a business’ EVAO. For businesses below the threshold, or with no previously reported agricultural activity, a derived value of operations based on turnover reported in its Businesses Activity Statement (BAS) is used as a proxy.
9 The scope for the survey was all agricultural businesses with an EVAO of $40,000 or greater.
10 The final estimates from the REACS are based on a response rate of 78.4% from a sample of 25,642 agricultural businesses selected.
11 Content changes for the REACS are made each year to best reflect the highest priority information needs for Australian agriculture and to improve the ease of reporting for survey respondents. To assist with comparing commodity and land use estimates estimates published since the 2015-16 reference period a data item listing is available for download from the "Data downloads" section of this publication. To understand how content from the 2019-20 REACS aligns with content for the 2020-21 Agricultural Census, refer to the 2020-21 Agricultural Census Topics and Data Release Plan.
Collection and compilation
12 Agricultural businesses selected in the survey are asked to complete and return a survey form. Paper and electronic versions of the survey form are available.
13 Survey forms are checked for completeness, coherency and accuracy, following their return to the ABS. Where possible, follow-up contact is made to resolve reporting problems. Where contact can not be made, missing items on incomplete forms may be imputed using information provided historically, or from similar agricultural businesses that have responded.
14 Data is then aggregated and responses weighted to account for units in the survey population that were not selected in the sample or did not return a form.
15 Aggregate estimates are compared against a range of other information sources prior to finalising. These include other ABS surveys, administrative data, industry estimates and expectations, as well as consideration of rainfall and other regional climatic events. Adjustments may be undertaken to better align aggregate estimates with these other information sources. In 2019-20 information from the following sources was used to help inform adjustment processes: ABS Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced (VACP) collection; ABS Livestock Slaughtering collection; ABS Poultry and Game Birds Slaughtered and agricultural levies data from the Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment.
16 Adjustments are also made in the estimation process to account for any new agricultural businesses registered on the ABSBR that would be in scope of the survey, but were not identified when the initial survey population frame was created.
Reliability of estimates (sample error)
17 The estimates in this publication are based on information obtained from agricultural businesses that responded to the survey. However, since not all of the businesses that were selected provided data, the estimates are subject to sampling variability; that is, they may differ from the figures that would have been produced if information had been collected from all businesses.
18 One measure of the likely difference is given by the standard error (SE) which indicates the extent to which an estimate might have varied by chance because only a sample was taken or received. There are approximately two chances in three that a 'sample' estimate will differ by less than one SE from the figure that would have been obtained if all establishments had responded or been reported for, and approximately 19 chances in 20 that the difference will be less than two SEs.
19 In this publication, 'sampling' variability of the estimates is measured by the relative standard error (RSE) which is obtained by expressing the SE as a percentage of the estimate to which it refers. Most published estimates have RSEs less than 10%. For some states and territories with limited production of certain commodities, RSEs are greater than 10%. Estimates that have an estimated RSE between 10% and 25% should be used with caution as they are subject to sampling variability too high for some purposes. Estimates with an RSE between 25% and 50% should also be used with caution as they are subject to sampling variability too high for most practical purposes. Estimates with an RSE greater than 50% are considered too unreliable for general use.
20 RSEs for all published estimates are available on request.
21 A table with RSEs for selected commodities follows:
|Barley for grain - Production (t)|
|Canola - Production (t)|
|Cotton - Lint production (kg)|
|Grain sorghum - Production (t)|
|Oats for grain - Production (t)|
|Wheat for grain - Production (t)|
|Carrots - Production (t)|
|Oranges - Production (t)|
|Potatoes - Production (t)|
|Total Dairy cattle (no.)|
|Total Meat cattle (no.)|
|Total Sheep and lambs (no.)|
- nil or rounded to zero (including null cells)
Rounding and confidentiality
22 Where figures for individual states or territories have been suppressed for reasons of confidentiality, they have been included in relevant totals.
23 Where figures have been rounded, discrepancies may occur between sums of the component items and totals.
24 Final estimates for water use and water sources are available in Water Use on Australian Farms, 2019-20 in May 2021.
25 Final estimates of the gross value of agricultural commodities are available in Value of Agricultural Commodities Produced, Australia, 2019-20 in May 2021.
26 Final estimates of the gross value of agricultural commodities that are produced with the assistance of irrigation data are no longer released in Gross Value of Irrigated Agricultural Production. This data is now incorporated into Water Account, Australia.
27 ABS publications related to this survey and related environment and agricultural surveys can be accessed under the Statistics page on the ABS website. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the website which details products to be released in the week ahead.
ABS data available on request
28 As well as the statistics included in this and related publications, the ABS may have other relevant data available on request. Inquiries should be made to the National Information and Referral Service on 1300 135 070.
29 ABS publications draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated. Without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act 1905.