4913.0 - Pregnancy and Employment Transitions, Australia, Nov 2011 Quality Declaration 
ARCHIVED ISSUE Released at 11:30 AM (CANBERRA TIME) 16/11/2012   
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1 The statistics in this publication were compiled from information collected in the Pregnancy and Employment Transitions Survey (PaETS) survey conducted throughout Australia in November 2011 as a supplement to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) monthly Labour Force Survey (LFS). The survey collected information from women aged 15 years and over who had given birth to a child less than 2 years ago and were living with that child.

2 Information about survey design, scope, coverage and population benchmarks relevant to the monthly LFS, which also applies to supplementary surveys, can be found in the publication Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0).


3 The conceptual framework used in the monthly LFS aligns closely with the standards and guidelines set out in Resolutions of the International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Descriptions of the underlying concepts and structure of Australia's labour force statistics, and the sources and methods used in compiling these estimates, are presented in Labour Statistics: Concepts, Sources and Methods (cat. no. 6102.0.55.001).


4 The scope of the LFS is restricted to persons aged 15 years and over and excludes the following people:

  • members of the permanent defence forces;
  • certain diplomatic personnel of overseas governments, customarily excluded from the Census and estimated populations; and
  • overseas residents in Australia; and members of non-Australian defence forces (and their dependants).

5 Students at boarding schools, patients in hospitals, residents of homes (e.g. retirement homes, homes for people with disabilities), and inmates of prisons are excluded from all supplementary surveys.

6 This supplementary survey was conducted in both urban and rural areas in all states and territories, but excluded persons living in Indigenous communities in very remote parts of Australia.

7 Women aged 15 years and over who had given birth to a child less than 2 years ago and were living with that child were included in the survey. The survey excluded:
  • women who were members of the Australian permanent defence forces;
  • women living in non-private dwellings;
  • visitors to private dwellings; and
  • all males.

8 In addition, for those women whose partner at the time of interview was not in scope of the survey (e.g. the partner was in the permanent defence forces), the details of the partner's job at November 2011 was not collected. For these partners, job details at November 2011 were classified as could not be determined.


9 In the LFS, coverage rules are applied which aim to ensure that each person is associated with only one dwelling and hence has only one chance of selection in the survey. See Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0) for more details.


10 Supplementary surveys are not conducted on the full LFS sample. Since 1994 the sample for supplementary surveys has been restricted to no more than seven-eighths of the LFS sample.

11 The sample for PaETS is a subsample of 36,604 private dwelling households and special dwelling units included in the ABS Monthly LFS in November 2011. The final sample on which estimates are based is composed of 1,351 birth mothers aged 15 years and over, usually resident in these private and special dwellings in Australia, with at least one child less than 2 years of age living with them at the time of interview.

12 In cases where women had more than one child under the age of 2, data was collected in respect of the employment transitions of women around the birth of their most recent child (i.e. the youngest child).


13 Estimates in this publication are subject to sampling and non-sampling error.
  • Sampling error is the difference between the published estimate and the value that would have been produced if all birth mothers of children aged under two years of age had been included in the survey. For further information on sampling error, see the Technical Note.
  • Non-sampling errors are inaccuracies that occur because of imperfections in reporting by respondents and interviewers and errors made in coding and processing data. These inaccuracies may occur in any enumeration, whether it be a full count or a sample. Every effort is made to reduce the non-sampling error to a minimum by careful design of questionnaires, intensive training and effective processing procedures.


14 The estimates are based on information collected in the survey month (November) and, due to seasonal factors, may not be representative of other months of the year.


15 Country of birth data are classified according to the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2011 (cat. no. 1269.0).

16 From 2006, occupation data are classified according to the ANZSCO - Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, First Edition, Revision 1, 2009 (cat. no. 1220.0).

17 Also from 2006, industry data are classified according to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification (ANZSIC), 2006 (Revision 1.0) (cat. no. 1292.0).

18 Area data (Capital city, Balance of state/territory) are classified according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC), July 2011 (cat. no. 1216.0).


19 The Labour Force Survey estimates and estimates from the supplementary surveys, are calculated in such a way as to sum to independent estimates of the civilian population aged 15 years and over (population benchmarks). These population benchmarks are based on Estimated Resident Population (ERP) data. Generally, revisions are made to population benchmarks after each five-yearly Census of Population and Housing (Census), however, revisions were made to the population benchmarks from July 2011, to reflect revisions to ERP. For more details on population benchmarks, see the Explanatory Notes in Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0) and for details about the revisions made, see the article in the September 2011 issue of Labour Force, Australia (cat. no. 6202.0).

20 Care should be taken when comparing results from the November 2011 Pregnancy and Employment Transitions survey to the November 2005 Pregnancy and Employment Transitions survey.

21 The November 2011 Pregnancy and Employment Transitions survey was redeveloped to better capture information on:
  • job details and types of leave taken while women were pregnant;
  • job details about women's first job started or returned to since the birth of the child;
  • women with a child under 2 years, job at November 2011;
  • partners job details and types of leave taken while women were pregnant;
  • job details about partner's first job started or returned to since the birth of the child; and
  • partners job details at November 2011.


22 Paid Parental Leave (PPL) and Baby Bonus were only asked of women who either, worked in a job or business while pregnant, or, who had a job or business they were away from during their pregnancy and did not leave that job before the birth of their child.

23 Data relating to PPL was collected of approximately 42% of women with children aged under 2 years. This is due to a combination of when the PPL scheme was introduced, in January 2011, and the sample of the survey covering a range of women with a child under the age of 2 (child ages from 0-23 months). Women whose child was aged 12 months and over would not have been entitled to the PPL scheme, only entitled to receiving the Baby Bonus, pending eligibility requirements.

24 Women who were employees (excluding owner managers of incorporated enterprises (OMIEs)) have been are classified as 'With paid leave entitlements' if they were entitled to paid sick leave and/or paid holiday leave. In all other cases, employees have been classified 'Without paid leave entitlements'.

25 Full-time or part-time status in job while pregnant after change in hours are calculated on the hours reported by women immediately before stopping work for the birth of child. This item is presented in Tables 7, 8 and 11.

26 Other paid leave comprises of paid sick leave and any other type of paid leave, and other unpaid leave comprises of parental leave and any other type of unpaid leave.

27 Information about taking types of paid leave (paid maternity, paid holiday or long service leave) was collected for women who were employees (excluding OMIEs) in the job while they were pregnant, who were entitled to a type of paid leave. If women were not entitled to any sort of paid leave, information about unpaid leave for the birth of their child was collected.

28 Information was collected on any other paid leave taken for the birth of the child for women who were entitled to some sort of paid leave (paid maternity, paid holiday, long service leave or paid sick leave).

29 For all data items relating to personal income of women, partners and other household members, where women either did not know or refused to report:
  • their income; data are classified as 'Refusal' for estimates of income, but are included in sources of income;
  • partner's income; data are classified as 'Refusal' for estimates of income, but are included in sources of income;
  • other household members income; data are classified as 'Refusal' for estimates of income, but are included in sources of income;

30 For data items relating to combined income, for example 'Weekly income of women and partner' or 'Weekly household income', where women did not know or refused to report an individual case of income, then data for that item is classified as 'Refusal'.

31 Additionally for estimates relating to income, equivalised income and quintiles, responses that included a refusal or a loss of income, are excluded from these estimates.


32 In analysing and interpreting the PaETS data, users should be aware that women may have difficulty in recalling the circumstances surrounding their employment over the course of a pregnancy (i.e. up to two years prior to interview). As the focus of the survey is women with at least one child less than two years old, some of the information, such as the age of the child when the woman began working after the birth, does not take account of the return to work circumstances of women, whose youngest child was born close to the time of interview, as they may not have returned to work.



33 An electronic version of the tables released in this publication is available on the ABS website in spreadsheets (cat. no. 4913.0). The spreadsheets present the tables and the related relative standard errors (RSEs) for each publication table.

Confidentialised Unit Record File

34 It is expected that a confidentialised unit record file (CURF) will be produced from the Pregnancy and Employment Transitions survey subject to the approval of the Australian Statistician. The Expanded CURF will be accessible through the RADL and ABSDL. The CURF will be available in SAS, STATA and SPSS format. A full range of up-to-date information about the availability of ABS CURFs and about applying for access to CURFs is available via the ABS web site (see Services - CURF Microdata). For enquiries regarding CURFs, contact ABS Microdata Access Management Unit via email at microdata.access@abs.gov.au or telephone (02) 6252 7714.


35 ABS surveys draw extensively on information provided freely by individuals, businesses, governments and other organisations. Their continued cooperation is very much appreciated: without it, the wide range of statistics published by the ABS would not be available. Information received by the ABS is treated in strict confidence as required by the Census and Statistics Act, 1905.


36 ABS publications which may be of interest include:
37 Current publications and other products released by the ABS are available from the Statistics Page on the ABS website. The ABS also issues a daily Release Advice on the website which details products to be released in the week ahead.