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The complete enumeration of a population at a point in time with respect to well-defined characteristics (e.g. Persons, Manufacturing, etc.). When the word is capitalised, "Census" usually refers to the national Census of Population and Housing.
The Census of Population and Housing enumerates persons on the basis of where they were located on Census Night. The Census also compiles information on people according to their place of usual residence. This means that Census counts of people can be produced according to their location on Census Night as well as their place of usual residence. Characteristics of households are based on persons usually resident in a dwelling.
Country of birth
Country of birth refers to the country in which a traveller was born in. For Overseas Arrivals and Departures data and Net Overseas Migration data, the country of birth is usually collected from a traveller's passport or visa information.
The classification of countries is the Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016. For more detailed information refer to Standard Australian Classification of Countries (SACC), 2016 (cat. no. 1269.0).
Country of citizenship
Country of citizenship is the nationality of a person. For overseas migration data it is usually taken from a traveller's passport or visa information and in some cases from passenger card.
Country of embarkation
Country of embarkation is collected from the country a traveller indicates on their passenger card from answering the following question:
Country of residence/stay
Country of residence/stay is collected from the country a traveller indicates on their passenger card.
The process of leaving one country to take up permanent or semi-permanent residence in another.
Estimated resident population (ERP)
The official measure of the population of Australia is based on the concept of usual residence. It refers to all people, regardless of nationality, citizenship or legal status, who usually live in Australia, with the exception of foreign diplomatic personnel and their families. It includes usual residents who are overseas for less than 12 months over a 16 month period. It excludes overseas visitors who are in Australia for less than 12 months over a 16 month period.
Estimates of the Australian resident population are generated on a quarterly basis by adding natural increase (the excess of births over deaths) and net overseas migration (NOM) occurring during the period to the population at the beginning of each period. This is known as the cohort component method, and can be represented by the following equation:
Pt+1 = Pt + B - D + NOM, where:
Pt = the estimated resident population at time point t
Pt+1 = the estimated resident population at time point t+1
B = the number of births occurring between t and t+1
D = the number of deaths occurring between t and t+1
NOM = net overseas migration occurring between t and t+1.
For state and territory population estimates, an additional term is added to the equation representing net interstate migration (NIM) occurring between t and t+1, represented by the following equation:
Pt+1 = Pt + B - D + NOM + NIM.
Greater Capital City Statistical Area (GCCSA)
An area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard built up from whole Statistical Areas Level 4 to represent the socioeconomic area of each of the eight state and territory capital cities. GCCSAs contain not only the urban area of the capital city, but also surrounding and non-urban areas where much of the population has strong links to the capital city, through for example, commuting to work.
The process of entering one country from another to take up permanent or semi-permanent residence.
Initial category of travel
Only used as an output variable from net overseas migration (NOM) statistics. It provides information on what an individual's initial category of travel was before they contribute to becoming either a NOM arrival or a NOM departure. For a list of the categories see category of movement.
Intended length of stay
On arrival in Australia, all overseas visitors are asked to state their 'Intended length of stay in Australia'.
Intercensal difference is the difference between two estimates at 30 June of a Census year population: the first based on the latest Census, and the second arrived at by updating the 30 June estimate of the previous Census year with intercensal components of population change. It is caused by differences in the start and/or finish population estimates and/or in estimates of births, deaths or migration in the intervening period which cannot be attributed to a particular source. For further information see Population Estimates: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2009 (cat. no. 3228.0.55.001).
The movement of people across a specified boundary within Australia for the purpose of changing their place of usual residence.
See net interstate migration.
Local Government Area (LGA)
An ABS approximation of an officially gazetted LGA as defined by each state and territory local government department. LGAs cover incorporated areas of Australia, which are legally designated areas for which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility. The major areas of Australia not administered by incorporated bodies are the northern parts of South Australia and all of the Australian Capital Territory and the Other Territories. These regions are identified as 'Unincorporated' in the ABS LGA structure.
Long-term arrivals comprise long-term visitor arrivals (LTVA) and long-term resident returns (LTRR).
Long-term departures comprise long-term resident departures (LTRD) and long-term visitor departures (LTVD).
Long-term resident departures (LTRD)
Australian residents who stay abroad for 12 months or more.
Long-term resident returns (LTRR)
Australian residents returning after a recorded absence of 12 months or more overseas.
Long-term visitor arrivals (LTVA)
Overseas visitors who state that they intend to stay in Australia for 12 months or more (but not permanently).
Long-term visitor departures (LTVD)
Overseas visitors departing after a recorded stay of 12 months or more in Australia.
Main reason for journey
Overseas visitors/temporary entrants arriving in Australia and Australian residents returning to Australia are asked to state their main reason for journey using the following categories:
For any distribution, the median value is that which divides the relevant population into two equal parts, half falling below the value, and half exceeding it. Thus, the median age is the age at which half the population is older and half is younger.
Migrant - International
An international migrant is defined as "any person who changes his or her country of usual residence" (United Nations 1998). The country of usual residence is the country in which a person lives, that is to say, the country in which he or she has a place to live where he or she normally spends the daily period of rest. A long-term international migrant is a person who moves to a country other than that of his or her usual residence for a period of at least a year (12 months), so that the country of destination effectively becomes his or her new country of usual residence.
In Australia, for the purposes of estimating net overseas migration, and thereby the official population counts, a person is regarded as a usual resident if they have been (or expected to be) residing in Australia for a period of 12 months or more over a 16 month period.
The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semi-permanent residence. Migration can be international (migration between countries) and internal (migration within a country).
Prior to September quarter 2006, the ABS applied a number of adjustments to overseas arrivals and departures data in order to produce estimates of net overseas migration (NOM). These mainly comprised adjustments designed to reflect differences between stated travel intentions and actual travel behaviour. Until recently, adjustments used by ABS to produce NOM estimates were collectively referred to as 'category jumping adjustments'. They are now referred to more simply as 'migration adjustments'.
Excess of births over deaths.
Net internal migration
The difference between the number of people who changed their place of usual residence by moving into and out of a defined area within Australia (both interstate and intrastate). This difference may be positive or negative.
Net interstate migration (NIM)
The difference between the number of persons who have changed their place of usual residence by moving into a given state or territory and the number who have changed their place of usual residence by moving out of that state or territory during a specified time period. This difference can be either positive or negative.
Net overseas migration (NOM)
Net overseas migration is the net gain or loss of population through immigration to Australia and emigration from Australia. Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's actual duration of stay or absence using the '12/16 month rule'. Preliminary NOM estimates are modelled on patterns of traveller behaviours observed in final NOM estimates for the same period one year earlier. NOM is:
Net overseas migration rate
The net overseas migration rate is the number of NOM travellers in a given period divided by the population sending or receiving the NOM travellers at a given period. It is calculated per 1,000 population.
The difference between the actual Census count (including imputations) and an estimate of the number of people who should have been counted in the Census. This estimate is based on the Post Enumeration Survey (PES) conducted after each Census. For a category of person (e.g. based on age, sex and state of usual residence), net undercount is the result of Census undercount, overcount, differences in classification between the PES and Census and imputation error.
NOM arrivals are all overseas arrivals that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of incoming international travellers who stay in Australia for 12 months or more over a 16 month period, who are not currently counted within the population, and are then added to the population.
Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's actual duration of stay using the '12/16 month rule'.
NOM departures are all overseas departures that contribute to net overseas migration (NOM). It is the number of outgoing international travellers (Australian residents and long term visitors to Australia) who leave Australia for 12 months or more over a 16 month period, who are currently counted within the population, and are then subtracted from the population.
Under the current method for estimating final net overseas migration this term is based on a traveller's actual duration of absence using the '12/16 month rule'.
Following amendments to the Acts Interpretation Act 1901 effective from July 1992, the two external territories of Christmas Island and Cocos (Keeling) Islands became part of geographical Australia. Since the 1996 Census, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands and the Jervis Bay Territory (previously linked to the Australian Capital Territory for statistical purposes) comprise a pseudo 'ninth state/territory' of Australia, which from 1 July 2016 also includes Norfolk Island. They are included in state nine 'Other Territories'.
Overseas arrivals and departures (OAD)
This definition of settlers is used by the Department of Home Affairs (Home Affairs). Prior to 1985, the definition of settlers used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) was the stated intention of the traveller only. Numerically, the effect of the change in definition is insignificant. The change was made to avoid the confusion caused by minor differences between data on settlers published separately by the ABS and Home Affairs.
A visa allowing the holder to remain indefinitely in Australia's migration zone.
Place of usual residence
See usual residence.
For Australia, population growth is the sum of natural increase and net overseas migration. For states and territories, population growth also includes net interstate migration. After the Census, intercensal population growth also includes an allowance for intercensal difference.
Population growth rate
Population change over a period as a proportion (percentage) of the population at the beginning of the period.
Rebasing of population estimates
After each Census, the ABS uses Census counts by place of usual residence which are adjusted for undercount to construct a new base population figure for 30 June of the Census year. Because this new population estimate uses the Census as its main data source, it is said to be 'based' on that Census and is referred to as a population base.
Rebasing refers to the process by which the ABS uses this new base to update all previously published population estimates from the previous census to the most recent census (the intercensal period). For further information on rebasing to the 2016 Census see Australian Demographic Statistics, December quarter 2017 (cat. no. 3101.0) and Feature Article: Final Rebasing of Australia's Population Estimates using the 2016 Census.
Residents Temporarily Overseas
Residents temporarily overseas are outgoing international travellers (Australian residents and long term visitors to Australia) who are currently counted within the population and who leave Australia for less than 12 months over a 16 month period.
Rest of state
Within each state and territory, the area not defined as being part of the Greater Capital City Statistical Area is represented by a Rest of state region.
Regional internal migration estimates (RIME)
See internal migration.
Regional overseas migration
The movement of people to or from Australia's regions through immigration or emigration, where travellers satisfy the 12/16 month rule.
Regional overseas migration estimates (ROME)
See regional overseas migration.
The sex ratio relates to the number of males per 100 females. The sex ratio is defined for the total population, at birth, at death and among age groups by appropriately selecting the numerator and the denominator of the ratio.
Short-term arrivals comprise of short-term visitor arrivals (STVA) and short-term resident returns (STRR).
Short-term departures comprise of short-term resident departures (STRD) and short-term visitor departures (STVD).
Short-term resident departures (STRD)
Australian residents who stay abroad for less than 12 months.
Short-term resident returns (STRR)
Australian residents returning after a recorded stay of less than 12 months overseas.
Short-term visitor arrivals (STVA)
Overseas visitors who intend to stay in Australia for less than 12 months.
Short-term visitor departures (STVD)
Overseas visitors departing after a recorded stay of less than 12 months in Australia.
Those categories of the Migration Program where the core eligibility criteria are based on the applicant's employability or capacity to invest and/or do business in Australia. The immediate accompanying families of principal applicants in the skill stream are also counted as part of the skill stream.
This definition of skill stream is used by Home Affairs who administer the Migration Program.
State or territory of residence/stay
See state or territory of usual residence.
State or territory of usual residence
State or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory of usual residence of:
In the case of overseas movements, state or territory of usual residence refers to the state or territory regarded by the traveller as the one in which he/she lives or has lived. State or territory of intended residence is derived from the intended address given by settlers, and by Australian residents returning after a journey abroad. Particularly in the case of the former, this information does not necessarily relate to the state or territory in which the traveller will eventually establish a permanent residence.
Statistical Area Level 1 (SA1)
An area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard designed as the smallest unit for the release of Census data. They generally have a population of 200 to 800 people, and an average population of about 400 people. SA1s in remote and regional areas generally have smaller populations than those in urban areas. SA1s are used as the building blocks for a number of ASGS defined regions including the Section of State and Urban Centre and Localities Structures, and the Remoteness Structure. Within the Non-ABS Structures, SA1s are used to approximate a number of administrative regions such as Commonwealth and State Electoral Divisions. There are approximately 57,500 SA1s and they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. Population estimates are prepared for SA1s by breaking down estimates from the SA2 level.
Statistical Area Level 2 (SA2)
A medium-sized general purpose area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard built from whole SA1s. Their purpose is to represent a community that interacts together socially and economically. SA2s are based on officially gazetted suburbs and localities. In urban areas, SA2s largely conform to one or more whole suburbs, while in rural areas they generally define the functional zone of a regional centre. SA2s generally have a population range of 3,000 to 25,000 people, and an average population of about 10,000 people. There are approximately 2,300 SA2s and they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps. SA2s are the base unit for preparing sub-state population estimates.
Statistical Area Level 3 (SA3)
An area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard built up from SA2s to provide a regional breakdown of Australia. SA3s aim to create a standard framework for the analysis of ABS data at the regional level through clustering groups of whole SA2s that have similar regional characteristics. Their boundaries reflect a combination of widely recognised informal regions as well as existing administrative regions such as State Government Regions in rural areas and Local Government Areas in urban areas. SA3s generally range in population from 30,000 to 130,000 people. There are around 360 SA3s and they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.
Statistical Area Level 4 (SA4)
An area defined in the Australian Statistical Geography Standard designed for the output of labour force data and to reflect labour markets. In rural areas SA4s generally represent aggregations of multiple small labour markets with socioeconomic connections or similar industry characteristics. Large regional city labour markets are generally defined by a single SA4. Within major metropolitan labour markets SA4s represent sub-labour markets. SA4s are built from whole SA3s. They generally have a population of over 100,000 people to enable accurate labour force survey data to be generated. There are 107 SA4s and they cover the whole of Australia without gaps or overlaps.
See temporary visas.
Temporary entrant visas are visas permitting persons to come to Australia on a temporary basis for specific purposes. Main contributors are tourists, international students, those on temporary work visas, business visitors and working holiday makers.
Usual residence within Australia refers to that address at which the person has lived or intends to live for a total of six months or more in a given reference year.
Permission or authority granted by the Australian government to foreign nationals to travel to, enter and/or remain in Australia for a period of time or indefinitely.
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